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 Collection: Government Accountability Office Reports
VA Health Care: Actions Needed to Prevent Sexual Assaults and Other Safety Incidents

VA Health Care: Actions Needed to Prevent Sexual Assaults and Other Safety Incidents

Date: June 7, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Changes in patient demographics present unique challenges for VA in providing safe environments for all veterans treated in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. GAO was asked to examine whether or not sexual assault incidents are fully reported and what factors may contribute to any observed underreporting, how facility staff determine sexual assault-related risks veterans may pose in residential and inpatient mental health settings, and precautions facilities take to prevent sexual assaults and other safety incidents. GAO reviewed relevant laws, VA policies, and sexual assault incident documentation from January 2007 through July 2010 provided by VA officials and the VA Office of the Inspector General (OIG). In addition, GAO visited and reviewed portions of selected veterans' medical records at five judgmentally selected VA medical facilities chosen to ensure the residential and inpatient mental health units at the facilities varied in size and complexity. Finally, GAO spoke with the four Veterans Integrated Service Networks (VISN) that oversee these VA medical facilities."
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Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation: Redesigned Premium Structure Could Better Align Rates with Risk from Plan Sponsors

Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation: Redesigned Premium Structure Could Better Align Rates with Risk from Plan Sponsors

Date: November 7, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Various options are available to make the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's (PBGC) premium structure more risk-based and better reflect the risk of future claims. Historically, PBGC's premiums have not fully reflected the risks PBGC insures against--chiefly that a plan sponsor with an underfunded plan will become bankrupt, forcing the termination of the plan and imposing a claim on PBGC. PBGC's current structure relies largely on a flat-rate premium that is based on the number of plan participants and that assesses rates equally per plan participant across all sponsors. PBGC also charges a variable-rate premium that is based on just one risk factor, plan underfunding. One available option is to further increase rates within this current structure; however, plan underfunding alone is a poor proxy for the risk of new claims. An alternative option is to redesign premiums to incorporate additional risk factors, such as a sponsor's financial strength (as currently being explored by PBGC) or a plan's investment strategy (as is currently done in the United Kingdom)."
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Veterans' Reemployment Rights: Steps Needed to Ensure Reliability of DOL and Special Counsel Demonstration Project's Performance Information

Veterans' Reemployment Rights: Steps Needed to Ensure Reliability of DOL and Special Counsel Demonstration Project's Performance Information

Date: June 10, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In the wake of the ongoing conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, thousands of current and former military servicemembers are undergoing a transition between their military service and their civilian employment. Congress enacted the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994 (USERRA) to protect the employment and reemployment rights of federal and nonfederal employees when they leave their employment to perform military or other uniformed service. Among other rights, servicemembers who meet the statutory requirements are entitled to reinstatement to the positions they would have held if they had never left their employment or to positions of like seniority, status, and pay. USERRA applies to a wide range of employers, including federal, state, and local governments as well as private-sector firms. This report focuses on federal executive agencies. Under USERRA, an employee who believes that his or her USERRA rights have been violated may file a claim with the Department of Labor's (DOL) Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS), which investigates and attempts to resolve the claim. If DOL's VETS cannot resolve the claim and the servicemember is a federal government employee or applicant to a federal ...
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Graduate Medical Education: Trends in Training and Student Debt

Graduate Medical Education: Trends in Training and Student Debt

Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The federal government invests significantly in medical education through various programs to help ensure that the anticipated supply of new physicians meets the nation's health care needs. Medicare, the federal health care program for elderly and certain disabled people, subsidizes training for medical school graduates in hospitals and other teaching institutions by helping to support the increased costs associated with postgraduate medical training. These subsidy payments provided hospitals and other teaching institutions with an additional $8.76 billion for postgraduate medical training in fiscal year 2008. In addition, Medicaid, a joint federal and state program that finances health care for certain low-income individuals, provides funding for graduate medical education. In order to pay for medical school tuition and related fees, students often rely on loans to finance their education. The Department of Education (Education) administers loan programs that are available to medical school students. These loans may be made by private lenders and guaranteed by the federal government or made directly by the federal government through a student's school. The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers various scholarships, loans, and loan repayment programs for disadvantaged students and those ...
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Defense Logistics: DOD Has Begun to Improve Supply Distribution Operations, but Further Actions Are Needed to Sustain These Efforts

