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 Collection: Environmental Policy Collection
Senate Bill No. 1771
An act to add Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 42800) to Part 4 of Division 26 of the Health and Safety Code, and to add Chapter 8.5 (commencing with Section 25730) to Division 15 of the Public Resources Code, relating to air pollution.
Senate, No. 2351
An Act establishing a vehicle emissions program.
Service Contract : EC - DG Environment − CNRS-IEPE: Options for the Operationalisation of the Kyoto Mechanisms - Economic Analysis based on Partial Equilibrium Models
This report presents two series of studies performed before COP-6 and COP-6bis, in order to provide DG Environment with economic analysis of the issues at stake in international climate negotiations. These analysis used the background information provided by the large scale world energy partial equilibrium model POLES. They were also based on an extensive use of the Marginal Abatement Cost Curves produced by the POLES model through the ASPEN-sd software, specifically designed to produce assessment.
Services and Supply Chains - The Role of the Domestic Private Sector in Water Service Delivery in Tanzania.
This report presents findings from a review of the service activities of informal private water vendors in Dar es Salaam. Tanzania’s capital is a rapidly growing city, and around 70% of the population lacks proper housing and lives in informal settlements. Large parts of the city remain unserved by the water utility and many of those who have access to the piped network suffer from intermittent supply. As a result, small-scale private water vendors provide an essential service for many, in particular low-income households in the city.
Shaping our future: Creating the World Future Council
This book describes the mission of the World Future Council, which came into existence shortly after publication. Many values are shared across cultures and those values need to be represented by a common voice. The World Future Council was launched to fill that role, and seeks to be an ethically powerful global voice that appeals and responds to basic human values.
Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook
This report discusses likely energy prices and weather over the winter of 2010-2011.
Shrubs for wildlife on farms in the Southeast.
Describes the use of shrubs on farms to protect useful or beneficial wildlife and to prevent soil erosion.
Signals of Human-induced Climate Warning, USGCRP Seminar, 10 October 1995.
There is increasing evidence that the global climate is changing: global temperatures have risen about 1 F over the past century, mountain glaciers are melting back, sea level is rising. But how is the climate of the United States changing? Are these changes like others being experienced around the world? Is the US climate becoming more or less variable? Are we having more or fewer climatic extremes? This USGCRP seminar addresses these questions in the context of the anthropogenic influences on atmospheric composition and climate
Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act
This law was passed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) to protect public health and the environment by preventing soil and groundwater pollution, and by promoting the sustainable use of soil and groundwater.
Soil and water conservation in the Pacific Northwest.
Describes types of erosion and methods for preventing the erosion of soil by water and wind.
Soil-depleting, soil-conserving, and soil-building crops.
Discusses soil conservation in a clear and concise manner. Discusses soil building, soil conserving, and soil depleting crops as well as the minerals to be found in soil.
The soil that went to town.
Describes the problem of soil erosion and methods for its prevention, in an elementary story format.
Solid Waste Disposal Act
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) gives EPA the authority to control hazardous waste from the "cradle-to-grave." This includes the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. RCRA also set forth a framework for the management of non-hazardous solid wastes. The 1986 amendments to RCRA enabled EPA to address environmental problems that could result from underground tanks storing petroleum and other hazardous substances. HSWA - the Federal Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments - are the 1984 amendments to RCRA that focused on waste minimization and phasing out land disposal of hazardous waste as well as corrective action for releases. Some of the other mandates of this law include increased enforcement authority for EPA, more stringent hazardous waste management standards, and a comprehensive underground storage tank program.
South Pacific Regional Environment Programme Agreement : message from the President of the United States transmitting agreement establishing the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, done at Apia on June 16, 1993
The South Pacific Regional Environment Programme is to promote cooperation in the South Pacific islands region and to provide assistance in order to protect and improve the environment and to ensure sustainable development.
Species and People: Linked Futures.
A report, with case studies, on the contribution of wildlife conservation to rural livelihoods and the Millennium Development Goals
Species Fact Sheet: Illegal and Unsustainable Wildlife Trade
Each year, hundreds of millions of plants and animals are caught or harvested from the wild and then sold as food, pets, ornamental plants, leather, tourist curios, and medicine. While a great deal of this trade is legal and is not harming wild populations, a worryingly large proportion is illegal ? and threatens the survival of many endangered species. With over exploitation being the second-largest direct threat to many species after habitat loss, WWF is addressing illegal and unsustainable wildlife trade as a priority issue.
Spying Global Warming in the Desert? [News release].
This brief news article provides preliminary evidence that global warming may have sped up the pace at which grasslands are being overtaken by mesquite, creosote and other shrubs at desert sites around the world.
