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Environmental Agents Control Act
The government of the Republic of China (Taiwan) passed this law to protect the environment and human health from harm by toxic chemicals or microbial preparations, including pesticides, fungicides, as well as certain synthetic chemicals.
Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1994 Assessment
A change in the composition of the stratosphere becomes relevant to society only if it has noticeable effects. This places the assessment of effects in a pivotal role in the problem of ozone depletion. Decreases in the quantity of total-column ozone, as now observed in many places, tend to cause increased penetration of solar UV-B radiation (290-315 nm) to the Earth's surface. UV-B radiation is the most energetic component of sunlight reaching the surface. It has profound effects on human health, animals, plants, microorganisms, materials and on air quality. Thus any perturbation which leads to an increase in UV-B radiation demands careful consideration of the possible consequences. This is the topic of the present assessment made by the Panel on Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion.
Environmental Finance Services
This document outlines how UNDP is helping governments to attract and drive private investment towards sustainable solutions by combining and sequencing various financial instruments to effect policy change. These environmental finance services of UNDP offer an innovative and robust approach to addressing climate change, and other environmental and sustainable development concerns.
.Environmental Guidance Note for Disaster Risk Reduction: Healthy Ecosystems for Human Security and Climate Change Adaptation
This publication was developed to provide guidance on the benefits of and ways to integrate environmental concerns into disaster risk reduction strategies (DRR) at the local and national levels. As recognised and outlined within the Hyogo Framework for Action priority 4, healthy ecosystems and environmental management are considered key actions in DRR. Although the field of disaster risk management has evolved to recognize the need for addressing sustainable development issues for reducing risk, the environmental dimension has not to date received adequate attention and practical guidance.
Environmental Impact Assessment Act
This law was passed by the government of the Republic of China (Taiwan) to protect the natural environment from some of the negative effects of economic growth.
Environmental Impact Assessment in Japan
This document introduces the definition of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the EIA System in Japan, Japanese EIA Law and the Strategic Environmental Assessment.
Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China
This law is established for the purpose of protecting and improving public health and environmental ecology, preventing and controlling pollution and other public hazards, safeguarding human health, and facilitating the development of socialist modernization in China.
Environmental Quality; Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Establishes as state policy statewide greenhouse gas emissions limits at or below the statewide greenhouse gas emissions levels in 1990 to be achieved by January 1, 2020. Establishes greenhouse gas emissions reduction task force to prepare a work plan and regulatory scheme to achieve the statewide greenhouse gas emissions limits.
Environmental Variability and Climate Change
The PAGES research community works toward improving our understanding of the Earth's changing environment. By placing current and future global changes in a long term perspective, they can be assessed relative to natural variability. Since the industrial revolution, the Earth System has become increasingly affected by human activities. Natural and human processes are woven into a complex tapestry of forcings, responses, feedbacks and consequences. Deciphering this complexity is essential as we plan for the future. Paleoenvironmental research is the only way to investigate Earth System processes that operate on timescales longer than the period of instrumental records.
EPA's Denial of the Petitions to Reconsider the Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases Under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act
This document addresses a petition to the U.S. EPA to reconsider findings that could have an economic impact on businesses due to the enforcement of the Clean Air Act. The petitioners questioned the climate science and data, and this denial argues that the petitioners used The document denies the petition on the basis of the petitioners providing inadequate and unscientific arguments.
EPA's Response to the Petitions to Reconsider the Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act
This set of volumes is a response by the EPA to ten petitions filed to challenge the determination that climate change is real. The EPA dismisses the petitioners' claims, reiterating the evidence of anthropogenic global climate change.
EPA's Response to the Petitions to Reconsider the Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act
This set of volumes is a response by the EPA to ten petitions filed to challenge the determination that climate change is real. The EPA dismisses the petitioners' claims, reiterating the evidence of anthropogenic global climate change.
EPA's Response to the Petitions to Reconsider the Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act
This set of volumes is a response by the EPA to ten petitions filed to challenge the determination that climate change is real. The EPA dismisses the petitioners' claims, reiterating the evidence of anthropogenic global climate change.
Establishing the Leakage Rates of Mobile Air Conditioners
The purpose of the study is to - based on field measurements - determine the average annual leakage rate of HFC-134a from MACs in the European Union of a "second generation"1 air conditioner. From November 2002, to January 2003 300 measurements of HFC-134a leakage were carried out on air conditioners of cars up to seven years age. The measurements were carried out on vehicles of all EU relevant makes at 19 garages in Germany (Osnabrück), Portugal (Rio Maior) and Sweden (Helsingborg) reflecting different climatic conditions.