Defense Logistics: DOD Has Begun to Improve Supply Distribution Operations, but Further Actions Are Needed to Sustain These Efforts

Date: August 11, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Problems in the supply distribution system dating back to the Persian Gulf War have impeded the ability of the Department of Defense (DOD) to provide effective and timely logistics support to the warfighter. DOD has taken actions to improve the distribution system by assigning new organizational responsibilities, including designating U.S. Transportation Command as the "Distribution Process Owner" (DPO); issuing a new logistics transformation strategy; and undertaking specific improvement initiatives. GAO's objectives were to (1) assess DOD's organizational structure and transformation strategy to improve the distribution system and (2) determine the status of, and timelines for completing, specific DOD distribution initiatives. agreed with the latter two."
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Federally Chartered Corporation: Review of the Financial Statement Audit Reports for the Jewish War Veterans of the united States of America, Inc., for Fiscal Years 2000-2002

Federally Chartered Corporation: Review of the Financial Statement Audit Reports for the Jewish War Veterans of the united States of America, Inc., for Fiscal Years 2000-2002

Date: August 7, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "GAO reviewed the audit reports covering the financial statements of the Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America, Inc., for fiscal years 2002, 2001, and 2000. GAO found no reportable instances of noncompliance. The audit reports included the auditors' opinions that the financial statements of the corporation were presented fairly in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles."
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Tactical Aircraft: DOD Should Present a New F-22A Business Case before Making Further Investments

Tactical Aircraft: DOD Should Present a New F-22A Business Case before Making Further Investments

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The F-22A is the Air Force's next generation air superiority fighter aircraft. It incorporates a low observable (stealth) and highly maneuverable airframe, advanced integrated avionics, and a new engine capable of sustained supersonic flight without the use of afterburners. It was originally designed to counter threats posed by the Soviet Union and was intended to replace the F-15 fighter in the air-to-air combat role. However, the Air Force now plans to add a more robust ground attack and intelligence- gathering capability not previously envisioned but now considered "necessary" to increase the utility of the aircraft. In December 2005, the Air Force changed designations from the F/A-22 to the F-22A. The aircraft maintained all current capabilities as well as the expanded ground attack capabilities. Officials have initiated a modernization program to develop and integrate these new capabilities. In March 2005, we reported that despite substantial changes to the F-22A program since it started in 1986, Air Force leaders have not developed a new business case for investing billions more dollars to modernize the aircraft. Over time quantities have been reduced, and in recent years both funding and quantities have ...
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Financial Audit: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Funds' 2012 and 2011 Financial Statements

Financial Audit: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Funds' 2012 and 2011 Financial Statements

Date: February 21, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In GAO's opinion, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) fairly presented, in all material respects, the 2012 and 2011 financial statements for the two funds it administers--the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF) and the FSLIC Resolution Fund (FRF). Also, in GAO's opinion, FDIC maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting relevant to the DIF and the FRF as of December 31, 2012. Further, GAO did not find any reportable instances of noncompliance with provisions of the laws and regulations it tested."
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Social Security Reform: Evaluation of the Gramm Proposal

Social Security Reform: Evaluation of the Gramm Proposal

Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the potential budgetary and economic effects of Senator Phil Gramm's social security reform proposal, focusing on: (1) the extent to which the proposal achieves sustainable solvency and how it would affect the economy and federal budget; (2) the balance struck between the twin goals of income adequacy and individual equity; and (3) how readily such changes could be implemented, administered, and explained to the public."
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Medicare Advantage Organizations: Actual Expenses and Profits Compared to Projections for 2005

Medicare Advantage Organizations: Actual Expenses and Profits Compared to Projections for 2005

Date: June 24, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Medicare Advantage (MA) organizations offer an alternative to the original Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) program. Payments to MA organizations are, in part, based on the revenue and expenditure projections MA organizations submit to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)--the agency that administers Medicare--prior to the start of each contract year. Once Medicare payments are determined, they are not modified based on differences between actual and projected expenses. In February 2008, we reported that, on average, MA organizations projected they would spend approximately 87 percent of their 2007 revenue on medical expenses, 9 percent on non-medical expenses, and that the remaining 4 percent would go to profits. The accuracy of MA organizations' projections is important because, in addition to determining Medicare payments, these projections also affect the extent to which MA beneficiaries receive additional benefits not provided under FFS and the amounts beneficiaries pay in cost sharing and premiums. This report responds to a Congressional request for additional information on the accuracy of MA organizations' projections. Specifically, this report focuses on how organizations' 2005 actual medical expenses, non-medical expenses, and profits compare to projections for the same year. ...
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Defense Acquisition Workforce: DOD's Training Program Demonstrates Many Attributes of Effectiveness, but Improvement Is Needed