START Implementation Plan 1997-2002
The primary goals of the SysTem for Analysis, Research and Training in global change science (START), which is co-sponsored by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP); the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP); and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) are to promote regional global change science and to enhance the capacity of individuals, institutions and developing regions to undertake such research. START capacity building initiatives include the recognition that human capacity building is much more than training and that, as with all development, sustainable development is best. Once-off training exercises are easy to organize, but are the least effective method of capacity enhancement and result in large cost/benefit ratios. In contrast, sustained development of human capacity through continual involvement with research maximizes efficiency and minimizes the cost/benefit ratio. START seeks to enhance regional global change research while at the same time enhancing the individual and institutional capacity to conduct such research. The details as to how START operates, and how it plans to encompass its vision and meet its objectives are given in the START Implementation Plan.
State Adaptation Plans
This map shows states with plans for adapting to global climate change.
State of Biodiversity Markets Offset and Compensation Programs Worldwide
The report provides the status and trends of biodiversity offset and compensatory mitigation programs by geographical region. It summarizes the total active programs and developing activities, and broad metrics like total known payments and land area protected. It also analyzes the characteristics of offset programs and looks at recent developments in nascent and existing programs in the region.
State of the Climate in 2008
This report describes observations of precipitation, temperature, and other climatology metrics from different global regions.
State of the Climate in 2009
This report describes observations of precipitation, temperature, and other climatology metrics from different global regions.
The State of the Hudson 2009
This report describes the environmental quality of the Hudson River and its watershed, including issues such as pollution, population growth, and biodiversity. The report also describes the habitats of estuaries, watersheds, and rivers in general.
Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change
The Review's executive summary states that "the Review first examines the evidence on the economic impacts of climate change itself, and explores the economics of stabilizing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The second half of the Review considers the complex policy challenges involved in managing the transition to a low-carbon economy and in ensuring that societies can adapt to the consequences of climate change that can no longer be avoided". The report's main conclusion is that the benefits of strong, early action on climate change considerably outweigh the costs.
Strategic Environmental Assessment and Adaptation to Climate Change
This is one in a series of Advisory Notes that supplement the OECD/DAC Good Practice Guidance on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) (OECD/DAC 2006). The focus of this Advisory Note is to show how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) approaches can help mainstream adaptation to climate change into strategic planning. It is used to integrate considerations related to climate change into national development or sectoral management planning or policymaking processes.
Strategic Plan for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program
This strategic plan has been prepared by the 13 federal agencies participating in the CCSP, with coordination by the CCSP staff under the leadership of Dr. Richard H. Moss. This strategic plan responds to the President's direction that climate change research activities be accelerated to provide the best possible scientific information to support public discussion and decision-making on climate-related issues.The plan also responds to Section 104 of the Global Change Research Act of 1990, which mandates the development and periodic updating of a long-term national global change research plan coordinated through the National Science and Technology Council.This is the first comprehensive update of a strategic plan for U.S. global change and climate change research since the original plan for the U.S. Global Change Research Program was adopted at the inception of the program in 1989.
A Strategy for Climate Change Stabilization Experiments with AOGCMs and ESMs
This report outlines a strategy for the new AOGCM/ESM modeling components in terms of aerosols/atmospheric chemistry and carbon cycle/dynamic vegetation components that are under development and implementation in ESMs that involves a proposed experimental design that integrates impacts and scenarios (represented in IPCC WG2 and WG3, respectively) and physical climate science (WG1). We summarize with a suite of recommendations for the joint WGCM, AIMES and IPCC communities.
Streamlining climate change and air pollution reporting: Final Report
The environmental policies currently being negotiated are likely to require Member State (MS) to control and report their emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) and air pollutants (AP) more precisely. While there are likely to be associated costs, it is also likely that the cost of timely and targeted action will be less than the longer term cost of inaction. A number of European Union (EU) legal instruments are used to regulate emissions - several of these are under review. The review not only needs to anticipate future policy needs but also assess the alignment of the various instruments and whether the burden on users can be further minimized.
Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management
This executive order establishes guidelines for how federal agencies consume natural resources.
Strengthening International Environmental Governance and Civil Society Leadership in Asia and the Pacific
This paper describes international environmental governance and tries to engage leaders in prioritizing environmental issues and challenges.
Substitute Bill No. 595
An act concerning climate change.
Summary for Policymakers:Scientific-Technical Analyses of Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change - IPCC Working Group II
This summary of assessment provides scientific, technical and economic information that can be used, inter alia, in evaluating whether the projected range of plausible impacts constitutes "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system," as referred to in Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and in evaluating adaptation and mitigation options that could be used in progressing towards the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC
Summary for Policymakers: The Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change -IPCC Working Group III
This summary report assesses a large part of the existing literature on the socioeconomics of climate change and identifies areas in which a consensus has emerged on key issues and areas where differences exist1. The chapters have been arranged so that they cover several key issues. First, frameworks for socioeconomic assessment of costs and benefits of action and inaction are described. Particular attention is given to the applicability of costbenefit analysis, the incorporation of equity and social considerations, and consideration of intergenerational equity issues. Second, the economic and social benefits of limiting greenhouse gas emissions and enhancing sinks are reviewed. Third, the economic, social and environmental costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions are assessed. Next, generic mitigation and adaptation response options are reviewed, methods for assessing the costs and effectiveness of different response options are summarized, and integrated assessment techniques are discussed. Finally, the report provides an economic assessment of policy instruments to combat climate change.
