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 Decade: 1940-1949
 Year: 1947
 Month: January
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
Acceleration Characteristics of R-3350 Engine Equipped with NACA Injection Impeller

Acceleration Characteristics of R-3350 Engine Equipped with NACA Injection Impeller

Date: January 8, 1947
Creator: Hickel, Robert O. & Snider, William E.
Description: Qualitative investigations have shown that use of the NACA injection impeller with the R-3350 engine increases the inertia of the fuel-injection system and, when the standard fuel-metering system is used, this increase in inertia results in poor engine acceleration characteristics. This investigation was therefore undertaken to determine whether satisfactory acceleration characteristics of the engine equipped with the injection impeller could be obtained by simple modifications to the fuel-monitoring system. The engine was operated with two types of carburetor; namely, a hydraulic-metering carburetor incorporating a vacuum-operated accelerating pump and a direct-metering carburetor having a throttle-actuated accelerating pump. The vacuum-operated accelerating pump of the hydraulic-metering carburetor was modified to produce satisfactory accelerations by supplementing the standard air chamber with an additional 75-cubic spring. The throttle-actuated accelerating pump of the direct-metering carburetor was modified to produce satisfactory accelerations by replacing the standard 0.028-inch-diameter bleed in the load-compensator balance line with a smaller bleed of 0.0225-inch diameter. The results of this investigation indicated that both carburetors can be easily modified to produce satisfactory acceleration characteristics of the engine and no definite choice between the types of carburetor and accelerating pump can be made. Use of the direct-metering carburetor, however, probably resulted in better fuel ...
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Altitude Cooling Investigation of the R-2800-21 Engine in the P-47G Airplane. IV - Engine Cooling-Air Pressure Distribution

Altitude Cooling Investigation of the R-2800-21 Engine in the P-47G Airplane. IV - Engine Cooling-Air Pressure Distribution

Date: January 7, 1947
Creator: Kaufman, Samuel J.; Staudt, Robert C. & Valerino, Michael F.
Description: A study of the data obtained in a flight investigation of an R-2800-21 engine in a P-47G airplane was made to determine the effect of the flight variables on the engine cooling-air pressure distribution. The investigation consisted of level flights at altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet for the normal range of engine and airplane operation. The data showed that the average engine front pressures ranged from 0.73 to 0.82 of the impact pressure (velocity head). The average engine rear pressures ranged from 0.50 to 0.55 of the impact pressure for closed cowl flaps and from 0.10 to 0.20 for full-open cowl flaps. In general, the highest front pressures were obtained at the bottom of the engine. The rear pressures for the rear-row cylinders were .lower and the pressure drops correspondingly higher than for the front-row cylinders. The rear-pressure distribution was materially affected by cowl-flap position in that the differences between the rear pressures of the front-row and rear-row cylinders markedly increased as the cowl flaps were opened. For full-open cowl flaps, the pressure drops across the rear-row cylinders were in the order of 0.2 of the impact pressure greater than across the front-row cylinders. Propeller speed and altitude had ...
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Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the 19B-2, 19B-8, and 19XB-1 Jet-Propulsion Engines. II - Analysis of Turbine Performance of the 19B-8 Engine

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the 19B-2, 19B-8, and 19XB-1 Jet-Propulsion Engines. II - Analysis of Turbine Performance of the 19B-8 Engine

Date: January 8, 1947
Creator: Krebs, Richard P. & Suozzi, Frank L.
Description: Performance characteristics of the turbine in the 19B-8 jet propulsion engine were determined from an investigation of the complete engine in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. The investigation covered a range of simulated altitudes from 5000 to 30,000 feet and flight Mach numbers from 0.05 to 0.46 for various tail-cone positions over the entire operable range of engine speeds. The characteristics of the turbine are presented as functions of the total-pressure ratio across the turbine and the turbine speed and the gas flow corrected to NACA standard atmospheric conditions at sea level. The effect of changes in altitude, flight Mach number, and tail-cone position on turbine performance is discussed. The turbine efficiency with the tail cone in varied from a maximum of 80.5 percent to minimum of 75 percent over a range of engine speeds from 7500 to 17,500 rpm at a flight Mach number of 0.055. Turbine efficiency was unaffected by changes in altitude up to 15,000 feet but was a function of tail-cone position and flight Mach number. Decreasing the tail-pipe-nozzle outlet area 21 percent reduced the turbine efficiency between 2 and 4.5 percent. The turbine efficiency increased between 1.5 and 3 percent as the flight Mach number ...
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Analysis of jet-propulsion-engine combustion-chamber pressure losses