Defense Acquisition Workforce: DOD's Training Program Demonstrates Many Attributes of Effectiveness, but Improvement Is Needed

Date: October 28, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The President has announced his intention to improve the acquisition process, particularly given the half a trillion dollars the federal government spent in fiscal year 2009 on acquiring goods and services. The Department of Defense (DOD) spent $384 billion in fiscal year 2009 on goods and services--double what it spent in 2001. A high-quality workforce with the right competencies and skill sets will be critical to improving DOD acquisitions. GAO was mandated to determine the efficacy of DOD's certification training for its acquisition workforce. GAO assessed (1) DOD's capability to provide certification training, (2) the extent that such training reaches members of the workforce, and (3) the extent that previous training recommendations have been implemented. To conduct this work, GAO compared DOD's certification training to GAO guidance for effective training programs and analyzed policies, data, and previous reports on acquisition training."
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The Democratic Republic of the Congo: U.S. Agencies Should Take Further Actions to Contribute to the Effective Regulation and Control of the Minerals Trade in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo: U.S. Agencies Should Take Further Actions to Contribute to the Effective Regulation and Control of the Minerals Trade in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

Date: September 30, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Rich in minerals, the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has long been the site of one of the world's worst humanitarian crises. Since 1998, an estimated 5 million have died as a result of the conflict. GAO was asked to examine the connection between minerals trade and human rights abuses, and the efforts to help control the trade. This report assesses (1) how the key minerals are mined, transported, and processed; (2) the links between the minerals trade, armed conflicts, and human rights abuses; (3) measures the United States and the international community have taken to control the trade and; (4) challenges faced in controlling the trade. GAO reviewed and analyzed reports, memorandums, and other documents and interviewed officials from the Department of State (State), other United States agencies, the United Nations (UN), and foreign governments as well as representatives from nongovernmental organizations and industry."
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Law Enforcement Coordination: DOJ Could Improve Its Process for Identifying Disagreements among Agents

Law Enforcement Coordination: DOJ Could Improve Its Process for Identifying Disagreements among Agents

Date: April 7, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), an estimated 1.3 million violent crimes occurred nationwide in 2009. The Department of Justice (DOJ) law enforcement components--the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives; Drug Enforcement Administration; FBI, and U.S. Marshals Service--have overlapping jurisdiction over violent crime investigations, specifically when they involve illegal drugs, gang violence, firearms, explosives, arson, and fugitive apprehension. As requested, GAO assessed the extent to which selected agents are clear on their agencies' roles and responsibilities, and how components determine and coordinate roles and responsibilities to avoid unnecessary use of resources. GAO reviewed documents such as department directives and interviewed DOJ component officials in headquarters and nine cities, which were selected based on population and the presence of all DOJ components. GAO also surveyed a randomly selected, nongeneralizable sample of 315 field agents. The results provide valuable information about the range of perspectives of surveyed agents."
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Factors for Evaluating the Cost Share of Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program to Assist Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturers

Factors for Evaluating the Cost Share of Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program to Assist Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturers

Date: April 4, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "U.S. manufacturing plays an important role in the nation's economy, producing about $1.6 trillion of value each year--11.5 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP)--and accounting for over 13 million jobs in the United States in 2008, according to the Department of Commerce. However, over the past decade, increased competition abroad and the migration of manufacturing overseas have led to declines in U.S. manufacturing. To support the manufacturing sector, the federal government has undertaken efforts, including creating programs that are partly funded by the federal government and partly funded by nonfederal entities such as state and local governments. However, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, from 2008 to 2009, following the beginning of the recent economic downturn, the United States lost 1.5 million manufacturing jobs. One federal effort aimed at helping manufacturers is the Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) program. The MEP program was established in 1988 through Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to enhance productivity and technological performance, and strengthen the global competitiveness of small and medium-sized U.S. manufacturers, helping them create and retain jobs. Under this program, NIST has established relationships ...
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DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY: Additional Opportunities Exist to Streamline Support Functions at NNSA and Office of Science Sites

