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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa
This report provides information on Africa Command's (AFRICOM) mission, structure, interagency coordination, and its basing and manpower requirements. The report also gives a broad overview of U.S. strategic interests in Africa and the role of U.S. military efforts on the continent as they pertain to the creation of Africa Command. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820886/
African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2009
This report discusses the history and current status of African Americans in Congress. There are 42 African American Members serving in the 111th Congress, 41 in the House of Representatives and one in the Senate. There have been 125 African American Members of Congress: 119 have been elected to the House; five have been elected to the Senate; and one has been appointed to the Senate. There have been 98 Democrats: 95 in the House, three in the Senate; and 27 Republicans: 24 in the House, three in the Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505449/
African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012
A history and current status report of African Americans in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85436/
Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy
This report reviews and analyzes the situation, concerns, and activities of Afro-descendants in the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking nations of Latin America. It then discusses current U.S. foreign aid programs, as well as multilateral initiatives, that have directly or indirectly assisted Afro-Latinos. The report concludes with a discussion of potential policy options that have been proposed should the United States elect to provide further support for Afro-Latinos. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462286/
Age Dependency Ratios and Social Security Solvency
As highlighted by the Social Security Administration (SSA), the aging of the (United States) population, hastened by the impending retirement of the huge baby-boom generation, has caused policy-makers to question whether the U.S. Social Security system can meet the demands for retirement benefits in the future. Because the current system largely pays benefits through taxes paid by current workers, the financial health of the system is sensitive to the ratio of dependents to workers—sometimes called the age dependency ratio or support ratio. Trends and projections of dependency ratios, including the relationship between both older (years 65 and older) and younger (under age 20) dependents to the working-age population in the United States are considered in the first section of this demographic report. Next, the United States is compared to nine other nations, including the seven other members of the G8. In the final section, policy implications of the changing dependent-to-worker ratios are considered in the context of pay-as-you-go (paygo) social security systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821418/
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA): A Legal Overview
This report provides an overview of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and discusses current legal and legislative developments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795774/
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Disparate Impact Claims: An Analysis of the Supreme Court’s Ruling in Smith v. City of Jackson
This report discusses Smith v. City of Jackson, a recent case in which the Supreme Court held that workers may sue employers under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) for workplace policies that have an adverse impact on older employees, even if the discriminatory effects are not intentional. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821403/
Agency Enforcement of the Prohibition Against Sex Discrimination Mandated by Title IX and EO 13160
This report provides a summary of the federal agencies’ enforcement of and compliance with the prohibition against sex discrimination mandated by Title IX and Executive Order 13160. Specifically, this report discusses the implementation of regulations and procedures for enforcing the Title IX compliance of grant recipients and for enforcing the compliance of the federal agencies themselves with President Clinton’s Executive Order. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820860/
Agency Final Rules Submitted After May 16, 2016, May Be Subject to Disapproval in 2017 Under the Congressional Review Act
This report briefly discusses The Congressional Review Act (5 U.S.C. §§801-808), enacted as part of the 104th Congress's (1995-1996) "Contract with America," which established a special parliamentary mechanism whereby Congress can disapprove a final rule promulgated by a federal agency. With a change in the occupancy of the White House taking place in 2017, some in Congress are paying renewed attention to a parliamentary mechanism that might enable a new Congress and new President to overturn agency final rules of the Obama Administration issued after mid-May 2016. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824520/
Aging Infrastructure: Dam Safety
To help inform discussions on the federal role in dam safety, this report provides background information on the nation’s dam safety activities and funding mechanisms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7622/
Agricultural Biotechnology: Background, Regulation, and Policy Issues
This report discusses on going issues regarding biotechnology, which refers primarily to the use of recombinant DNA techniques to genetically modify or bioengineer plants and animals. Ongoing policy issues include the impacts of genetially engineered (GE) crops on the environment (e.g., pest and weed resistance), whether GE foods should be labeled, their potential contamination of conventionally raised and organic plants, and issues of liability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743472/
Agricultural Biotechnology: Background, Regulation, and Policy Issues
This report discusses on going issues regarding biotechnology, which refers primarily to the use of recombinant DNA techniques to genetically modify or bioengineer plants and animals. Ongoing policy issues include the impacts of genetially engineered (GE) crops on the environment (e.g., pest and weed resistance), whether GE foods should be labeled, their potential contamination of conventionally raised and organic plants, and issues of liability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822653/
Agricultural Credit: Farm Bill Issues
This report discusses agricultural credit, which makes or guarantees loans to farmers who cannot qualify at other lenders, and the Farm Credit System (FCS), which is a network of borrower-owned lending institutions operating as a government-sponsored enterprise. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98122/
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
This report has two sections. The first provides an overview of the current U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) disaster assistance programs: federal crop insurance, NAP payments, emergency disaster loans, the new Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program (SURE), and four other smaller disaster programs authorized in the 2008 farm bill. The second section reviews the recent history of emergency supplemental farm disaster assistance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491372/
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
This report has four sections. The first describes recent developments in weather and policy. The second provides an overview of the current USDA disaster assistance programs: federal crop insurance, NAP payments, and emergency disaster loans. The third section discusses the now expired disaster programs under the 2008 farm bill, specifically Supplemental Revenue, Assistance Payments Program (SURE), and four other smaller disaster programs. The fourth section briefly reviews the potential reauthorization of disaster programs proposed in both House and Senate versions of the 2013 farm bill. An appendix reviews the recent history of emergency supplemental farm disaster assistance and USDA administrative actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463423/