Estimating the cost of building capacity in rainforest nations to allow them to participate in a global REDD mechanism
This report provides an estimation of the funds that will be needed to build carbon sink capacity in 25 rain forest nations to enable them to participate in the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation mechanism, an instrument proposed under the UN Convention on Climate Change that rewards countries for avoiding the removal or degradation of forests. This paper was commissioned by the Office of Climate Change as background work to its report "Climate Change: Financing Global Forests" (the Eliasch Review).
Eutrophication of Lakes and Reservoirs in Warm Climates
Evaluation of Alternative Initial Allocation Mechanisms in a European Union Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowance Trading Scheme
This report is intended to provide background to assist Member States and the European Commission ("Commission") in determining the allocation mechanism to use in conjunction with the Commission's proposed emissions trading programme for carbon dioxide ("CO2") and other greenhouse gases ("GHGs"). The Commission in October 2001 adopted a major package of initiatives to combat climate change. This package includes a proposed Directive on GHG emission trading ("proposed Directive") as well as a proposal for the EC to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and a Communication setting out further methods for reducing greenhouse gas emissions beyond the Directive on emissions trading. This report provides descriptions and evaluations of alternative mechanisms for initial allocation of allowances. The report has the following specific objectives: - Provide a typology of alternative initial allocation mechanisms. - Describe the allocation mechanisms that have been used in previous emissions trading programmes. - Develop criteria for evaluating alternative mechanisms. - Evaluate the alternative mechanisms in light of these criteria. - Develop plant-level data that allow one to simulate various initial allocation alternatives and thus shed light on key empirical issues, including feasibility and sector- and plantlevel effects. - Provide an overview of major conclusions and implications.
Evaluation of the Pilot Project of Domestic Emissions Trading Scheme
This document is an evaluation of the Japanese domestic emissions trading scheme to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Excutive Order 07-02: Washington Climate Change Challenge
Executive Order 2010-06 : Governor's Policy on Climate Change
WHEREAS, Arizona was a founding member of the Western Climate Initiative (WCI) in February 2007; WHEREAS, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) finalized regulations mandating GHG reporting, effective on December 29, 2009,...WHEREAS, it is critical that Arizona stay informed of and influence any federal regulation and legislation relating to climate change and capping of GHG emission...NOW, THEREFORE, I, Janice K. Brewer, Governor of the State of Arizona,...hereby order and direct as follows: 4. The Climate Change Oversight Group ("Group") is established and charged with monitoring the continued work of the WCI...11. The Group and this Executive Order shall expire December 31, 2012
Executive Order - Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes
This order establishes a national policy to ensure the protection, maintenance, and restoration of the health of ocean, coastal, and Great Lakes ecosystems and resources, enhance the sustainability of ocean and coastal economies, preserve maritime heritage, support sustainable uses and access, provide for adaptive management to enhance understanding of and capacity to respond to climate change and ocean acidification, and coordinate with national security and foreign policy interests. This order also provides for the development of coastal and marine spatial plans that build upon and improve existing Federal, State, tribal, local, and regional decision making and planning processes.
Extreme Weather: Does Nature Keep Up? Observed Responses of Species And Ecosystems to Changes in Climate and Extreme Weather Events: Many More Reasons for Concern
The authors of the report found that there were “many more reasons for concern” and specifically pointed out that “it will be impossible under such conditions of rapid climate change to uphold the UN Convention on Biodiversity’s aim to reduce the rate of biodiversity decline significantly by 2010.”It seems that extreme weather events contribute disproportionately to recently observed climate change explaining why ecological impacts have become so abundant over the last decade. In response, the authors clearly state their scientific judgment is that “efforts be made to limit the increase in global mean surface temperature to maximally 1.5 ºC above preindustrial levels and limit the rate of change to less than 0.05 ºC per decade.” In other words, there can be no further delay in reducing emissions. In fact, the scale and urgency just got bigger and greater. Global emissions must be on a steep downward trend in the next decade in order to avoid the worst impacts.
S.F. No. 145, 2nd Engrossment 85th Legislative Session (20072008)
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Farming’s Climate-Smart Future: Placing Agriculture at The Heart of Climate - Change Policy
This publication highlights the ‘cause and effect’ relationship between agriculture and climate change. It observes that a range of practices– ‘climate-smart agriculture’ – could increase food production, help farmers to become more resilient to global warming and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.
Fast Facts: Adaptive Water Governance
UNDP promotes equitable access to water resources and water and sanitation services as a fundamental requisite for human development. In a rapidly changing world, UNDP's Water Governance Programme catalyzes efforts towards the achievements of the MDGs. The document provides a brief overview of UNDP's Water Governance Programme.
Fast Facts: Climate Change and UNDP
Making poverty history and tackling climate change go hand-in-hand because receding forests, changing rainfall patterns and rising sea levels trap people in hardship and undermine their future. Studies in Ethiopia show that children exposed to drought in early childhood are 36 percent more likely to be malnourished five years later.