Analysis of jet-propulsion-engine combustion-chamber pressure losses

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Pinkel, I Irving & Shames, Harold
Description: The development and the use of a chart for estimating the pressure losses in jet-engine combustion chambers are described. By means of the chart, the pressure losses due to fluid friction and to momentum changes in the air flow accompanying combustion can be separately evaluated. The pressure-loss chart is based on the assumption that the pressure losses in the actual combustion chamber can be matched by those of an equivalent combustion chamber of constant cross-sectional area. The concept of the equivalent combustion chamber serves as a convenient basis for comparing the pressure-loss characteristics of combustion chambers of a variety of designs. The over-all pressure losses computed from the pressure-loss chart are within 7 percent of the experimental values for the three types of combustion chambers considered herein.
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Analysis of performance of jet engine from characteristics of components I : aerodynamic and matching characteristics of turbine component determined with cold air

Analysis of performance of jet engine from characteristics of components I : aerodynamic and matching characteristics of turbine component determined with cold air

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Goldstein, Arthur W
Description: The performance of the turbine component of an NACA research jet engine was investigated with cold air. The interaction and the matching of the turbine with the NACA eight-stage compressor were computed with the combination considered as a jet engine. The over-all performance of the engine was then determined. The internal aerodynamics were studied to the extent of investigating the performance of the first stator ring and its influence on the turbine performance. For this ring, the stream-filament method for computing velocity distribution permitted efficient sections to be designed, but the design condition of free-vortex flow with uniform axial velocities was not obtained.
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An analysis of the compressive strength of honeycomb cores for sandwich construction

An analysis of the compressive strength of honeycomb cores for sandwich construction

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Norris, Charles B
Description: None
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An Analysis of the Full-Floating Journal Bearing

An Analysis of the Full-Floating Journal Bearing

Date: January 28, 1947
Creator: Shaw, M.C. & Nussdorfer, T.J.
Description: An analysis of the operating characteristics of a full-floating bearing - a bearing in which a floating sleeve is located between the journal and bearing surfaces - is presented together with charts - from which the performance of such bearings may be predicted. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these charts and a limited number of experiments conducted upon a glass full-floating bearing to verify some results of the analysis are reported. The floating sleeve can operate over a wide range of speeds for a given shaft speed, the exact value depending principally upon the ratio of clearances and upon the ratio of radii of the bearing. Lower operating temperatures at high rotative speeds are to be expected by using a full-floating bearing. This lower operating temperature would be obtained at the expense of the load-carrying capacity of the bearing if, for comparison, the clearances remain the same in both bearings. A full-floating bearing having the same load capacity as a conventional journal bearing may be designed if decreased clearances are allowable.
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An analysis of the full-floating journal bearing

An analysis of the full-floating journal bearing

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Shaw, M C & Nussdorfer, T J , Jr
Description: An analysis of the operating characteristics of a full-floating journal bearing, a bearing in which a floating sleeve is located between the journal and bearing surfaces, is presented together with charts from which the performance of such bearings may be predicted. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these charts and a limited number of experiments conducted upon a glass full-floating bearing are reported to verify some results of the analysis.
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An Anaylsis of Control Requirements and Control Parameters for Direct-Coupled Turbojet Engines

An Anaylsis of Control Requirements and Control Parameters for Direct-Coupled Turbojet Engines

