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Climate in Asia and the Pacific: A Synthesis of APN Activities
The synthesis report is part of the APN’s larger aim to contribute, from the science perspective, to the development of policy options for appropriate responses to climate vulnerability and impacts, including adaptation and mitigation, which in turn will contribute to sustainable development.
Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science
This guide aims to help individuals and communities know and understand Earth’s climate, the impacts of climate change, and approaches to adaptation or mitigation. The guide aims to promote greater climate science literacy by providing an educational framework of principles and concepts. The guide can serve educators who teach climate science as a way to meet content standards in their science curricula.
Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations
This Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP 3.1) focuses on the Climate models. Scientists extensively use mathematical models of Earth's climate, executed on the most powerful computers available, to examine hypotheses about past and present-day climates. Development of climate models is fully consistent with approaches being taken in many other fields of science dealing with very complex systems. These climate simulations provide a framework within which enhanced understanding of climate-relevant processes, along with improved observations, are merged into coherent projections of future climate change. This report describes the models and their ability to simulate current climate.
Climate Models: Frequently Asked Questions about computer climate models and their uses, strengths and limitations
This brochure describes methods and technologies for assessing and predicting climate change.
Climate Models: How Certain are their Projections of Future Climate Change? USGCRP Seminar, 12 June 1995.
This document provide a brief overview of Dr. Eric J. Barron's talk on the results of the USGCRP-sponsored forum to evaluate the results of model simulations of climate change, a cross-section of leading climate and Earth system modelers and skeptics considered what is known with certainty, what is known with less certainty, and what remains uncertain.
Climate Projections Based on Emissions Scenarios for Long-Lived and Short-Lived Radiatively Active Gases and Aerosols
This report focuses on the Climate Projections Based on Emissions Scenarios. The influence of greenhouse gases and particle pollution on our present and future climate has been widely examined. While both long-lived (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived (e.g., soot) gases and particles affect the climate, other projections of future climate, such as the IPCC reports focus largely on the long-lived gases. This U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product provides a different emphasis. The authors examine the effect of long-lived greenhouse gases on the global climate based on updated emissions scenarios produced by another CCSP Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP 2.1a). In these scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of the long-lived greenhouse gases leveled off, or stabilized, at predetermined levels by the end of the twenty-first century (unlike in the IPCC scenarios). However, the projected future temperature changes fall within the same range as those projected for the latest IPCC report. The authors confirm the robust future warming signature and other associated changes in the climate.
Climate Regime Beyond 2012: Key Perspectives ([Japan] Long-Term Targets) 2nd Interim Report
This document is an interim committee report based on discussions from the environmental perspective what considerations Japan should abide by as a basis for international negotiations on the climate regime beyond 2012. A wide range of viewpoints are considered.
Climate Regime Beyond 2012: Key Perspectives (Long-Term Targets), 2nd Interim Report
This report presents the international developments related to Long-Term Targets for controlling climate change, the significance of establishing Long-Term Targets, the conditions precedent to debating Long-Term Targets, temperature increases and related impacts due to climate change, the approaches to establishing Long-Term Targets, and the agenda for the future.
Climate Solutions 2: Low-Carbon Re-Industrialisation A Climate Risk Report Climate Risk: A report to WWF International based on the Climate Risk Industry Sector Technology Allocation
This report models the ability of low-carbon industries to grow and transform within a market economy. It finds that runaway climate change is almost inevitable without specific action to implement low-carbon re-industrialization over the next five years. The point of no return is estimated to be 2014.
Clouds in the Balance
This feature article provides a summary of study about the role of clouds in the balance. Until recently, scientists were uncertain whether clouds had an overall net cooling or heating effect on the Earth's climate. But recent studies show that, in the tropics, a "near cancellation" between shortwave cooling and longwave warming exists, which indicates that the amount of incoming radiant energy is roughly equal to the amount of outgoing radiation. However, small changes in tropical cloudiness can disrupt this precarious balance.
Coastal Sensitivity to Sea-Level Rise: A Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region
This document is part of the Synthesis and Assessment Products described in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Strategic Plan. The U.S. Government's CCSP is responsible for providing the best science-based knowledge possible to inform management of the risks and opportunities associated with changes in the climate and related environmental systems. To support its mission, the CCSP has commissioned 21 "synthesis and assessment products" (SAPs) to advance decision making on climate change-related issues by providing current evaluations of climate change science and identifying priorities for research, observation, and decision support. This Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP), developed as part of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, examines potential effects of sea-level rise from climate change during the twenty-first century, with a focus on the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. Using scientific literature and policy-related documents, the SAP describes the physical environments; potential changes to coastal environments, wetlands, and vulnerable species; societal impacts and implications of sea-level rise; decisions that may be sensitive to sea-level rise; opportunities for adaptation; and institutional barriers to adaptation.
