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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Adequacy of the Army’s FY2004 Funding for Operations in Iraq
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Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Growth Models Under the No Child Left Behind Act
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Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Growth Models Under the No Child Left Behind Act
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Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Growth Models Under the No Child Left Behind Act
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Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
This report is intended to provide an overview of the Adequate Yearly Process (AYP) concept and several related issues, a description of the AYP provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, and an analysis of the implementation of these provisions by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the states. It will be updated when major administrative actions are taken by ED, or substantial new data on state implementation become available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9446/
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
This report is intended to provide an overview of the Adequate Yearly Process (AYP) concept and several related issues, a description of the AYP provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, and an analysis of the implementation of these provisions by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the states. It will be updated when major administrative actions are taken by ED, or substantial new data on state implementation become available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9665/
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
This report is intended to provide an overview of the Adequate Yearly Process (AYP) concept and several related issues, a description of the AYP provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, and an analysis of the implementation of these provisions by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the states. It will be updated when major administrative actions are taken by ED, or substantial new data on state implementation become available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9667/
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
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Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
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Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
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Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Might Growth Models Be Allowed Under the No Child Left Behind Act?
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Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Might Growth Models Be Allowed Under the No Child Left Behind Act?
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Adjusting Federal Benefits for Geographic Differences in the Cost of Living
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Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation
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Administering Green Programs in Congress: Issues and Options
This report discusses "green" programs and the higher profile they have gained in the 110th Congress. "Green" programs are those designed to create an environmentally friendly work environment and conserve energy. This report discusses initiatives and policy options that would improve the "greening" process on Capitol Hill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462785/
The Administration of Federal Student Loan Programs: Background and Provisions
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The Administration of Federal Student Loan Programs: Background and Provisions
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The Administration of the Federal Family Education Loan and William D. Ford Direct Loan Programs: Background and Provisions
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The Administration’s FY2005 Request for $25 Billion for Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan: Precedents, Options, and Congressional Action
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The Administration's Lands Legacy Initiative in the FY2001 Budget Proposal - A Fact Sheet
The fact sheet compares the FY2001 funding request for the Administration's Lands Legacy Initiative to the FY2000 request and the enacted FY2000 appropriation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1275/
Administrative Issues Related to a Change in Majority in the House of Representatives
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Administrative Law Judges: An Overview
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Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts: History, Operations, and Current Issues
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Administrative Separations for Misconduct: An Alternative or Companion to Military Courts-Martial
The recent reports of abuse of prisoners held by U.S. military personnel have raised questions about how the armed forces control servicemembers. Congress, under the authorities vested in it by the U.S. Constitution, has enacted procedures for addressing misconduct by servicemembers. One such procedure is an administrative separation under which a member’s continued suitability for service is determined. Administrative separations are non-punitive and can be initiated for a number of reasons, including misconduct or criminal offenses. They may be used in place of or after the servicemember has been subject to a court-martial or nonjudicial punishment. This report provides an overview of administrative separations as an alternative or companion to courts-martial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9293/
Administrative Subpoenas and National Security Letters in Criminal and Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Background and Proposed Adjustments
Administrative subpoena authority, including closely related national security letter authority, is the power vested in various administrative agencies to compel testimony or the production of documents or both in aid of the agencies’ performance of their duties. During the 108th Congress, the President urged Congress to expand and re-enforce statutory authority to use administrative subpoenas and national security letters in criminal and foreign intelligence investigations; and legislation was introduced for that purpose. Related proposals have been offered during the 109th Congress, some of which deal with national security letter authority. Proponents of expanded use emphasize the effectiveness of administrative subpoenas as an investigative tool and question the logic of its availability in drug and health care fraud cases but not in terrorism cases. Critics suggest that it is little more than a constitutionally suspect “trophy” power, easily abused and of little legitimate use. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6283/
Administrative Subpoenas and National Security Letters in Criminal and Intelligence Investigations: A Sketch
Administrative subpoena authority, including closely related national security letter authority, is the power vested in various administrative agencies to compel testimony or the production of documents or both in aid of the agencies’ performance of their duties. Both the President and Members of Congress have called for statutory adjustments relating to the use of administrative subpoenas and national security letters in criminal and foreign intelligence investigations. One lower federal court has found the sweeping gag orders and lack of judicial review that mark one of the national security letter practices constitutionally defective. Proponents of expanded use emphasize the effectiveness of administrative subpoenas as an investigative tool and question the logic of its availability in drug and health care fraud cases but not in terrorism cases. Critics suggest that it is little more than a constitutionally suspect “trophy” power, easily abused and of little legitimate use. This is an abridged version — without footnotes, appendices, quotation marks and most citations to authority — of Administrative Subpoenas and National Security Letters in Criminal and Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Background and Proposed Adjustments, CRS Report RL32880. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6282/
Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: A Brief Legal Analysis