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Novik, David & Otto, Edward W.
Description: Requirements of an automatic engine control, as affected by engine characteristics, have been analyzed for a direct-coupled turbojet engine. Control parameters for various conditions of engine operation are discussed. A hypothetical engine control is presented to illustrate the use of these parameters. An adjustable speed governor was found to offer a desirable method of over-all engine control. The selection of a minimum value of fuel flow was found to offer a means of preventing unstable burner operation during steady-state operation. Until satisfactory high-temperature-measuring devices are developed, air-fuel ratio is considered to be a satisfactory acceleration-control parameter for the attainment of the maximum acceleration rates consistent with safe turbine temperatures. No danger of unstable burner operation exists during acceleration if a temperature-limiting acceleration control is assumed to be effective. Deceleration was found to be accompanied by the possibility of burner blow-out even if a minimum fuel-flow control that prevents burner blow-out during steady-state operation is assumed to be effective. Burner blow-out during deceleration may be eliminated by varying the value of minimum fuel flow as a function of compressor-discharge pressure, but in no case should the fuel flow be allowed to fall below the value required for steady-state burner operation.
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Application of the analogy between water flow with a free surface and two-dimensional compressible gas flow

Application of the analogy between water flow with a free surface and two-dimensional compressible gas flow

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Orlin, W James; Lindner, Norman J & Butterly, Jack G
Description: The theory of the hydraulic analogy -- that is, the analogy between water flow with a free surface and two-dimensional compressible gas flow -- and the limitations and conditions of the analogy are discussed. A test was run using the hydraulic analogy as applied to the flow about circular cylinders of various diameters at subsonic velocities extending into the supercritical range. The apparatus and techniques used in this application are described and criticized. Reasonably satisfactory agreement of pressure distributions and flow fields existed between water and air flow about corresponding bodies. This agreement indicated the possibility of extending experimental compressibility research by new methods.
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Buffeting of External Fuel Tanks at High Speeds on a Gruman F7F-3 Airplane

Buffeting of External Fuel Tanks at High Speeds on a Gruman F7F-3 Airplane

Date: January 29, 1947
Creator: Turner, Howard L.
Description: Attempts were made to alleviate the buffeting of external fuel tanks mounted under the wings of a twin-engine Navy fighter airplane. The Mach number at which buffeting began was increased from 0,529 to 0.640 by streamlining the sway braces and by increasing the lateral rigidity of the sway brace system. Further increase of the Mach number, at which buffeting began to 0.725, was obtained by moving the external fuel tank to a position under the fuselage.
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Buffeting of External Fuel Tanks at High Speeds on a Grumman F7F-3 Airplane

Buffeting of External Fuel Tanks at High Speeds on a Grumman F7F-3 Airplane

Date: January 30, 1947
Creator: Turner, Howard L.
Description: Attempts were made to alleviate the buffeting of external fuel tanks mounted under the wings of a twin-engine Navy fighter plane. The Mach number at which the buffeting began was increased from 0.529 to 0.640 by streamlining the sway braces and increasing the lateral rigidity of the sway brace system. Further increases of the Mach number, at which buffeting began to 0.725, was obtained by moving the external fuel tank to a position under the fuselage.
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Charts for determining the characteristics of sharp-nose airfoils in two-dimensional flow at supersonic speeds

Charts for determining the characteristics of sharp-nose airfoils in two-dimensional flow at supersonic speeds

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Ivey, H Reese; Stickle, George W & Schuettler, Alberta
Description: Solutions of the Hugoniot shock equations and Meyer expansion equations are plotted in such a manner as to permit the pressure distribution, the local Mach number, and the angles of shock waves on arbitrary sharp-nose airfoils at supersonic speeds to be obtained directly. (author).
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Column and plate compressive strengths of aircraft structural martials extruded 0-1HTA magnesium alloy

Column and plate compressive strengths of aircraft structural martials extruded 0-1HTA magnesium alloy

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Heimerl, George J & Niles, Donald E
Description: Column and plate compressive strengths of extruded 0-1HTA magnesium alloy were determined both within and beyond the elastic range from tests of flat end H-section columns and from local instability tests of H-, Z-, and channel section columns. These tests are part of an extensive research investigation to provide data on the structural strength of various aircraft materials. The results are presented in the form of curves and charts that are suitable for use in the design and analysis of aircraft structures.
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Compressible Flow Tables for Air

