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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Recall of Legislators and the Removal of Members of Congress from Office
This report discusses the manner in which a Member of Congress may be removed from office by “expulsion,” and then examines the issue of “recall” of legislators. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96732/
Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines
This report provides an overview of the importance of honey bee pollination to U.S. agricultural production, especially specialty crops. It describes the extent and symptoms of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and how it differs from previous honey bee colony losses, describing some of the reasons why scientists believe honey bee colonies are being affected by CCD. Finally, this report discusses policy options and subsequent action that Congress could consider in this area. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96769/
Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview
This report provides an overview of the Recess Appointments Clause, exploring its historical application and legal interpretation by the executive branch, the courts, and the Comptroller General. Furthermore, congressional legislation designed to prevent the President's overuse or misuse of the Clause is also explored. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87297/
Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview
This report provides an overview of the Recess Appointments Clause, exploring its historical application and legal interpretation by the executive branch, the courts, and the Comptroller General. Furthermore, congressional legislation designed to prevent the President's overuse or misuse of the Clause is also explored. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40201/
Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions
This report supplies brief answers to some frequently asked questions regarding recess appointments. These are appointments to high-level policy-making positions in federal departments which are generally confirmed by the Senate. When the Senate is in recess, the President may make a temporary appointment, called a recess appointment, to any such position without Senate approval. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87369/
Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions
This report supplies brief answers to some frequently-asked questions regarding recess appointments. These are appointments to high-level policy-making positions in federal departments which are generally confirmed by the Senate. When the Senate is in recess, the President may make a temporary appointment, called a recess appointment, to any such position without Senate approval. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272122/
Recreation on Federal Lands
The growing and diverse nature of recreation on federal lands has increased the challenge of balancing recreation with other land uses, and balancing different types of recreation. Motorized recreation has been particularly controversial, with issues centering on access and environmental impacts. The 109th Congress may consider legislation and conduct oversight on issues involving recreation on federal lands, including traditional recreational pursuits and newer forms of motorized recreation. Other federal land recreation issues of possible interest include recreational uses within the National Wildlife Refuge System, recreation at federal water, recreation fees, and Grand Canyon Colorado River management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83877/
Recreation on Federal Lands
The growing and diverse nature of recreation on federal lands has increased the challenge of balancing recreation with other land uses, and balancing different types of recreation. Motorized recreation has been particularly controversial, with issues centering on access and environmental impacts. The 109th Congress may consider legislation and conduct oversight on issues involving recreation on federal lands, including traditional recreational pursuits and newer forms of motorized recreation. Other federal land recreation issues of possible interest include recreational uses within the National Wildlife Refuge System, recreation at federal water, recreation fees, and Grand Canyon Colorado River management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85370/
Recreation on Federal Lands
This report discusses recreation in federal lands that covers approximately 653 million acres of federally-owned land in the United States. This preservation/use dichotomy, while varying among agencies, is a focal point for debate over recreation on federal lands. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98069/
Recruiting and Retention: An Overview of Fiscal Year 2009 and Fiscal Year 2010 Results for Active and Reserve Component Enlisted Personnel
Report that provides a brief overview of the recruiting and retention results for Active and Reserve Component enlisted personnel during FY2009 and FY2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228013/
Reduce, Refinance, and Rent? The Economic Incentives, Risks, and Ramifications of Housing Market Policy Options
This report discusses the background of financial panic in September 2008, precipitated by the housing bubble of 2006. In particular, the report looks at options that the 112th Congress has regarding the housing market: (1) reducing mortgage principal for borrowers who owe more than their homes are worth, (2) refinancing mortgages for borrowers shut out of traditional financing methods, and (3) renting out foreclosed homes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96719/
Reducing Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Military Retirees and the Bipartisan Budget Act: In Brief
This report discusses the reduction of cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for military retirees through the Bipartisan Budget Act (BBA). It includes an overview of the changes, demographics of military retirees, and potential effects of the changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282295/
Reducing Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Military Retirees and the Bipartisan Budget Act: In Brief
This report discusses the reduction of cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for military retirees through the Bipartisan Budget Act (BBA). It includes an overview of the changes, demographics of military retirees, and potential effects of the changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282301/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: Policy Issues