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY: Additional Opportunities Exist to Streamline Support Functions at NNSA and Office of Science Sites

Date: January 31, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Support function costs at NNSA and Science sites for fiscal years 2007 through 2011 are not fully known because DOE changed its data collection approach beginning in 2010 to improve its data and, as a result, does not have complete and comparable cost data for all years. In fiscal years 2007 through 2009, total support costs for NNSA and Science sites grew from $5 billion to about $5.5 billion (nominal dollars). Costs for fiscal year 2010 are unknown because DOE was pilot-testing its new reporting system and only collected data from some sites. For fiscal year 2011, the data are more complete, but changes to DOE’s definitions for support functions make it difficult to compare costs across all years. DOE has taken some steps to ensure the quality of the data in its new system and plans to fully implement a quality control process, such as peer reviews, to ensure data can be compared across sites, but has not yet done so."
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Medicare Contracting Reform: CMS's Plan Has Gaps and Its Anticipated Savings Are Uncertain

Medicare Contracting Reform: CMS's Plan Has Gaps and Its Anticipated Savings Are Uncertain

Date: August 17, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) significantly reformed contracting for the administration of claims for Part A, Medicare's hospital insurance, and Part B, which covers outpatient services such as physicians' care. The MMA required the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)--the agency within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) that administers Medicare--to conduct full and open competition for all of its claims administration contracts and to transfer the work to Medicare administrative contractors (MAC) by October 2011. The MMA required the Secretary of HHS to submit a report to the Congress and GAO on the plan for implementing Medicare contracting reform and for GAO to evaluate the plan. To address this mandate, GAO reviewed the extent to which (1) the plan provides an appropriate framework for implementing Medicare contracting reform and (2) the plan's cost and savings estimates are sound enough to support decisions on implementation."
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Food and Drug Administration's Compliance With the Inflation Adjustment Act

Food and Drug Administration's Compliance With the Inflation Adjustment Act

Date: August 1, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 requires each federal agency to issue a regulation adjusting its covered maximum civil monetary penalties for inflation by October 23, 1996, and requires them to make necessary adjustments at least once every 4 years thereafter. The Food and Drug Administration's Office of the Chief Counsel indicated that at least 14 of the agency's civil penalties are covered by the act, but the agency had not adjusted any of them for inflation."
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Government Auditing Standards: 2010 Exposure Draft

Government Auditing Standards: 2010 Exposure Draft

Date: August 1, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: Guidance issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This letter describes the process used by GAO for revising GAGAS, summarizes the proposed major changes, discusses proposed effective dates, and provides instructions for submitting comments on the proposed standards."
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Observations on the Department of Education's Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Report and Fiscal Year 2001 Performance Plan

Observations on the Department of Education's Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Report and Fiscal Year 2001 Performance Plan

Date: June 30, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the Department of Education's fiscal year (FY) 1999 performance report and FY 2001 performance plans required by the Government Performance and Results Act."
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Financial Audit: Material Weaknesses in Internal Control over the Processes Used to Prepare the Consolidated Financial Statements of the U.S. Government

Financial Audit: Material Weaknesses in Internal Control over the Processes Used to Prepare the Consolidated Financial Statements of the U.S. Government

Date: June 17, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "For the past 11 years, since GAO's first audit of the consolidated financial statements of the U.S. government (CFS), certain material weaknesses in internal control and in selected accounting and financial reporting practices have prevented GAO from expressing an opinion on the CFS. GAO has consistently reported that the U.S. government did not have adequate systems, controls, and procedures to properly prepare the CFS. GAO's December 2007 disclaimer of opinion on the fiscal year 2007 accrual basis consolidated financial statements included a discussion of continuing control deficiencies related to the preparation of the CFS. The purpose of this report is to (1) provide details of continuing material weaknesses, (2) recommend improvements, and (3) provide the status of corrective actions taken to address the 81 open recommendations related to the preparation of the CFS that GAO reported in July 2007."
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Southwest Border: More Timely Border Patrol Access and Training Could Improve Security Operations and Natural Resource Protection on Federal Lands

Southwest Border: More Timely Border Patrol Access and Training Could Improve Security Operations and Natural Resource Protection on Federal Lands

