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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Analysis of Ten Selected Science and Technology Policy Studies
Since the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, a number of reports have been prepared on a broad range of science and technology (S&T) policy issues, most notably dealing with national research and development (R&D) goals, priorities, and budgets, and university-government-industry relationships. This report discusses and analyzes ten of these S&T reports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs481/
Animal Agriculture: Issues for the 106th Congress
This report discusses a variety of animal agriculture issues that generated debate during the 106th Congress, including low livestock prices, especially for hogs. Economic difficulties have revived questions such as the impacts of consolidation in the livestock industry, and the price effects of animal imports from Canada and Mexico. This report also discusses a number of legislative proposals to assist livestock producers and enforce sanitary and phytosanitary standards, as well as continuing trade disputes and negotiations with China, the European Union, New Zealand, and Australia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs833/
Antarctica: Environmental Protection, Research, and Conservation of Resources
This report discusses protocols and treaties designed and implemented to protect Antarctica as a haven for environmental research, preservation, and conservation, as well as related legislation and Congressional efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs192/
Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996: A Summary
The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 is the product of legislative efforts stretching back well over a decade and stimulated to passage in part by the tragedies in Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. This report summarizes the six titles of the Act, its sources, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs309/
APEC and Free Trade in the Asia Pacific
This report discusses the summit held by President Bill Clinton and other leaders of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) on November 19, 1995. The report discusses the primary reason for the summit, an Action Agenda intended to lead to free and open trade and investment among its members. The report also discusses how APEC countries were divided on certain issues going into this summit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs261/
APEC and the 1997 Summit in Vancouver
This report discusses the November 25, 1997 summit held by leaders of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in Vancouver, B.C., Canada. The purpose of the summit was to further pursue the APEC agenda of endorsing a framework developed by APEC leaders' finance ministers to promote financial stability in the Asia-Pacific region and to supplement resources by the International Monetary Fund when necessary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs451/
APEC - Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation: Free Trade and Other Issues
As a result of an initiative by Australia in 1989, the United States joined with eleven other Asia/Pacific nations in creating APEC, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation organization. This report discusses the annual Ministerial Meeting of APEC in Seattle, held from November 17 - 19, 1993. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs83/
Appalachian Development Highway Program (ADHP): An Overview
This report discusses the Appalachian Development Highway Program (ADHP). After a brief description of the ADHP system, the report describes the ADHP's operation, organization, spending history and status. It then describes changes in its funding mechanism resultant from TEA 21 and issues of interest to Congress related to the ADHP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs725/
Appropriations Bills: What are "General Provisions"?
An annual appropriations act generally consists of two parts – paragraphs providing funding, and general provisions focusing on non-funding as well as funding issues. Discussed on this brief fact sheet are what is found in general provisions of appropriations bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs864/
Appropriations for FY1997: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies
The VA, HUD and Independent Agencies appropriations bill includes funding for the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and a number of independent agencies. This report describes some of the key issues affecting agency funding in FY1997. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs326/
Appropriations for FY1998: Interior and Related Agencies
The annual Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations bill includes funding for agencies and programs in four separate federal departments, as well as numerous smaller agencies and diverse programs. This report discusses the FY1998 appropriations authorized under this bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs439/
Appropriations for FY1999: An Overview
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to CRS reports that provide analytical perspectives on the 13 annual appropriations bills, and other related appropriation measures. It does not include a detailed explanation or description of the budget or appropriations processes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs855/
Appropriations for FY1999: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to CRS reports that provide analytical perspectives on the 13 annual appropriations bills, and other related appropriation measures. It does not include a detailed explanation or description of the budget or appropriations processes. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs976/
Appropriations for FY1999: Defense
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to CRS reports that provide analytical perspectives on the 13 annual appropriations bills, and other related appropriation measures. It does not include a detailed explanation or description of the budget or appropriations processes. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Defense Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs669/
Appropriations for FY1999: Department of Transportation and Related Agencies
The text of this report is a guide to of the original (Department of Transportation and Related Agencies) appropriations bill for FY1999. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Transportation Appropriations. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. The report lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10005/
Appropriations for FY1999: District of Columbia
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs542/
Appropriations for FY1999: Energy and Water Development
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Energy and Water Development Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs668/
Appropriations for FY1999: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Foreign Operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs698/
Appropriations for FY1999: Interior and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs670/
Appropriations for FY1999: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs667/
Appropriations for FY1999: Legislative Branch
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Legislative Branch Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs903/
Appropriations for FY1999: Military Construction
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Legislative Branch Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs618/
Appropriations for FY1999: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs664/
Appropriations for FY1999: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Agriculture Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs665/
Appropriations for FY1999: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Subcommittees on VA, HUD and Independent Agencies Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs666/
Appropriations for FY2000: An Overview
This report provides an overview of Congressional Research Service (CRS) products on the FY2000 appropriations and summarizes selected congressional actions on regular and supplemental appropriations, budget resolutions, budget reconciliation measures, and other selected legislation affecting appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs872/
Appropriations for FY2000: Defense
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Defense Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs982/
Appropriations for FY2000: District of Columbia
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs873/
Appropriations for FY2000: Energy and Water Development
This report discusses the Energy and Water Development FY2000 appropriations bill, which includes funding for civil projects of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (BuRec), most of the Department of Energy (DOE), and a number of independent agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs979/
Appropriations for FY2000: Energy and Water Development
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Energy and Water Development Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs985/
Appropriations for FY2000: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Foreign Operations Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs994/
Appropriations for FY2000: Interior and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs984/
Appropriations for FY2000: Interior and Related Agencies
This report discusses the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations bill, which includes funding for agencies and programs in four separate federal departments as well as numerous smaller agencies and diverse programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs983/
Appropriations for FY2000: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs980/
Appropriations for FY2000: Military Construction
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Military Construction Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs946/
Appropriations for FY2000: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Agriculture Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs978/
Appropriations for FY2000: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Subcommittees on VA, HUD and Independent Agencies Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs981/
Aquaculture and the Federal Role
Aquaculture is broadly defined as the production of fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants in a controlled environment. This report discusses the growth of U.S. aquaculture in the decade preceding 1993, and the subsequent debate about what role, if any, the Federal Government should play in supporting the industry. Relevant legislation and policies are also discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs43/
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is an area rich in fauna, flora, and oil potential, where development has been debated for over 36 years. Current law forbids oil and gas leasing. This report discusses debate over whether or not to open the ANWR up for development and includes discussion of various legislative options under consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs292/
Are High Interest Rates a Threat to Sustained Economic Recovery?
