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 Decade: 1980-1989
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Aspartame: An Artificial Sweetener

Aspartame: An Artificial Sweetener

Date: March 23, 1984
Creator: Porter, Donna V
Description: Since 1973 when the Food and Drug Administration first approved the artificial sweetener, aspartame, for use in food products, some researchers have raised questions about possible health effects associated with its consumption. This paper provides an overview of the regulatory history and possible health problems associated with the use of aspartame.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Assessing the Options for Preserving ICBM Survivability

Assessing the Options for Preserving ICBM Survivability

Date: September 28, 1981
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The decision on how to redress the perceived vulnerability of U.S. intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMS) is the most controversial strategic nuclear weapon decision now facing the 97th Congress. A full-scale debate on this issue, especially as regards MX missile basing, seems certain. To assist Members of Congress in the debate, this paper discusses nine proposals for treating ICBM survivability: Recognize that ICBMs are invulnerable, rely only on bombers and submarines for deterrence, deploy a large or scaled-down shell-game multiple shelter system, defend MX with anti ballistic missiles, launch ICBMs on warning of attack, deploy MX on aircraft or small submarines, and diversify strategic forces, perhaps using small ICBMs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
AT and T Divestiture: Restructuring the U.S. Domestic Telephone Industry

AT and T Divestiture: Restructuring the U.S. Domestic Telephone Industry

Date: August 10, 1984
Creator: Congressional Reference Division
Description: On January 8, 1982, the Justice Department and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company announced the settlement of the Government's seven year old antitrust suit against AT&T. Nineteen months later, in August 1983, U.S. District Court Judge Harold Greene gave final approval to the AT& T divestiture agreement. The breakup of AT&T will affect every aspect of the U.S. domestic telephone industry from the yellow pages to the manufacture of telephones. AT&T officially spun off its 22 local operating companies into seven regional phone companies on January 1, 1984. This Info Pack focuses on the Department of Justice settlement with AT&T and how the resulting divestiture will affect the U.S. domestic telephone industry.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile Domestic Content Requirements

Automobile Domestic Content Requirements

Date: May 18, 1982
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: In response to the lowest drop of American produced automobile sales in two decades and other related conditions, legislation has been introduced that would impose domestic (local) content ratios for automotive vehicles. These would require that cars and trucks sold in the United States in large quantities contain a certain percentage of American parts and labor.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobiles Imported from Japan

Automobiles Imported from Japan

Date: March 12, 1980
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: In recent years, U.S. automotive imports from Japan have seen an increasing at an unusually rapid pace. Congress is considering measures that alleviate the situation and in June 1980 concurrently resolved to promote the competitiveness of U.S. industry in world automobile and truck markets. As a result of the restraint agreement, automobile imports from Japan dropped from 1.99 million units in 1980 to 1.91 million units in 1981 (calendar year).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Availability of Nonfuel Minerals on Federal Lands: Background on the Issue

The Availability of Nonfuel Minerals on Federal Lands: Background on the Issue

Date: January 18, 1982
Creator: Powers, Jane
Description: The following report reviews the laws and practices that govern the extraction of non-fuel minerals from federal lands, and the restrict ions against such extract ions. Moreover, the federal land management agencies that regulate such activities are identified, and their responsibilities discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Aviation Safety: FAA Near Midair Collision Reports

Aviation Safety: FAA Near Midair Collision Reports

Date: August 13, 1987
Creator: Moore, J. Glen
Description: This report discusses the minimum separation distance in a near midair collision report which the event must meet in order to be classified a "near miss." If a pilot of flight crew member subjectively believes that the near miss occurred, the report of that event is accepted by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and counts as a near miss in the FAA data base regardless of the actual separation distance. While no proximity limits are placed on near midair collision reports, the agency does attempt to categorize each reported encounter by degree of hazard represented from an aviation safety perspective.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Balanced Budget and Spending Limitations: Proposed Constitutional Amendments in the 97th Congress