This report discusses why the federal government's fiscal path is unsustainable and provides an overview of proposals of selected groups that have published detailed recommendations on how to return the federal budget to a sustainable course. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87178/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: Policy Issues
This report addresses questions such as, how large are projected deficits under current policy? How much deficit reduction is necessary? How quickly should the deficit be reduced? The report also discusses policy options for deficit reduction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40136/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: Tax Policy Options
This report analyzes various revenue options for deficit reduction, highlighting proposals made by the President's Fiscal Commission and the Debt Reduction Task Force. Others, such as House Budget Committee Chairman Paul Ryan and the Obama Administration, have noted the importance of tax reform as part of a deficit reduction plans. These plans, however, do not provide the same level of detail as the Fiscal Commission and Debt Reduction Task Force, and are therefore not reviewed in detail as part of this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96684/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: Tax Policy Options
This report begins by reviewing the current fiscal situation. As a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), revenues remain at historically low levels while spending remains elevated, contributing to budget deficits. The budget deficit in FY2011 is projected to be nearly $1.5 trillion, or 9.8% of GDP. Further, in recent years, the share of the federal budget devoted to mandatory spending has increased, making it difficult, if not impossible, for fiscal sustainability to be achieved through cuts in discretionary spending alone. Large budget deficits continue to contribute to a growing national debt, which, if left unchecked, could undermine future economic growth. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40118/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: Tax Policy Options
This report analyzes various revenue options for deficit reduction, highlighting proposals made by the President's Fiscal Commission and the Debt Reduction Task Force. Others, such as House Budget Committee Chairman Paul Ryan and the Obama Administration, have noted the importance of tax reform as part of a deficit reduction plans. These plans, however, do not provide the same level of detail as the Fiscal Commission and Debt Reduction Task Force, and are therefore not reviewed in detail as part of this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40119/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: The President's Fiscal Commission and Other Initiatives
This report discusses why the federal government's fiscal path is unsustainable and provides an overview of proposals of selected groups that have published detailed recommendations on how to return the federal budget to a sustainable course. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40141/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: The President's Fiscal Commission and Other Initiatives
This report discusses why the federal government's fiscal path is unsustainable and provides an overview of proposals of selected groups that have published detailed recommendations on how to return the federal budget to a sustainable course. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40140/
Reexamination of Agency Reporting Requirements: Annual Process Under the GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 (GPRAMA)
On January 4, 2011, the GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 (GPRAMA) became law. The acronym "GPRA" in the act's short title refers to the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA 1993), a law that GPRAMA substantially modified. Some of GPRAMA's provisions require agencies to produce plans and reports for a variety of audiences that focus on goal-setting and performance measurement. Other provisions, by contrast, establish an annual process to reexamine the usefulness of certain reporting requirements. The report concludes by looking potential issues for Congress in two categories. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85406/
Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives
This report describes and assesses the principal prescriptions that have been offered for broad reform of the current U.S. system for taxing international businesses. The report begins with an overview of current law and of possible revisions. It then sets the framework for considering economic efficiency as well as tax shelter activities. Finally, it reviews alternative approaches to revision in light of those issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31427/
Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy
Typically, the annual number of refugees that can be admitted into the United States, known as the refugee ceiling, and the allocation of these numbers by region are set by the President after consultation with Congress at the start of each fiscal year. For FY2012, the worldwide refugee ceiling is 76,000, with 73,000 admissions numbers allocated among the regions of the world and 3,000 numbers comprising an unallocated reserve. Overseas processing of refugees is conducted through a system of three priorities for admission. Priority 1 comprises cases involving persons facing compelling security concerns. Priority 2 comprises cases involving persons from specific groups of special humanitarian concern to the United States (e.g., Iranian religious minorities). Priority 3 comprises family reunification cases involving close relatives of persons admitted as refugees or granted asylum. Special legislative provisions facilitate relief for certain refugee groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86642/
Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy
This report discusses the annual number of refugees that can be admitted into the United States, known as the refugee ceiling, and the allocation of these numbers by region that are set by the President after consultation with Congress at the start of each fiscal year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227970/
Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview
This report gives an overview of the veto powers given to the President according to Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution. It contains sections on the Constitutional basis and importance of vetoes, overriding a veto, and the vetoes that have been exercised and overridden. It includes statistics and tables of Presidential vetoes 1789-2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31451/
Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the President's veto power, including regular vetoes and pocket vetoes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29741/
Regulating Private Pensions: A Brief Summary of ERISA
This report briefly discusses the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), and how it protects the interests of participants and beneficiaries in private-sector employee benefit plans. ERISA covers a number of fringe benefits provided by employers, but most of its provisions deal with pension plans. Pension plans sponsored by the federal, state, and local governments, or by churches generally are exempt from ERISA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29496/
Regulation of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sequestration Pipelines: Jurisdictional Issues
This report reviews the history of pipeline regulation, including the limited history of interstate CO2 pipeline regulation, and examines the regulatory missions of FERC, the STB, and other agencies. The report discusses possible responses to perceived jurisdictional uncertainties under existing law as well as potential legislative steps intended to address any potential regulatory “gap” in interstate CO2 pipeline jurisdiction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94130/
Regulation of Debit Interchange Fees
This report provides a description of the debit payments process and network pricing, as well as an overview of the effects of the Durbin Amendement implemented by the Federal Reserve which includes a cap on the interchange fee for large issuers. In particular, the Durbin Amendment is discussed in light of comments by Federal Reserve Board Chairman Ben Bernanke. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98011/
Regulation of Energy Derivatives
This report analyzes the development of energy derivatives regulation and proposed legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94185/
Regulation of Energy Derivatives
This report analyzes the development of energy derivatives regulation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94184/
Regulation of Energy Derivatives
This report analyzes the development of regulation for energy derivatives (financial contracts whose value is linked to changes in the price of some energy product). Regulation may be needed [1] to help prevent abusive trading and price manipulation, and [2] to help prevent the failure of a large derivatives dealer which could trigger disruptions of supplies and prices in oil and gas markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98115/
Regulation of Fertilizers: Ammonium Nitrate and Anhydrous Ammonia
This report will focus on some of the federal regulatory programs overseeing storage of ammonium nitrate and anhydrous ammonia by retailers. The report will not address federal regulation of material in transport. It will discuss federal occupational safety, environmental, and security statutes and regulations applicable to each chemical. Select policy issues regarding these federal regulatory programs will be highlighted. It does not address various law enforcement activities related to tracking of anhydrous ammonia used for illegal drug synthesis (e.g., methamphetamine). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227858/
Regulatory Incentives for Electricity Transmissions-Issues and Cost Concerns
This report will focus on issues related to the need for transmission incentives, and consumer cost concerns related to these incentives. Given the changes that FERC cites in the electric industry, the question arises as to whether the need for transmission incentives continues. FERC is bound by EPACT to make incentives available, and is not proposing to end the incentives. However, with concerns raised over the effects of transmission incentives on consumer rates, implications of related federal policies on the electric power sector, additional FERC regulatory policies for transmission, and the aging of electricity infrastructure among key issues, the need for continuing transmission incentives may be a matter for Congress to consider. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83996/
Regulatory Reform Legislation in the 112th Congress
In the 112th Congress, a number of bills have been introduced that would, if enacted, change current requirements in the federal rulemaking process. This report describes each of those bills, notes whether similar legislation has been introduced or acted upon in the past, summarizes the comments of those supporting and opposing the proposed legislation, and provides other relevant information. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93873/
Religion and the Workplace: Legal Analysis of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as It Applies to Religion and Religious Organizations
This report reviews the scope of Title VII as it applies to religion and religious organizations and the requirements of the anti-discrimination protections and the accommodations provision. It also analyzes the exemptions available to religious organizations for the non-discrimination rules. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103247/
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report describes federal programs that provide grants, loans, loan guarantees, and other direct or indirect incentives for energy efficiency, energy conservation, and renewable energy. For each program, the report provides the administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and the program expiration date. The appendixes provide summary information in a tabular format and also list recently expired programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267824/
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report describes federal programs that provide grants, loans, loan guarantees, and other direct or indirect regulatory incentives for energy efficiency, energy conservation, and renewable energy. For each program, the report provides the administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and the program expiration date. The appendixes provide summary information in a tabular format. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99013/
Renewable Energy Programs and the Farm Bill: Status and Issues
This report focuses on those policies contained in the 2008 farm bill (the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008; P.L. 110-246) that support agriculture-based renewable energy, especially biofuels. The introductory sections briefly describe how these policies evolved and how they fit into the larger context of U.S. biofuels policy. Then, the policies specific to the 2008 farm bill are defined in terms of their function, goals, administration, funding, and implementation status. Finally, a section reviews the major emerging issues related to U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) energy programs, particularly as related to their possible inclusion in the next farm bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83982/