Administrative subpoena authority is the power vested in various administrative agencies to compel testimony or the production of documents or both in aid of the agencies’ performance of their duties. As a constitutional matter, the Fourth Amendment only demands that administrative subpoenas be "reasonable." Although more extensive proposals were offered in the 108th Congress, the law enforcement related administrative subpoena proposals in the 109th Congress appear in S. 600, relating to the Secretary of State’s responsibilities to protect U.S. foreign missions and foreign dignitaries visiting this country; in H.R. 3726, relating to federal obscenity investigations; and in H.R. 4170, relating to the apprehension of fugitives charged with, or convicted of, federal or state felonies. This report is available abridged – without footnotes, appendices, and most of the citations to authority – as CRS Report RS22407, Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: A Sketch, by Charles Doyle. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8777/
Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: A Sketch
Administrative subpoena authority is the power vested in various administrative agencies to compel testimony or the production of documents or both in aid of the agencies’ performance of their duties. Proposals in the 109th Congress for greater use of administrative subpoenas in a law enforcement context appear in S. 600, relating to the Secretary of State’s responsibilities to protect U.S. foreign missions and foreign dignitaries visiting this country; in H.R. 3726, relating to federal obscenity investigations; and in H.R. 4170, relating to the apprehension of fugitives charged with, or convicted of, federal or state felonies. This is an abridged version — without footnotes, appendices, quotation marks and most citations to authority — of CRS Report RL33321, Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: Background and Proposed Adjustments, by Charles Doyle. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8787/
Adult Education and Literacy: Overview and Reauthorization Proposals of the 109th Congress
The 109th Congress is considering the reauthorization of federal adult education and literacy programs. The Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) authorized these programs through FY2003. The primary AEFLA activity is a state grant program that supports education and literacy services for educationally disadvantaged adults. The AEFLA also authorizes national leadership activities in adult education and literacy, and the National Institute for Literacy. The FY2005 AEFLA appropriation is $585 million; the FY2006 budget request would reduce funding to $216 million. The AEFLA was enacted as Title II of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), P.L. 105-220, on August 7, 1998. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7291/
Adult Education and Literacy: Overview and Reauthorization Proposals of the 109th Congress
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Adult Education and Literacy: Overview and Reauthorization Proposals of the 109th Congress
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Adult Education and Literacy: Reauthorization Proposals of the 108th Congress
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Advance Appropriations for Veterans' Health Care: Issues and Options for Congress
This report discusses issues regarding authorization of an advanced appropriation for certain medical care accounts of the Veterans Health Administration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700664/
Advance Appropriations, Forward Funding, and Advance Funding
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Advanced Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Technologies: Outlook and Policy Options
This report starts out with an overview of nuclear technology and then discusses the Department of Energy DOE advanced nuclear programs, global nuclear energy partnership, and different industry studies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463390/
Advanced Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Technologies: Outlook and Policy Options
This report starts out with an overview of nuclear technology and then discusses the Department of Energy DOE advanced nuclear programs, global nuclear energy partnership, and different industry studies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94163/
Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E): Background, Status, and Selected Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) design. The report discusses the legislative origins and policy debates prior to ARPA-E authorization and Bush administration response to ARPA-E authorization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463302/
Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E): Background, Status, and Selected Issues for Congress
This report discusses the establishment of the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) within the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69), which was authorized by Congress in August 2007. Modeled on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), ARPA-E would support transformational energy technology research projects with the goal of enhancing the nation's economic and energy security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87341/
Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E): Background, Status, and Selected Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) design. The report discusses the legislative origins and policy debates prior to ARPA-E authorization and Bush administration response to ARPA-E authorization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98106/
Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E): Background, Status, and Selected Issues for Congress
This report discusses the establishment of the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) within the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69), which was authorized by Congress in August 2007. Modeled on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), ARPA-E would support transformational energy technology research projects with the goal of enhancing the nation's economic and energy security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700619/
The Advanced Spectroscopic Portal Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the Advanced Spectroscopic Portal program's history and outlines issues for Congress as the program moves forward. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689278/
The Advanced Spectroscopic Portal Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the Advanced Spectroscopic Portal (ASP) program's history and outlines issues for Congress as the program moves forward. The ASP is an improved type of radiation detection device, meant to serve as part of new and existing programs to protect against terrorist nuclear or radiological attack. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743526/
The Advanced Spectroscopic Portal Program: Background and Issues for Congress
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The Advanced Technology Program
The Advanced Technology Program (ATP) was created by P.L. 100-418, the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, to encourage public-private cooperation in the development of pre-competitive technologies with broad application across industries. This activity has been targeted for elimination as a means to cut federal spending. Since FY2000, the original House-passed appropriation bills have not included funding for ATP. Many of the Administration’s budget requests have proposed termination of the program. However, ATP continues to be supported, although at levels below that achieved in FY1995 when the activity was expanded significantly. This report discusses funding (or lack thereof) appropriated for the ATP for FY2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10087/
The Advanced Technology Program
President Bush's FY2008 budget request did not include financing for ATP. The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act, P.L. 110-161, replaces ATP with the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) and provides $65.2 million (with an additional $5 million in ATP FY2007 unobligated balances), 17.6% less than the previous fiscal year. P.L. 110- 69, the America COMPETES Act, authorized the creation of TIP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26083/
The Advanced Technology Program
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The Advanced Technology Program
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The Advanced Technology Program
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The Advanced Technology Program
This report discuses the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) that was created by P.L. 100-418, the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, to encourage public-private cooperation in the development of pre-competitive technologies with broad application across industries digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc810764/
The Advanced Technology Program
This report presents perspectives on African economic trends and provides an overview of U.S. trade and investment flows with sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It discusses the provisions of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and the changes that have occurred since its enactment. It concludes with a brief discussion of issues of congressional interest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847584/