A major question that arises in Congress during its considerations of what policies promote and what inhibit the restoration of a healthy economy is the influence that interest rates exert. In particular, are high interest rates a threat to sustained economic recovery? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9033/
Arts and Humanities: Funding and Reauthorization in the 105th Congress
One of the primary vehicles for federal support of the arts and humanities is the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities, composed of the National Endowment for the Arts, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Institute of Museum and Library Services. This report describes the issues and options raised in the 105th Congress with regard to both authorization and appropriations for support of the arts and humanities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs660/
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the Indonesia "Summit" in 1994
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs130/
Asian Financial Crisis: An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Policy Interests and Options
The principal focus of this report is on the foreign policy ramifications of the Asian financial crisis and U.S. options for addressing them. This report tracks and analyzes the efforts of the most seriously affected Asian countries to deal with their economic and financial problems, and their interaction with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the United States, and other major sources of financial support and policy advice. It also addresses the implications of the crisis for such U.S. interests as regional stability and the prevention of conflict, trade liberalization, and U.S. regional and global leadership, and discusses the principal factors that could influence the duration and severity of the crisis. A final section considers options for Congress in the context of various criticisms of the IMF’s stabilization programs and the operations of the Fund itself. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs692/
Asia's Reaction to NAFTA
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs66/
The Assault Weapons Ban: Review of Federal Laws Controlling Possessions of Certain Firearms
This report reviews the 1994 assault weapons ban, which is effective for ten years on 19 types of semiautomatic assault weapons. The Act builds upon a 60-year history of federal regulation of firearms. The report also summarizes the pre-1994 federal gun control laws, analyzes the major cases relating to constitutional and statutory challenges to these laws, and reviews judicial and legislative developments since enactment of the ban. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26068/
Attorneys' Fees in the State Tobacco Litigation Cases
In the past few years, many states have filed complaints against the tobacco industry in state court to recover Medicaid costs paid by the states to treat their citizens for tobacco related illnesses. The states are also attempting to recover other damages, such as punitive damages, against the tobacco industry. For various reasons, the states have hired private attorneys to assist the state Attorneys General in prosecuting these cases. In most cases, the retention of private counsel has included a fee agreement specifying the amount of compensation that these attorneys will receive for their services. These agreements are not uniform among the states, but most tend to provide some form of contingency fee arrangement. Some of these states have developed a sliding scale contingency fee schedule which varies with the amount of time spent on the litigation and whether a trial has begun. This report briefly summarizes the different fee agreements that the states have with private counsel. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs377/
The Au Pair Program
Legislation passed late in the 103rd Congress granted the U.S. Information Agency (USIA) authority to design and implement more rigorous rules regulating the au pair program. In 1997, the au pair program received considerable media attention as a result of the Louise Woodward court case regarding possible involvement of an au pair in the death of a child in Massachusetts. The U.S. Information Agency amended existing federal regulations for the au pair program in September 1997 to underscore the cultural exchange aspect of the program and strengthen au pair recruiting and training. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26078/
Auburn Dam on the American River: Fact Sheet
For more than 30 years, Congress has debated constructing a dam on the American River near Auburn, California. The Army Corps of Engineers recently identified three alternatives for flood control, with the Division office's preferred plan calling for construction of a 508-foot-high detention dam. Currently, two bills address the issue: H.R. 3270 supports construction of the dam, while H.R. 2951 opposes construction of any structure on the North Fork of the American River. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs314/
Aviation: Direct Federal Spending, 1918-1998
The federal government has provided large financial resources in support of commercial aviation since 1918. This report details the amounts and types of federal spending that have occurred over this 80 year period. The report also discusses some of the issues that have shaped federal policy toward aviation and identifies some of the issues likely to affect federal spending in the future. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1039/
Background to the Overthrow of President Aristide
This report provides background information on the violent and authoritarian traditions that have characterized Haiti's political dynamics since Haiti attained independence in 1804. It examines Haiti's difficult path toward democracy after the fall of the Duvalier regime, from numerous short-lived governments until the election of Aristide. Finally, the report also surveys Aristide's rule and his subsequent overthrow by the Haitian military. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26034/