Summary for Policymakers: The Science of Climate Change - IPCC Working Group I
Greenhouse gas concentrations have continued to increase. Anthropogenic aerosols tend to produce negative radiative forcings. Climate has changed over the past century. The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate. Climate is expected to continue to change in the future. There are still many uncertainties.
The Surface Ocean - Lower Atmosphere Study: Science Plan and Implementation Strategy
SOLAS (Surface Ocean - Lower Atmosphere Study) is a new international research initiative that has as its goal: To achieve quantitative understanding of the key biogeochemical-physical interactions and feedbacks between the ocean and the atmosphere, and of how this coupled system affects and is affected by climate and environmental change. Achievement of this goal is important in order to understand and quantify the role that ocean-atmosphere interactions play in the regulation of climate and global change. The domain of SOLAS is focussed on processes at the air-sea interface and includes a natural emphasis on the atmospheric and upper-ocean boundary layers, while recognising that some of the processes to be studied will, of necessity, be linked to significantly greater height and depth scales. SOLAS research will cover all ocean areas including coastal seas and ice covered areas. A fundamental characteristic of SOLAS is that the research is not only interdisciplinary (involving biogeochemistry, physics, mathematical modelling, etc.), but also involves closely coupled studies requiring marine and atmospheric scientists to work together. Such research will require a shift in attitude within the academic and funding communities, both of which are generally organised on a medium-by-medium basis in most countries.
The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Promote Healthy Homes
This guide describes steps that people can take to protect themselves from disease, disability, and injury that may result from health hazards in the home. The guide also describes society-wide measures to improve public health through healthy homes.
Sustainable Development Report 2009
This Sustainable Development Report provides a comprehensive description of the economic, ecological and social challenges that are linked to Bayer's operations and show stakholders the strategies and solutions that are applying to meet them.
The Sustainable Sites Initiative: Guidelines and Performance Benchmarks
This guide describes how to develop a site in a way that does the least damage to the ecosystem, and provides maximum ecological benefits, including improved air quality, storm water treatment, and energy efficiency.
Synthesis Report on Observations, Projections, and Impact Assessments of Climate Change: Climate Change and Its Impacts in Japan
The Japan synthesis report includes causes of global warming, the current state and future of global warming, the impacts of and adaptation to climate change, and methodologies for observing and projecting climate change and impact.
Taming runaway waters
Describes the damage caused and the economic impact of floods and fast-moving water. Discusses the role of soil and water management programs in flood control.
Technical description of the IIASA model cluster
A footnote on page one explains that this paper was commissioned by the United Kingdom Office of Climate Change as background work to its report 'Climate Change: Financing Global Forests' (also known as the Eliasch Review) with marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) used to calculate opportunity costs of reducing forest emissions.
Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere: Steps for Understanding and Reconciling Differences
This Synthesis and Assessment Product is an important revision to the conclusions of earlier reports from the U.S. National Research Council and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Previously reported discrepancies between the amount of warming near the surface and higher in the atmosphere have been used to challenge the reliability of climate models and the reality of human-induced global warming. Specifically, surface data showed substantial global-average warming, while early versions of satellite and radiosonde data showed little or no warming above the surface. This significant discrepancy no longer exists because errors in the satellite and radiosonde data have been identified and corrected. New data sets have also been developed that do not show such discrepancies. This Synthesis and Assessment Product is an important revision to the conclusions of earlier reports from the U.S. National Research Council and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. For recent decades, all current atmospheric data sets now show global-average warming that is similar to the surface warming. While these data are consistent with the results from climate models at the global scale, discrepancies in the tropics remain to be resolved. Nevertheless, the most recent observational and model evidence has increased confidence in our understanding of observed climatic changes and their causes.
The Terrestrial Biosphere and Global Change: Implications for Natural and Managed Ecosystems
From the perspective of terrestrial ecosystems, the most important component of global change over the next three or four decades will likely be land-use/cover change. It is driven largely by the need to feed the expanding human population, expected to increase by almost one billion (109) people per decade for the next three decades at least. Much of this increase will occur in developing countries in the low-latitude regions of the world. To meet the associated food demand, crop yields will need to increase, consistently, by over 2% every year through this period. Despite advances in technology, increasing food production must lead to intensification of agriculture in areas which are already cropped, and conversion of forests and grasslands into cropping systems. Much of the latter will occur in semi-arid regions and on lands which are marginally suitable for cultivation, increasing the risk of soil erosion, accelerated water use, and further land degradation.