Date: October 19, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Over the last 5 years, Border Patrol has nearly doubled the number of its agents on patrol, constructed hundreds of miles of border fence, and installed surveillance equipment on and near lands managed by the Departments of the Interior and Agriculture along the southwestern border. In so doing, the agency has had to comply with federal land management laws, and some have expressed concern that these laws may limit agents' abilities to detect and apprehend undocumented aliens. GAO was asked to examine (1) key land management laws Border Patrol operates under and how it and land management agencies coordinate their responsibilities under these laws; (2) how Border Patrol operations are affected by these laws; and (3) the extent to which land management agencies collect and use data related to the environmental effects of illegal activities, such as human trafficking and drug smuggling. GAO reviewed key land management laws, interviewed agents-in-charge at 26 Border Patrol stations responsible for patrolling federal southwest borderlands, and interviewed managers of these lands."
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Military Disability Retirement: Closer Monitoring Would Improve the Temporary Retirement Process

Military Disability Retirement: Closer Monitoring Would Improve the Temporary Retirement Process

Date: April 13, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Service members found unfit for duty due to a service-related illness or injury may be eligible for military disability retirement. When their disability is not stable, however, they may be placed on the military's Temporary Disability Retired List (TDRL) and granted temporary benefits for as long as 5 years. GAO was asked to respond to concerns about TDRL caseloads, management, and impact on servicemembers. To address these concerns, we analyzed TDRL data; interviewed military officials; reviewed laws, regulations, and other relevant documents; and conducted 12 focus groups with temporary retirees. This report examines (1) recent trends in the TDRL caseload size, (2) recent trends in the characteristics of those placed on the TDRL, (3) disability retirement outcomes for TDRL placements, (4) the adequacy of TDRL management, and (5) the adequacy of information provided to TDRL retirees."
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Federal Printing: Fewer Plants Are in Operation Than in 1990, and Selected Agencies Reported Declining Volumes

Federal Printing: Fewer Plants Are in Operation Than in 1990, and Selected Agencies Reported Declining Volumes

Date: July 17, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Agencies GAO surveyed reported operating fewer in-house printing plants than in 1990. Specifically, surveyed agencies reported operating 64 percent fewer plants than the number listed in the Congress's Joint Committee on Printing's (JCP) Government Printing and Binding Regulations, updated in 1990 (1990 JCP Regulations). The Department of Defense (DOD) accounted for the greatest decline in in-house printing plants. The 1990 JCP Regulations listed 142 DOD printing plants; however, the Defense Logistics Agency, which currently manages the majority of DOD's printing infrastructure, reported 17 in-house printing plants in GAO's survey. In addition, most agencies reported operating toner-based high-speed duplication machines, and fewer reported operating ink-based conventional printing presses. Of the 32 agencies operating in-house printing plants, 17 reported that all of their in-house printing was conducted on high-speed duplication machines; another 14 agencies reported operating some duplication equipment in addition to conventional printing presses (the remaining agency did not report its type of equipment). No agency reported having only ink-based conventional printing presses at its in-house plants. In addition, interviews with selected agencies showed declines in printing volumes and total spending, and suggested that agencies spent more ...
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New Drug Approval: FDA Needs to Enhance Its Oversight of Drugs Approved on the Basis of Surrogate Endpoints

New Drug Approval: FDA Needs to Enhance Its Oversight of Drugs Approved on the Basis of Surrogate Endpoints

Date: September 23, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Before approving a drug, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assesses a drug's effectiveness. This assessment may be based on evidence showing that a drug has a positive impact on a surrogate endpoint--a laboratory measure, such as blood pressure--instead of more direct clinical evidence, like preventing strokes. After approval, FDA often requires or requests a drug sponsor to further study the drug. Concerns have been raised about FDA's reliance on surrogate endpoints and its oversight of postmarketing studies. This report provides information on (1) all drug applications approved based on surrogate endpoints in FDA's accelerated approval process, (2) a subset of applications for potentially innovative drugs approved based on surrogate endpoints under FDA's traditional process, and (3) FDA's oversight of postmarketing studies. GAO identified drugs approved based on surrogate endpoints, obtained the status of related postmarketing studies, and reviewed FDA's oversight of a sample of 35 studies it required under its accelerated approval process, selected to include studies which were at varying levels of completion."
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