Balanced Budget and Spending Limitations: Proposed Constitutional Amendments in the 97th Congress

Date: April 3, 1981
Creator: Schick, Allen & Strickland, Daniel P
Description: Expenditures and revenue limitation proposals link Federal spending and taxation to some measure of economic performance, such as the rate of economic growth or percentage levels of GNP or national income. The report presents this issue brief reviews, the various approaches to balance the budget and to impose spending limitations offered as constitutional amendments’ in the 97 congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Balanced Budget Proposal: Some Macroeconomic Implications

The Balanced Budget Proposal: Some Macroeconomic Implications

Date: July 29, 1985
Creator: Henderson, John B
Description: This brief report outlines some possible macroeconomic implications of observing a statutory or constitutional commitment to balance the Federal budget. It does not address the legal questions about the proposal or their implementation, nor the economic and political questions related to decisions about the level of Federal revenues or expenditures. On the latter, its analysis refers to revenue and expenditure levels, in relation to total national product, typical of recent years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Balancing the Budget and Limiting Federal Spending: A Selected Bibliography

Balancing the Budget and Limiting Federal Spending: A Selected Bibliography

Date: August 23, 1982
Creator: Chin, Felix
Description: This selected bibliography lists articles and books on various issues concerning legislation to limit Federal spending and proposed constitutional amendments requiring a balanced budget, especially economic issues. The bibliography focuses mainly on literature of recent years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bank Failures: Recent Trends and Policy Options

Bank Failures: Recent Trends and Policy Options

Date: July 14, 1987
Creator: Smale, Pauline
Description: During the 1980s the U.S. banking industry has experienced a rapidly growing number of failures. Many factors have contributed to this trend including deregulation, technology, individual bank management, and economic conditions. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) handles insured bank failures. Congress has been monitoring the recent trend and is concerned with the FDIC’s ability to continue to perform its supervisory and insurance operations. The present situation, information on key factors affecting the banking industry, and the FDIC’s role when a bank fails is discussed in this report. The reference section of this issue brief contains a list of CRS products providing background on the FDIC and legislative issues relevant to the agency.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bankruptcy and Business Failure Data

Bankruptcy and Business Failure Data

Date: August 20, 1982
Creator: Scott, Oscar
Description: The purpose of this report is to provide statistical data on the actual number of businesses that are filing for bankruptcy or ceasing operations. Tabular data of both a historical and current nature concerning business failures and bankruptcies is provided.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Basic Reference Sources For Use by Congressional Offices: An Annotated Selection of Publications and Services

Basic Reference Sources For Use by Congressional Offices: An Annotated Selection of Publications and Services

Date: December 15, 1982
Creator: Barry, Rozanne M & Ovenshire, Ruthann
Description: This is an annotated guide to publications and other sources of information useful to Members of Congress and their staffs, covering congressional office management, the organization and operation of Congress, legislative responsibilities, services to constituents, and other duties of Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biotechnology: Commercialization of Academic Research

Biotechnology: Commercialization of Academic Research

Date: October 26, 1981
Creator: Johnson, Judith A
Description: This report provides an overview of the commercialization of academic research h in the field of biotechnology. It offers a brief definition, background and policy analysis, as well as legislation and hearings regarding the topic.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Black and Hispanic Federal Judges: 1900 to Present

Black and Hispanic Federal Judges: 1900 to Present

Date: August 9, 1983
Creator: Bailey, Dorothy J
Description: This report shows that in recent years, attention has increasingly focused upon the minority composition of the Federal judiciary, in apparent response to concerns that judges appointed to the Federal bench should more compositely reflect the U.S. population they serve. Two of the larger U.S. subpopulations served by the Federal judiciary are blacks and Hispanics. Accordingly, this mini brief lists chronologically and cumulatively the appointments of blacks and Hispanics to the Federal bench, which includes the U.S.Supreme Court, Circuit Courts of Appeals, and District courts.
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Block Grants