Compressible Flow Tables for Air

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Burcher, Marie A.
Description: This paper contains a tabulation of functions of the Mach number which are frequently used in high-speed aerodynamics. The tables extend from M = 0 to M = 10.0 in increments of 0.01 and are based on the assumption that air is a perfect gas having a specific heat ratio of 1.400.
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Cooling Characteristics of the V-1650-7 Engine. II - Effect of Coolant Conditions on Cylinder Temperatures and Heat Rejection at Several Engine Powers

Cooling Characteristics of the V-1650-7 Engine. II - Effect of Coolant Conditions on Cylinder Temperatures and Heat Rejection at Several Engine Powers

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Povolny, John H.; Bogdan, Louis J. & Chelko, Louis J.
Description: An investigation has been conducted on a V-1650-7 engine to determine the cylinder temperatures and the coolant and oil heat rejections over a range of coolant flows (50 to 200 gal/min) and oil inlet temperatures (160 to 2150 F) for two values of coolant outlet temperature (250 deg and 275 F) at each of four power conditions ranging from approximately 1100 to 2000 brake horsepower. Data were obtained for several values of block-outlet pressure at each of the two coolant outlet temperatures. A mixture of 30 percent by volume of ethylene glycol and 70-percent water was used as the coolant. The effect of varying coolant flow, coolant outlet temperature, and coolant outlet pressure over the ranges investigated on cylinder-head temperatures was small (0 deg to 25 F) whereas the effect of increasing the engine power condition from ll00 to 2000 brake horsepower was large (maximum head-temperature increase, 110 F).
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Critical stress of thin-walled cylinders in axial compression

Critical stress of thin-walled cylinders in axial compression

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Batdorf, S B; Schildcrout, Murry & Stein, Manuel
Description: Empirical design curves are presented for the critical stress of thin-wall cylinders loaded in axial compression. These curves are plotted in terms of the nondimensional parameters of small-deflection theory and are compared with theoretical curves derived for the buckling of cylinders with simply supported and clamped edges. An empirical equation is given for the buckling of cylinders having a length-radius ratio greater than about 0.75.
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Critical stress of thin-walled cylinders in axial compression

Critical stress of thin-walled cylinders in axial compression

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Batdorf, S B; Shildcrout, Murry & Stein, Manuel
Description: Empirical design curves are presented for the critical stress of thin-walled cylinders loaded in axial compression. These curves are plotted in terms of nondimensional parameters of small-deflection theory and are compared with theoretical curves derived for the buckling of cylinders with simply supported and clamped edges. An empirical equation is given for the buckling of cylinders having a length-radius ratio greater than about 0.75. The test data obtained from various sources follow the general trend of the theoretical curve for cylinders with clamped edges, agreeing closely with the theory in the case of short cylinders, but falling considerably below the theoretical results for long cylinders. The discrepancy in the case of long cylinders increases with increasing values of the ratio of radius to wall thickness. Plotting curves for different values of this ratio reduces the scatter in the test data and a certain degree of correlation with theory is achieved. Advantage is taken of this correlation to obtain estimated design curves for cylinders with simply supported edges, for which little experimental information is available. (author).
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Determination of elastic stresses in gas-turbine disks

Determination of elastic stresses in gas-turbine disks

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Manson, S S
Description: A method is presented for the calculation of elastic stresses in symmetrical disks typical of those of a high-temperature gas turbine. The method is essentially a finite-difference solution of the equilibrium and compatibility equations for elastic stresses in a symmetrical disk. Account can be taken of point-to-point variations in disk thickness, in temperature, in elastic modulus, in coefficient of thermal expansion, in material density, and in Poisson's ratio. No numerical integration or trial-and-error procedures are involved and the computations can be performed in rapid and routine fashion by nontechnical computers with little engineering supervision. Checks on problems for which exact mathematical solutions are known indicate that the method yields results of high accuracy. Illustrative examples are presented to show the manner of treating solid disks, disks with central holes, and disks constructed either of a single material or two or more welded materials. The effect of shrink fitting is taken into account by a very simple device.
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Determination of elastic stresses in gas-turbine disks