Collaboration in NEPA: A Handbook for NEPA Practitioners
This handbook is a collaboration of research and consultations by the Council on Environmental Quality concerning analyses prepared under the National Environmental Protection Act. This guide introduces interested parties to collaborative principles, and includes suggestions for successful collaborative efforts.
Colorado Climate Action Plan: A Strategy To Address Global Warming
The plan is considered a living document, and a first installment of what could become further refinements as additional initiatives are evaluated and new technologies unfold.
Commercial Building Energy Codes
This map shows states with building codes for energy efficiency of commercial buildings.
Common Ground: Solutions for reducing the human, economic and conservation costs of human wildlife conflict
This report deals with the conflicts between wildlife and human development. Three cases studies are included, in Namibia, Nepal and Indonesia, respectively. Each location has different problems and contexts, but in all three countries, human lives and economic livelihoods are at stake, as well as the loss of habitat of threatened species. The authors advocate a species conservation approach based on land use planning integrated with human needs in order continue sustainable development.
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage
Since the EU took its historic decisions on combating climate change in 2008, the economic crisis has brought some fundamental changes to the political and economic landscape of the EU's climate policy. The pressure on the EU economy is intense. The EU, however, remains deeply committed to action on climate change. Arresting the rise in global temperature remains one of the biggest challenges facing this generation. This Communication has set out how changed global circumstances have impacted on the targets set in 2008. While the absolute costs of meeting a 20% target have been reduced, representing a welcome relief for businesses facing the uphill battle of recovery, it also represents a risk that the effectiveness of the 20% target as a motor for change diminishes.
The Community Water Initiative Fostering Water Security and Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation
This publication highlights some case studies that illustrate successful projects funded by the Community Water Initiative (CWI), which have helped foster water security in local communities while simultaneously helping them mitigate and adapt to climate change through: (i) Community-based water supply and sanitation services using low-cost systems manageable by communities; (ii) Water resource conservation and sustainable land management to create resilient systems to combat drought and floods; (iii) Providing clean energy for water pumping; and (iv) Capacity building for community-level governance through community water management committees, women’s empowerment, and the establishment of water user fee schemes.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act -- otherwise known as CERCLA or Superfund -- provides a Federal "Superfund" to clean up uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous-waste sites as well as accidents, spills, and other emergency releases of pollutants and contaminants into the environment. Through CERCLA, EPA was given power to seek out those parties responsible for any release and assure their cooperation in the cleanup.
A Comprehensive Mobility Policy 15 Years of Transport Planning in Ferrara
.A comprehensive mobility policy 15 years of transport planning in Ferrara
Conserving Nature - Partnering with People brochure on WWF's work on protected areas
WWF is working harder than ever to establish a global network of ecologically representative and effectively managed land, freshwater, and marine protected areas. With 40 years experience, targeted conservation goals, and projects combining practical field implementation with highlevel policy work in over 100 countries, we are uniquely placed to lead protected area work into the 21st century.
Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act
This document is intended to assist Federal agencies with analyzing cumulative effects during the NEPA process. It outlines general principles, common cumulative effects assessment methodologies, and resources for additional information and background data.
Constitution of the People's Republic of China (excerpts of envivonment-related articles)
Excerpts of envivonment-related articles in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China.
Convention concerning migratory fish stock in the Pacific Ocean : message from the President of the United States transmitting Convention on the Conservation and Management of the Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, with annexes ("WCPF Convention"), which was adopted at Honolulu on September 5, 2000, by the Multilateral High Level Conference on the Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean
This treaty governs mechanisms designed to ensure long-term conservation and sustainable use of certain species of fish, including tuna, swordfish, and marlin.
Convention for the Protection of Plants : message from the President of the United States transmitting the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants of December 2, 1961, as revised at Geneva on November 10, 1972, on October 23, 1978, and on March 19, 1991, and signed by the United States on October 25, 1991
This treaty takes action to control the introduction and spread of pests of plants and plant products. The treaty protects natural as well as cultivated plants, so it has implications for agriculture as well as biodiversity. While the IPPC's primary focus is on plants and plant products moving in international trade, the convention also covers research materials, biological control organisms, and anything else that can act as a vector for the spread of plant pests including containers, soil, vehicles, and machinery.