Block Grants

Date: August 31, 1981
Creator: Osbourn, Sandra S
Description: This report includes the material on block grants, including a CRS Report on the Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1981, several articles, and a guide to State block grant implementation. For additional information and assistance, we have also included addresses of people to contact on the Federal (p. 59) and State levels (p. 70-104).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bomber Options for Replacing B52s

Bomber Options for Replacing B52s

Date: June 17, 1981
Creator: Mitchell, Douglas D
Description: One of the main issues discussed in this report is the replacement of the B-52 bombers, due to the fact that many believe that by 1990, the B-52's vulnerability to improving Soviet air defenses will imperil its effectiveness as a penetrating bomber.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Brief History of U.S. Immigration Policy

A Brief History of U.S. Immigration Policy

Date: December 22, 1980
Creator: Vialet, Joyce
Description: U.S. immigration policy has been shaped not only by the perceived needs of this country, but by the needs and aspirations of the immigrants themselves. This report reviews the major streams of immigration to the United States in the context of the country's changing views of immigration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget Deficits: Causes, Effects and Some Remedial Options

Budget Deficits: Causes, Effects and Some Remedial Options

Date: July 15, 1985
Creator: Grinnell, David & Cox, William A
Description: In 1981 Congress enacted extensive changes in taxing and spending policies that supporters of these changes expected to generate sufficient revenues, despite a series of tax rate cuts, to balance the budget by FY84. After the onset of recession in early 1982, however, the Reagan Administration's projections showed widening budget deficits, which culminated in an actual FY83 deficit of $195.4 billion. Despite enactment of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, and, more recently, the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, large deficits are expected to persist, even under continued favorable economic conditions, unless Federal taxing and spending policies are altered dramatically.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Busing for School Desegregation

Busing for School Desegregation

Date: July 8, 1982
Creator: Stedman, James B
Description: The mandatory transportation of school children to desegregate public elementary and secondary schools is an issue of deep contention throughout our society. The House of Representatives has approved language for the Department of Justice FY82 authorization bill (H.R. 3462) restricting the Department's involvement in actions requiring school busing. On Mar. 2, 1962, t h e Senate approved the version of the Department of Justice F Y 8 2 authorization Bill (S. 951) with language restricting the Justice Department's involvement in busing actions as well as imposing limits on the busing plans Federal courts can impose. S. 551 was then sent to the House for consideration. Hearings on S. 951 before a house Judiciary subcommittee began on June 1'7, 1982.
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Busing for School Desegregation: The Debate on Selected Issues

Busing for School Desegregation: The Debate on Selected Issues

Date: April 30, 1981
Creator: Stedman, James B
Description: This paper explores selected questions involving the busing of elementary and secondary school students for desegregation. On each of the selected questions a general analysis of the issue involved is presented, followed by two subsections entitled A Critic's Position and An Advocate's Position. In these subsections, an attempt is made to show how a critic of busing for desegregation and an advocate of such busing might fashion arguments on this issue in opposition to, or in support of, busing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Reform: A Summary and Analysis of Legislative Proposals In the 98th and 99th Congresses

Campaign Finance Reform: A Summary and Analysis of Legislative Proposals In the 98th and 99th Congresses

Date: January 5, 1987
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: This report summarizes and analyzes on a conceptual basis the 108 bills and major amendments offered in the 98th and 99th Congresses which proposed changes in the campaign finance laws governing Federal elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing

Campaign Financing

Date: July 30, 1987
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E & Durbin, Thomas M
Description: This is one report in the series of reports that discuss the campaign finance practices and related issues. Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. The report talks about the today’s paramount issues such as perceived loopholes in current law and the longstanding issues: overall costs, funding sources, and competition.
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Campaign Financing in Federal Elections: A Guide to the Law and Its Operation

Campaign Financing in Federal Elections: A Guide to the Law and Its Operation

Date: August 8, 1986
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: This report provides an introduction to the laws governing the financing of Federal election campaigns and presents data on campaign finance activity in the 1980’s.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department