Determination of elastic stresses in gas-turbine disks

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Manson, S S
Description: None
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A device for measuring sonic velocity and compressor Mach number

A device for measuring sonic velocity and compressor Mach number

Date: January 16, 1947
Creator: Huber, Paul W & Kantrowitz, Arthur
Description: A device has been developed which measures the velocity of sound in fluids at stagnation and is especially adaptable to turbine and compressor testing for which the constituency of the working fluid may be in doubt. By utilizing the shaft frequency of a rotary compressor, the instrument can also be used to provide a direct measurement of the compressor Mach number (ratio of blade-tip velocity to inlet velocity of sound at stagnation). A Helmholtz resonator is employed in the measurement of the sound velocity. Viscous effects in the orifice of the Helmholtz resonator are shown to be important and can be taken into account with the help of a parameter obtained from Stokes solution of the flow near an oscillating wall. This parameter includes the kinematic viscosity of the fluid and the frequency of sound in the resonator. When these effects are recognized, the resonator can be calibrated to measure velocity of sound or compressor Mach number to an accuracy of better than 0.5 percent.
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Drag Measurements at Transonic Speeds of NACA 65-009 Airfoils Mounted on a Freely Falling Body to Determine the Effects of Sweepback and Aspect Ratio

Drag Measurements at Transonic Speeds of NACA 65-009 Airfoils Mounted on a Freely Falling Body to Determine the Effects of Sweepback and Aspect Ratio

Date: January 22, 1947
Creator: Mathews, Charles W. & Thompson, Jim Rogers
Description: Drag measurements at transonic speeds on rectangular airfoils and on airfoils swept back 450 are reported. These airfoils, which were mounted on cylindrical test bodies, are part of a series being tested in free drops from high altitude to determine the effect of variation of basic airfoil parameters on airfoil drag characteristics at transonic speeds. These rectangular and swept-back airfoils had the same span, airfoil section (NACA 65-009), and chord perpendicular to the leading edge. The tests were made to compare the drag of rectangular and sweptback airfoils at a higher aspect ratio than had been used in a similar comparison reported previously. The results showed that the drag of the swept-back airfoil was less than 0.15 that of the rectangular airfoil at a Mach number of 1.00 and less than 0.30 that of the rectangular airfoil at a Mach number of 1.17. A comparison of these swept-back airfoils with similar airfoils of lower aspect ratio previously tested by the same method indicated that in the investigated speed range reduction in aspect ratio results in increased drag. In the highest part of the investigated speed range, however, the drag coefficient of the high-aspect-ratio swept-back airfoils showed a tendency to approach ...
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Effect of brake forming in various tempers on the strength of Alclad 75S-T aluminum-alloy sheet

Effect of brake forming in various tempers on the strength of Alclad 75S-T aluminum-alloy sheet

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Woods, Walter & Heimerl, George J
Description: Results are presented of tests to determine the effect of brake forming in various tempers on the strength of Alclad 75S-T aluminum alloy sheet in the direction parallel to the brake. The tensile and compressive strengths of Alclad 75S-T sheet, formed in the O and W tempers, were either increased or little affected compared with those of similarly treated unformed material. When Alclad 75S-T sheet 'as received' was formed, however, the tensile yield stress was reduced about 7 percent for the with-grain direction and 1 percent for the cross-grain direction, whereas the tensile ultimate and compressive yield stresses were increased somewhat. The elongation was always slightly reduced as a result of forming.
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Effect of combustor-inlet conditions on performance of an annular turbojet combustor

Effect of combustor-inlet conditions on performance of an annular turbojet combustor

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Childs, J Howard; Mccafferty, Richard J & Surine, Oakley W
Description: The combustion performance, and particularly the phenomenon of altitude operational limits, was studied by operating the annular combustor of a turbojet engine over a range of conditions of air flow, inlet pressure, inlet temperature, and fuel flow. Information was obtained on the combustion efficiencies, the effect on combustion of inlet variables, the altitude operational limits with two different fuels, the pressure losses in the combustor, the temperature and velocity profiles at the combustor outlet, the extent of afterburning, the fuel-injection characteristics, and the condition of the combustor basket.
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