Fast Facts: UNDP and Climate Change
The document contains key facts about climate change drawn from UNDP's 2007/2008 Human Development Report. The document also outlines UNDP's work in the area of climate change and provides examples.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) provides for federal regulation of pesticide distribution, sale, and use. All pesticides distributed or sold in the United States must be registered (licensed) by EPA. Before EPA may register a pesticide under FIFRA, the applicant must show, among other things, that using the pesticide according to specifications "will not generally cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment.'' FIFRA defines the term ''unreasonable adverse effects on the environment'' to mean: ''(1) any unreasonable risk to man or the environment, taking into account the economic, social, and environmental costs and benefits of the use of any pesticide, or (2) a human dietary risk from residues that result from a use of a pesticide in or on any food inconsistent with the standard under section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.''
Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance
This executive order establishes sustainability and energy efficiency as priorities in the operations of the federal government.
Federal Register Volume 62, No. 78, Pages 19884 to 19887, April 23, 1997
The United States Federal Register is the official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, and notices of Federal agencies and organizations, as well as executive orders and other presidential documents. This specific Executive Order (E.O.) 13045 - Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks - was issued by President William J. Clinton in 1997. The order applies to economically significant rules under E.O. 12866 that concern an environmental health or safety risk that EPA has reason to believe may disproportionately affect children. Environmental health risks or safety risks refer to risks to health or to safety that are attributable to products or substances that the child is likely to come in contact with or ingest (such as the air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink or use for recreation, the soil we live on, and the products we use or are exposed to). When promulgating a rule of this description, EPA must evaluate the effects of the planned regulation on children and explain why the regulation is preferable to potentially effective and reasonably feasible alternatives.
Federal Water Pollution Control Act
The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface waters. The basis of the CWA was enacted in 1948 and was called the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, but the Act was significantly reorganized and expanded in 1972. "Clean Water Act" became the Act's common name with amendments in 1977. Under the CWA, EPA has implemented pollution control programs such as setting wastewater standards for industry. We have also set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface waters. The CWA made it unlawful to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained. EPA's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls discharges. Point sources are discrete conveyances such as pipes or man-made ditches. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit; however, industrial, municipal, and other facilities must obtain permits if their discharges go directly to surface waters.
Feed-in Tariffs as a Policy Instrument for Promoting Renewable Energies and Green Economies in Developing Countries
This report is intended as a resource for policy makers in developing countries to make informed policy decisions about the whether, when and how of FITs and to support nationally appropriate policy measures to scale up renewable energy. The report is also intended to improve the understanding of the potential benefits and challenges for developing countries to design FITs as well as the factors influencing their success, more in depth from the policy and legal foci, whilst also analysing the funding and capacity implications. Throughout the report, FITs are construed as interacting with national energy and non-energy policies in a dynamic manner.
Feed-In Tariffs - Boosting Energy for our Future: A guide to one of the world's best environmental policies
This brochure explains Feed-In Tariff (FIT) laws. The big challenge for the renewable energy industry has been to make the cost of clean energy competitive with heavily-subsidized conventional energy. Householders or energy companies who want to install wind turbines or solar panels are faced with lengthy pay-back times and are forced to make a choice based on ethics rather than economics. The Feed-In Tariff (FIT) has proven to be the most effective policy instrument in overcoming these barriers. This simple, low-cost mechanism has turned several European countries into world leaders in the renewables sector.
Fighting Corruption in the Water Sector - Methods, Tools and Good Practices
This publication is part of a series of UNDP-sponsored studies that present methods, tools and good practices to map corruption risks, develop strategies and sustain partnerships to address challenges and tackle corruption in the education, health and water sectors. They complement UNDP’s MDG Acceleration Framework (MAF), which has been endorsed by the UN Development Group and enables governments and development partners, within established national processes, to identify and systematically prioritize the bottlenecks to progress toward achieving the MDGs, and then devise strategies to overcome them. The studies bring together UNDP’s efforts to support countries to develop frameworks to accelerate their efforts to meet the MDGs as well as successfully meet the commitments of the UN Convention against corruption.
Final Recommendations of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force
This report provides recommendations for a strengthened governance structure to provide sustained, high-level, and coordinated attention to ocean, coastal, and Great Lake issues with a framework that addresses conservation, economic activity, user conflict, and sustainable use of ocean, coastal, and Great Lakes resources.
Final Vermont Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Reference Case Projections, 1990-2030
This report estimates the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sinks for Vermont from 1990-2030.
Financial Incentives for CCS
This map shows states that provide financial incentives for deploying carbon capture and storage technology.
Financial Sustainability Scorecard for National Systems of Protected Areas
The purpose of this scorecard is to assist governments, donors and NGOs to investigate and record significant aspects of aProtected Area (PA) financing system –its accounts and its underlying structural foundations – to show both its current health and status and to indicate if the system is holistically moving over the long-term towards an improved financial situation. The scorecard is designed for national systems of PAs but could be used by sub-national eg state, regional or municipal or networks of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs).