Texas' Global Warming Solutions: A Study for World Wildlife Fund
This report outlined and evaluated a plan through which the United States could reduce its annual carbon-dioxide emissions by about 654 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) by 2010, 36 percent below businesses-usual projections for that year. This brings 2010 emissions to 14 percent below 1990 emissions, thereby exceeding the reductions required under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The study also found that these reductions could be obtained with net economic savings, almost 900,000 net additional jobs, and significant decreases in pollutant emissions that damage the environment, and are harmful to human health, especially of children and elderly.
Third Biennial Report of the Climate Neutral Working Group
In accordance with the directives outlined in Executive Order #14-03, this Third Biennial Report of the Climate Neutral Working Group (CNWG) provides an update regarding: The state of the science of responding to climate change; Efforts to meet the goals of the Executive Order; Future planned steps and their anticipated impacts, expected challenges, and opportunities; Opportunities to initiate a statewide voluntary greenhouse gas emissions registry; The feasibility of a carbon emissions cap and trading program. Also summarized within this report are a number of related ongoing efforts within state government that will facilitate an expanded and coordinated campaign to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Recommended actions for continued GHG emissions reductions are presented in this report to be considered for implementation during 2009 – 2010 by Vermont State Government.
Thresholds of Climate Change in Ecosystems
This Report (SAP 4.2) focuses on the thresholds of Climate Change in Ecosystems. As defined in this Synthesis and Assessment Report, 'an ecological threshold is the point at which there is an abrupt change in an ecosystem quality, property, or phenomenon, or where small changes in one or more external conditions produce large and persistent responses in an ecosystem'.Ecological thresholds occur when external factors, positive feedbacks, or nonlinear instabilities in a system cause changes to propagate in a domino-like fashion that is potentially irreversible. This report reviews threshold changes in North American ecosystems that are potentially induced by climatic change and addresses the significant challenges these threshold crossings impose on resource and land managers. Sudden changes to ecosystems and the goods and services they provide are not well understood, but they are extremely important if natural resource managers are to succeed in developing adaptation strategies in a changing world. The report provides an overview of what is known about ecological thresholds and where they are likely to occur. It also identifies those areas where research is most needed to improve knowledge and understand the uncertainties regarding them. The report suggests a suite of potential actions that land and resource managers could use to improve the likelihood of success for the resources they manage, even under conditions of incomplete understanding of what drives thresholds of change and when changes will occur.
Ting and the Possible Futures
This is a children's book where the characters build a time machine that lets them visit alternate futures based on the decisions they make in the present. The story provides a glimpse of a post-apocalyptic dystopia as a result of severe global climate change, as well as a future utopian ideal that comes as a result of implementing massive changes to land use and food and energy production.
Towards an Analytical Capacity in Costing of Abatement Options for Forestry and Agricultural Carbon Sinks
This document is part of Technical Report (ref: EUR 21758 EN) from the Joint Research Centre and presents part of the modelling work conducted by DG JRC/IPTS as a contribution to the DG ENV Communication on post-2012 climate policy analysis (June 2005). The analysis with the POLES and GEM-E3 models show that the costs of abatement policies, both in marginal terms and total terms, can be significantly reduced if emissions trading and project based mechanisms are used.
Towards New Scenarios for Analysis of Emissions, Climate Change, Impacts, and Response Strategies
This report summarizes the findings and recommendations from the Expert Meeting on New Scenarios, which focuses on the policymaking perspective of climate change, and on climate modeling scenarios for near term and long term.
Towards Sustainable Global Health
Global health has in recent years drawn increasing scientific, political and popular attention not only due to global epidemics themselves,but also because of the social activities and environmental conditions that shape health threats and influence those who are affected. The study dealswith the issue of 'Sustainable Global Health'which has evolved from the realization that there will be no alleviation of poverty without success in control of serious public health threats, no economic prosperity and sustainability without a healthy workforce, and no social stability and peace as long as people have to suffer from insufficient health services, from malnutrition, from HIV/AIDS pandemics, or from lack of safe water. The study addresses a broad range of issues related to human health at regional and global levels. It includes the theme of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) as a tool for the private sector to exercise responsibility and interest in using the workplaces as a route and as means for education, and for a wide participation of every citizen in securing his or her individual health and well-being. Highlighted throughout the study are integrated approaches towards sustainable health.These approaches shed light on both the importance of multilevel health governance and the understanding of human health as an issue of human security in responding to health threats. Furthermore,the study emphasizes the links between the phenomena of global environmental change, which often further increases pressure on health systems, and the crucial role urban areas play in this realm.