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
This report has four sections. The first describes recent developments in weather and policy. The second provides an overview of the current U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) disaster assistance programs: federal crop insurance, Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP) payments, and emergency disaster loans. The third section discusses the now-expired disaster programs under the 2008 farm bill, specifically Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program (SURE) and four other smaller disaster programs. The fourth section briefly reviews congressional issues. An appendix reviews the recent history of emergency supplemental farm disaster assistance and administrative actions by USDA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463234/
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
This report has two sections. The first provides an overview of the current USDA disaster assistance programs: federal crop insurance, NAP payments, emergency disaster loans, the new Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program (SURE), and four other smaller disaster programs authorized in the 2008 farm bill. The second section reviews the recent history of emergency supplemental farm disaster assistance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501569/
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
This report discusses the ongoing major USDA disaster programs designed to help crop producers recover from the financial effects of natural disasters — federal crop insurance, noninsured assistance program (NAP) payments, and emergency disaster loans. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94180/
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
This report has two sections. The first provides an overview of the current U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) disaster assistance programs: federal crop insurance, NAP payments, emergency disaster loans, the new Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program (SURE), and four other smaller disaster programs authorized in the 2008 farm bill. The second section reviews the recent history of emergency supplemental farm disaster assistance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29731/
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
Report containing a description of recent developments in weather and U. S. policy. as well as an overview of current and expired USDA disaster assistance programs. An appendix reviews the recent history of emergency supplemental farm disaster assistance and administrative actions by USDA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228110/
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
This report has four sections. The first describes recent developments in weather and policy. The second provides an overview of the current USDA disaster assistance programs: federal crop insurance, NAP payments, and emergency disaster loans. The third section discusses the now expired disaster programs under the 2008 farm bill, specifically Supplemental Revenue, Assistance Payments Program (SURE), and four other smaller disaster programs. The fourth section briefly reviews the potential reauthorization of disaster programs proposed in both House and Senate versions of the 2013 farm bill. An appendix reviews the recent history of emergency supplemental farm disaster assistance and USDA administrative actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228109/
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
This report discusses several programs offered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to help farmers recover financially from natural disasters, including drought and floods. All the programs have permanent authorization, and only one requires a federal disaster designation (the emergency loan program). Most programs receive funding amounts that are "such sums as necessary" and are not subject to annual discretionary appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689120/
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
This report briefly discusses the federal grand jury, which exists to investigate crimes against the United States and to secure the constitutional right of grand jury indictment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689485/
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
This report discusses several programs offered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to help farmers recover financially from natural disasters, including drought and floods. All the programs have permanent authorization, and only one requires a federal disaster designation (the emergency loan program). Most programs receive funding amounts that are "such sums as necessary" and are not subject to annual discretionary appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743389/
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
This report discusses several programs offered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to help farmers recover financially from natural disasters, including drought and floods. Most programs receive funding amounts that are "such sums as necessary" and are not subject to annual discretionary appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847661/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses the recent development in different programs administered by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) with the goal to promote agricultural exports and to provide food aid. These programs include direct export subsidies, export market development, export credit guarantees, and foreign food aid. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94058/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2006, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824803/
Agricultural Export Programs: Background and Issues
Report that discusses the agricultural export programs that aim to develop overseas markets for U.S. agricultural products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227668/
Agricultural Export Provisions of the 2008 Farm Bill
This report discusses the agricultural export provisions in the 2008 Farm Bill. It discusses programs that deal with U.S. agricultural exports that are a major focus of Title III, the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-246, H.R. 6124). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94240/
Agricultural Exports and the 2007 Farm Bill
This report assesses 2007 farm bill trade title provisions for U.S. agricultural export programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96790/
Agricultural Guest Workers: Legislative Activity in the 113th Congress
This report discusses the foreign temporary workers, also known as guest workers, that have long performed legal agricultural labor in the United States through different temporary worker programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227891/
Agricultural Issues in the 109th Congress
This report discusses a number of issues affecting U.S. agriculture have been or are being addressed by the 109th Congress. The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-171), enacted in February 2006, included a net reduction in spending on U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) mandatory programs of $2.7 billion over five years, and the reauthorization of a dairy income support program. Other issues of importance to agriculture during the second session of the 109th Congress include the consideration of emergency farm disaster assistance; multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations; concerns about agroterrorism, food safety, and animal and plant diseases (e.g., “mad cow” disease and avian flu); high energy costs; environmental issues; agricultural marketing matters; the reauthorization of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission; and farm labor issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822378/
Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education: Farm Bill Issues
This report discusses the farm bill (P.L. 110-234) that will authorize and direct the implementation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) major programs across the spectrum of its mission areas through FY2012. The enacted bill reorganizes the Department's research, extension, and economics mission area, which currently comprises four agencies that separately administer intramural and extramural programs supporting agricultural research and development (R&D). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94134/
Agriculture and Forestry Provisions in Climate Change Legislation (S. 3036)
This report summarizes some of the domestic agriculture and forestry provisions in the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2008 (S. 3036, formerly S. 2191), as ordered reported out of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works in December 2007. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94232/
Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2010 Appropriations
This report discusses various policy aspects of the Agriculture appropriations bill for FY2010, which funds the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), except for the Forest Service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821038/
Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2013 Appropriations
This report discusses the Agriculture appropriations bill—formally known as the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, which provides funding for the following agencies: the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822397/
Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2014 Appropriations
This report provides a background information regarding the scope of the Agricultural bill. The report discusses House and Senate action on FY2014 appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462725/
Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations
This report discusses various policy aspects of the Agriculture appropriations bill for FY2015, which funds the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), except for the Forest Service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491638/
Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2016 Appropriations
This report discusses the Agriculture appropriations bill for FY 2016, which funds the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) -- except for the Forest Service -- as well as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and, in even-numbered fiscal years, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795898/
Agriculture-Based Biofuels: Overview and Emerging Issues
This report reviews the evolution of the U.S. biofuels sector and the role that federal policy has played in shaping its development. In addition, it highlights emerging issues that are critical to the biofuels sector and of relevance to Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29593/
Agriculture Biotechnology: Background and Recent Issues
This report discusses issues regarding the impacts of GE crops on the environment and food safety, and whether GE foods should be specially labeled. Underlying these issues is the question of whether U.S. regulation and oversight of biotechnology—with responsibilities spread primarily among the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87293/
Agriculture Conservation Programs: A Scorecard
This report provides basic information on several agriculture conservation programs, primarily drawn from agency budget presentations and websites, about each program using a consistent format. This information should help respond to basic questions and resolve many common sources of confusion about the purposes of the program, program participation and policy topics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94006/
Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea
This report discusses pending U.S. free trade agreements (FTAs) with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama. The bills to implement these agreements will now be debated under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration. The report includes an overview of agricultural issues regarding FTAs and pending FTA partners, as well as a closer breakdown of the specific issues for each of the countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103059/
Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama
This report discusses pending U.S. free trade agreements (FTAs) with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama. The bills to implement these agreements will now be debated under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration. The report includes an overview of agricultural issues regarding FTAs and pending FTA partners, as well as a closer breakdown of the specific issues for each of the countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93818/
Agriculture in the WTO Bali Ministerial Agreement
At the World Trade Organization's (WTO's) Ninth Ministerial Conference in Bali, Indonesia, December 3-7, 2013, ministers adopted the so-called Bali Package--a series of decisions aimed at streamlining trade (referred to as trade facilitation), allowing developing countries more options for providing food security, boosting least-developed-country trade, and helping development more generally. This report focuses on those aspects of the Bali Package that deal with and are specific to agriculture. It also includes a section (at the end of the report) that provides an update on the status of implementation of the various Bali Package provisions agreed to by the WTO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491155/
Agriculture in the WTO: Limits on Domestic Support
This report provides a brief overview of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) commitments most relevant for U.S. domestic farm policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462865/
Agriculture in the WTO: Rules and Limits on Domestic Support
This report provides a brief overview of the World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments most relevant for U.S. domestic farm policy. The report discusses a key question that policy makers ask of virtually every new farm proposal is, how will it affect U.S. commitments under the WTO? The answer depends not only on cost, but also on the proposal's design and objectives, as described below. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462631/
Agriculture in U.S. Free Trade Agreements: Trade with Current and Prospective Partners, Impact, and Issues
This report discusses the trade in agricultural products, which is one of the difficult issues negotiators face in concluding free trade agreements (FTAs). The report also deals with food safety and animal/plant health matters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96787/
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Rural Provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009
This report analyzes the agriculture, nutrition, and rural provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5). The ARRA boosts government spending on various infrastructure programs and government benefits programs, and offers individual and business tax benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795420/
Aiding, Abetting, and the Like: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 2
This report discuses the issues that virtually every federal criminal statute has a hidden feature; helpers and hands-on offenders face the same punishment. This results from 18 U.S.C. 2, which visits the same consequences on anyone who orders or assists in the commission of a federal crime. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491192/