Findings of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Report 2.2: The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report: North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle
This brochure describes sources of carbon emissions in North America, and ways to remove those emissions from the atmosphere.
A first cost benefit analysis of action to reduce deforestation
This paper assesses the validity of the claim that curbing deforestation is a highly cost-effective way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
The First Ministerial Regional Forum
The First Ministerial Regional Forum on Environment and Health in Southeast and East Asian countries was held in Bangkok, Thailand on 9 August 2007. The forum was jointly organized by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific and the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Offices for the Western Pacific and South-East Asia, and hosted by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment and Ministry of Public Health, Government of Thailand and the Chulabhorn Research Institute (CRI). The forum was attended by Environment and Health Ministers from fourteen Southeast and East Asian countries including Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, People’s Republic of China, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The agenda and annotated agenda of the forum are given in Annexes 1 and 2, respectively, and a list of participants is enclosed in Annex 3.
Fiscal Year 2005- 2006 Accelerated Research on Global Climate Observations Fact Sheet
Coincident with the release of the Climate Change Science Program strategic plan, the Administration announces plans for the acceleration of select high priority research projects and climate observations. These activities contribute to filling critical knowledge gaps identified in the plan (aerosols, oceans and the natural carbon cycle). The selected investments have been coordinated among the agencies to maximize the overall impact. Funding will be reallocated from lower priority areas to enable these critical investments.
Fisheries, Tuna Agreement Between the United States of America and Canada Amending The Treaty of May 26, 1981 Effected by Exchange of Notes Signed at Washington, October 3 and 9, 1997.
“. . .the Treaties and Other International Acts Series issued under the authority of the Secretary of State shall be competent evidence . . . of the treaties, international agreements other than treaties, and proclamations by the President of such treaties and international agreements other than treaties, as the case may be, therein contained, in all the courts of law and equity and of maritime jurisdiction, and in all the tribunals and public offices of the United States, and of the several States, without any further proof or authentication thereof.”
FITness Testing: Exploring the myths and misconceptions about feed-in tariff policies
The booklet argues that in spite of the recent surge in renewable electricity markets, the United States will need to dramatically increase the amount of installed renewable energy in order to improve energy security, create new jobs, and address the growing risks of climate change.
Floods and Drought, USGCRP Seminar, 8 May 1995.
In this USGCRP seminar, issues about the impact of drought and floods in the news and feel it in the cost of goods and services would be discussed. Each year seems to bring with it droughts or floods that cause billions of dollars in economic losses and untold societal disruption to major parts of our nation. (Drought in the Midwest in 1988 and in the Southeast in 1989. Floods in the Mississippi River Basin in 1992 and in California in 1994). Around the world the situation is the same, even worse in some instances. What causes these extreme events and conditions? Can we predict the occurrence of such events as a means of being prepared, and reducing the impacts of extreme climate events? Can we be better prepared? What success to date has there been in predicting such events? What's the prognosis?
Florida’s Energy and Climate Change Action Plan: 2007
This report provides findings and recommendations addressing 11 charges, framed by three principal energy challenges facing Florida: stimulate economic development, achieve energy security and address the effects of global climate change.
Florida's Global Warming Solutions: A Study for: World Wildlife Fund
This report assesses how the set of national actions presented in America’s Global Warming Solutions would affect Florida’s energy systems, carbon emissions and economy. This study finds that by 2010, the set of national actions to reduce global warming would decrease Florida’s primary energy use by 26 percent and its carbon emissions by 36 percent. They would also provide increasing annual savings reaching about $300 per-capita in 2010 and averaging about $110 per-capita per year between now and 2010. Thus, the State would cumulatively save about $17 billion over that period. The set of national actions would also create approximately 39,000 net additional jobs in Florida by 2010. They would reduce emissions of other pollutants and begin to shift the basis of the State’s economy towards more advanced, energy-efficient technologies and cleaner resources. The table below summarizes these results.
Forest Carbon Accounting: Overview & Principles
This report reinforces UNDP's capacity building efforts by presenting the main principles, practices and challenges of carbon accounting in the forestry sector. It highlights the historic, current and future needs for forest carbon accounting; principles and good practice; the process of forest carbon accounting; and existing guidance and toolkits available for forestry carbon accounting.
Forests and Emissions: A contribution to the Eliasch Review
This report discusses the impacts of deforestation and reforestation on carbon emissions and carbon storage, and how change in land cover will affect future trends in climate change and carbon levels.
Framing the Flow: Innovative Approaches to Understand, Protect, and Value Ecosystem Services Across Linked Habitats
This report presents a framework for understanding the connection between a variety of marine ecosystems such as mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs, across several contexts with policy recommendations for land use and management.