Coordination of Programs on Domestic Animal Genomics: The Federal Framework
This report discusses progress by Federal agencies dealing with domestic animal genomics. The work represents an increase in the understanding of domestic animals such as sheep, cattle, swine, bees, and others. Knowledge in this area is crucial for better understanding animal diseases such at bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or "mad cow disease")
A Copenhagen Climate Treat Version 1.0 : Legal text A proposal for an amended Kyoto Protocol and a new Copenhagen Protocol
This document contains a draft version of how the agreement in Copenhagen could look like – in legal form. This is very much a work in progress. The purpose of this exercise is two fold : a) to outline to Parties how the agreement could fit together substantively and b) to demonstrate that the two Protocol option is a feasible and desirable outcome for the legal form. Attempts have been made through provisions in both the proposed Copenhagen Protocol and the amendments to the Kyoto Protocol to unify the accounting, reporting and verification of as well as compliance with emission reduction targets for industrialized countries and to create a forum for these bodies (CMCP & CMKP) to jointly develop rules in the future. It is possible that not every T has been crossed or i dotted and further provisions or amendments linking the two may be required.
A Copenhagen Climate Treaty - Version 1.0: A Proposal for a Copenhagen Agreement by Members of the NGO Community
The "Copenhagen Climate Treaty - Version 1.0", which is now distributed to negotiators from 192 states, took some of the world's most experienced climate NGOs almost a year to write and contains a full legal text covering all the main elements needed to provide the world with a fair and ambitious agreement that keeps climate change impacts below the unacceptable risk levels identified by most scientists.
Coral Bleaching and Marine Protected Areas
The report convenes a small working group of influential participants with significant experience in relevant coral reef research, monitoring, and marine protected area (MPA) management. Collectively, they embody comprehensive, direct knowledge of all major reef areas worldwide.
The Cost of Avoiding Deforestation: Update of the Report prepared for the Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change
According to the introduction, this report provides a global estimate of the cost of reducing the rate of deforestation.
Creating an Alaska Climate Impact Assessment Commission: Legislative Resolve Number 49
This legislation establishes a commission to assess the impact of climate change on the economy, population, and landscape of Alaska.
Creating Impact - Feed-In Tariff Laws: Making clean energy a reality for all
The brochure describes evidence from fifty governments that Feed-In Tariff (FIT) policy speeds the transition to clean energy production and use.
Cultivating the Future: Food in the Age of Climate Change
The brochure promotes government incentives for farmers to lower agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and expand carbon sinks by sequestering carbon through organic farming and reduced tillage; reducing nitrous oxide emissions through minimal use of nitrogen fertilizer, capturing methane emissions from anaerobic manure handling facilities; reducing the use of fossil fuels on farms; increasing the generation of electricity from wind, solar and small-scale hydro; expanding the use of practices like hedges, shelterbelts, and forested riparian zones; expanding local food supply for local consumption; and supporting the use of sustainable biochar derived from farm and urban organic wastes.
Cultural Diversity and Biodiversity for Sustainable Development
This report contains the proceedings of a Roundtable of panelists speaking on the connection between biodiversity and cultural diversity, and on how sustainable solutions for development will benefit both types of diversity.
A Curious Pacific Wave
This brief article discusses about a massive swell of water that was buffeting South America. Kelvin waves are warm bumps in the Pacific Ocean, characterized by a gentle yet massive swell of warm water. Usually not much happens when a Kelvin wave arrives -- beach combers experience a bit of extra rain, perhaps, and slightly warmer surf. Nevertheless, scientists pay careful attention to them because these gentle waves occasionally herald something far more powerful: the next El Niño.
Cycling in Sweden
Increased use of bicycles can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and local air pollution - and have positive impacts on human health. The Working Group on Transport (WGT) under OECD’s Environment Policy Committee discussed measures to promote bicycle use at a meeting (27-28 January 2010). Below are the presentations that were made on that occasion.
CYCLOCITY® A Revolutionary Public Transport System Accessible To All
Presentation to the OECD Working Group on Transport.
Dead Planet, Living Planet: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Restoration for Sustainable Development
This report discusses some vital services that natural ecosystems contribute to human health and development.
Decision-Support Experiments and Evaluations using Seasonal-to-Interannual Forecasts and Observational Data: A Focus on Water Resources
This Synthesis and Assessment Product focuses on the connection between the scientific ability to predict climate on seasonal scales and the opportunity to incorporate such understanding into water resource management decisions. It directly addresses decision support experiments and evaluations that have used seasonal-to-interannual forecasts and observational data, and is expected to inform (1) decision makers about the relative success of experiences of others who have experimented with these forecasts and data in resource management; (2) climatologists, hydrologists, and social scientists on how to advance the delivery of decision-support resources that use the most recent forecast products, methodologies, and tools; and (3) science and resource managers as they plan for future investments in research related to forecasts and their role in decision support. It is important to note, however, that while the focus of this Product is on the water resources management sector, the findings within this Synthesis and Assessment Product may be directly transferred to other sectors.
Declaration of the Earth Observation Summit
This single page document is a declaration of the participants of the Earth Observation Summit held in Washington DC, adopted on July 31, 2003. An affirmation for the need for timely, quality, long-term, global information as a basis for sound decision making. Also establishes an ad hoc Group on Earth Observations aimed at developing a global observing strategy.