Renewable Energy R&D Funding History: A Comparison with Funding for Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Energy Efficiency R&D
This report looks at the history and current status, including Congress delegated funding, of energy-related research and development of coal-based synthetic petroleum and atomic power. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85494/
Renewable Energy R&D Funding History: A Comparison with Funding for Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Energy Efficiency R&D
This report provides a cumulative history of Department of Energy (DOE) funding for renewable energy compared with funding for the other energy technologies-nuclear energy, fossil energy, and energy efficiency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31502/
The Renewable Fuel Standard: In Brief
This report provides a basic description of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), including some of the widely discussed issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272064/
Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Overview and Issues
This report focuses on the mandated minimum usage requirements - referred to as the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) - whereby a minimum volume of biofuels is to be used in the national transportation fuel supply each year. It describes the general nature of the biofuels RFS and its implementation, and outlines some of the emerging issues related to the sustainability of the continued growth in U.S. biofuels production needed to fulfill the expanding RFS mandate, as well as the emergence of potential unintended consequences of this rapid expansion. This report does not address the broader public policy issue of how best to support U.S. energy policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31329/
Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Overview and Issues
Report that describes the general nature of the biofuels RFS and its implementation, outlines some of the emerging issues related to the sustainability of the continued growth in U.S. biofuels production needed to fulfill the expanding RFS mandate, and the emergence of potential unintended consequences of this rapid expansion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227634/
Reorganization of the Minerals Management Service in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
This report provides background and context on the origins of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of the Interior (DOI). The April 2010 Deepwater Horizon explosion and oil spill refocused attention on MMS, which had previously endured management challenges. The report also discusses Secretary Kenneth L. Salazar's handling of conflicts within MMS, potential congressional options regarding MMS reorganization, historical examples of similar reorganization efforts, and information on related legislative initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29631/
Repairing and Reconstructing Disaster-Damaged Roads and Bridges: The Role of Federal-Aid Highway Assistance
This report describes Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assistance for the repair and reconstruction of disaster damaged highways and bridges or catastrophic failures (such as a bridge collapse). It begins with a brief discussion of the legislative origins of federal assistance and describes the ER program in its current form. The report then discusses eligibility issues and program operation. Finally, the report briefly describes the major findings of a recent Government Accountability Office report on ER. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94215/
The Repeal of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell": Issues for Congress
On December 22, 2010, President Obama signed into law legislation calling for the repeal of the existing law barring open homosexuality in the military by prescribing a series of steps that must take place before repeal occurs. One step was fulfilled on July 22, 2011, when the President signed the certification of the process ending the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy, which was repealed on September 20, 2011. This report considers issues that Congress may wish to consider as the repeal process proceeds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83983/
Representatives and Senators: Trends in Member Characteristics Since 1945
Questions about the characteristics of Members of Congress, including their age, education, previous occupations, and other descriptors, are of ongoing interest to Members, congressional staff, and constituents. Some of these questions may be asked in the context of representation, in efforts to evaluate the extent to which Members of Congress reflect their constituencies and the nation at large. In other instances, questions arise about how the characteristics of Members have changed over time, which may speak in part to the history of Congress. This report provides profiles of Senators and Representatives in selected Congresses since 1945. It includes data based on Representatives and Senators serving on the first day of the 79th, 82nd, 87th, 92nd, 97th, 102nd, and 107th–112th Congresses for several demographic characteristics, as well as the tenure of Member service in Congress. The characteristics discussed include age, including the oldest and youngest Members of the House and Senate; congressional service tenure; sex; previous occupation; race and ethnicity; education; religion; and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87220/
Representatives and Senators: Trends in Member Characteristics Since 1945
This report provides profiles of Senators and Representatives in selected Congresses since 1945. It includes data based on Representatives and Senators serving on the first day of the 79th-113th Congresses for several demographic characteristics such as age (including the oldest and youngest Members of the House and Senate), sex, previous occupation, race and ethnicity, education, religion, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282302/
Research and Experimentation Tax Credit: Current Status and Selected Issues for Congress
This report examines the current status of the credit, summarizes its legislative history, discusses some key policy issues it raises, and describes legislation in the 110th Congress to modify or extend it. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87255/