Definitions and Methodological Options to Inventory Emissions from Direct Human-induced Degradation of Forests and Devegetation of Other Vegetation Types
This report on Definitions and Methodological Options to Inventory Emissions from Direct Human-Induced Degradation of Forests and Devegetation of Other Vegetation Types is the response from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)1 to an invitation from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)2 . The report was prepared in cooperation with the preparation of the other report under the IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme (IPCC-NGGIP), on Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (GPG-LULUCF). The report discusses: Alternative definitions and provides possible framework definitions for countries to consider; Methodological options to inventory emissions from degradation and devegetation activities; Approaches to reporting and documentation; and Implications of methodological and definitional options for accounting under the provisions of Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol (including issues of scale, costs and accuracy).
Developing Dimension: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2012
The 6th “State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets” report shows a significant increase in demand from buyers in the US and major changes in the mix of offsets capturing market share, such as record sales of offsets from Asian wind farms and the coming-of-age of clean development projects in Africa.
This Science Plan is mainly concerned with the current extinction crisis on Earth, which, unlike its predecessors, is occurring at an unprecedented rate, is the direct result of human activities and is occurring at all levels at which diversity is measured - from the genetic diversity of many natural and domesticated species to the diversity of ecosystems and landscapes, through the tremendous richness of species. Current human-induced rates of species extinction are estimated to be about 1,000 times greater than past background rates. Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth. Scientists commonly measure and describe this variety at the level of genes, species and ecosystems, but scientific interest in biodiversity goes far beyond describing and measuring it. The DIVERSITAS programme was founded to address the scientific questions that need to be answered in order to understand how biodiversity supports life on Earth, what the impacts of the present loss of biodiversity are for human and ecosystem survival and how humans can sustainably use and conserve biodiversity.
Draft Report of the 26th Session of the IPCC
The IPCC Panel at its 26th session called on partnerships and collaboration to address climate change, as well as a better understanding of social and economic dimensions of mitigation and adaptation. The Panel recalls its support for decoupling the climate modeling work from the emission scenario development work, in order to allow climate modelers a quick start with their work after the completion of the AR4. Also, the Panel now requests the Steering Committee on New Scenarios to prepare a few benchmark concentration scenarios through the IPCC Expert Meeting 19-22 September 2007 in Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands. These benchmark concentration scenarios should be compatible with the full range of stabilization, mitigation and baseline emission scenarios available in the current scientific literature.
Draft Report of the 28th Session of the IPCC
The focus of this meeting was on the Future of the IPCC, including key aspects of the future IPCC work programme and the future structure of the IPCC Bureau and the TFB. The Panel was also invited to consider of the outcome of the Scoping Meeting for a possible Special Report on renewable energy and a proposal for the use of the Funds from the Nobel Peace Prize. The Chair informed the Panel about action taken by the 37th Session of the IPCC Bureau (Budapest, 7-8 April 2008) concerning the finalization of the Technical Paper on Climate Change and Water.
Draft Report of the 29th Session of the IPCC
The focus of this meeting was on the future of the IPCC, in particular the scoping of the 5th Assessment Report. The Panel was also invited to consider the outcome of the Scoping Meeting for a possible Special Report on "Extreme events and disasters: managing the risks", and of the Expert Meeting on "Alternative common metrics to calculate the CO2 equivalence of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases".
Draft Report of the 30th Session of the IPCC
This meeting focused on the future of the IPCC, in particular the scoping of the 5th Assessment Report. Among other isues, the Panel considered the outcome of the Scoping Meeting for a possible Special Report on "Extreme events and disasters: managing the risks", and of the Expert Meeting on "Alternative common metrics to calculate the CO2 equivalence of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases".
Drinking Water Management Act
This law was passed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) to safeguard public health by protecting drinking water resources from pollution by dumping, logging, industry, nuclear waste, ranching, recreation, mineral exploration and extraction, transportation, and other activities.
Dryland futures: East and Southern Africa-Three Critical Factors
The publication looks to the prospect for the East and Southern African drylands in the context of recent history and the changes that have occurred in the realms of policy, economic and social conditions and the environment. It further points out three of the biggest challenges facing East and Southern Africa in the foreseeable future— climate change, land tenure and HIV/AIDS.
Dust from Africa Leads to Large Toxic Algae Blooms in Gulf of Mexico, Study Finds. [Press release].
This press release summarizes the findings of a new study. Saharan dust clouds travel thousands of miles and fertilize the water off the West Florida coast with iron, which kicks off blooms of toxic algae. The research was partially funded by a NASA grant as part of ECOHAB: Florida (Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms), a multi-disciplinary research project designed to study harmful algae.