You limited your search to:

 Decade: 1980-1989
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Aspartame: An Artificial Sweetener
Since 1973 when the Food and Drug Administration first approved the artificial sweetener, aspartame, for use in food products, some researchers have raised questions about possible health effects associated with its consumption. This paper provides an overview of the regulatory history and possible health problems associated with the use of aspartame. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8091/
Assessing the Options for Preserving ICBM Survivability
The decision on how to redress the perceived vulnerability of U.S. intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMS) is the most controversial strategic nuclear weapon decision now facing the 97th Congress. A full-scale debate on this issue, especially as regards MX missile basing, seems certain. To assist Members of Congress in the debate, this paper discusses nine proposals for treating ICBM survivability: Recognize that ICBMs are invulnerable, rely only on bombers and submarines for deterrence, deploy a large or scaled-down shell-game multiple shelter system, defend MX with anti ballistic missiles, launch ICBMs on warning of attack, deploy MX on aircraft or small submarines, and diversify strategic forces, perhaps using small ICBMs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8158/
AT and T Divestiture: Restructuring the U.S. Domestic Telephone Industry
On January 8, 1982, the Justice Department and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company announced the settlement of the Government's seven year old antitrust suit against AT&T. Nineteen months later, in August 1983, U.S. District Court Judge Harold Greene gave final approval to the AT& T divestiture agreement. The breakup of AT&T will affect every aspect of the U.S. domestic telephone industry from the yellow pages to the manufacture of telephones. AT&T officially spun off its 22 local operating companies into seven regional phone companies on January 1, 1984. This Info Pack focuses on the Department of Justice settlement with AT&T and how the resulting divestiture will affect the U.S. domestic telephone industry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9039/
Automobile Domestic Content Requirements
In response to the lowest drop of American produced automobile sales in two decades and other related conditions, legislation has been introduced that would impose domestic (local) content ratios for automotive vehicles. These would require that cars and trucks sold in the United States in large quantities contain a certain percentage of American parts and labor. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8793/
Automobiles Imported from Japan
In recent years, U.S. automotive imports from Japan have seen an increasing at an unusually rapid pace. Congress is considering measures that alleviate the situation and in June 1980 concurrently resolved to promote the competitiveness of U.S. industry in world automobile and truck markets. As a result of the restraint agreement, automobile imports from Japan dropped from 1.99 million units in 1980 to 1.91 million units in 1981 (calendar year). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8613/
The Availability of Nonfuel Minerals on Federal Lands: Background on the Issue
The following report reviews the laws and practices that govern the extraction of non-fuel minerals from federal lands, and the restrict ions against such extract ions. Moreover, the federal land management agencies that regulate such activities are identified, and their responsibilities discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8508/
Aviation Safety: FAA Near Midair Collision Reports
This report discusses the minimum separation distance in a near midair collision report which the event must meet in order to be classified a "near miss." If a pilot of flight crew member subjectively believes that the near miss occurred, the report of that event is accepted by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and counts as a near miss in the FAA data base regardless of the actual separation distance. While no proximity limits are placed on near midair collision reports, the agency does attempt to categorize each reported encounter by degree of hazard represented from an aviation safety perspective. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8426/
Balanced Budget and Spending Limitations: Proposed Constitutional Amendments in the 97th Congress
Expenditures and revenue limitation proposals link Federal spending and taxation to some measure of economic performance, such as the rate of economic growth or percentage levels of GNP or national income. The report presents this issue brief reviews, the various approaches to balance the budget and to impose spending limitations offered as constitutional amendments’ in the 97 congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8820/
The Balanced Budget Proposal: Some Macroeconomic Implications
This brief report outlines some possible macroeconomic implications of observing a statutory or constitutional commitment to balance the Federal budget. It does not address the legal questions about the proposal or their implementation, nor the economic and political questions related to decisions about the level of Federal revenues or expenditures. On the latter, its analysis refers to revenue and expenditure levels, in relation to total national product, typical of recent years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9239/
Balancing the Budget and Limiting Federal Spending: A Selected Bibliography
This selected bibliography lists articles and books on various issues concerning legislation to limit Federal spending and proposed constitutional amendments requiring a balanced budget, especially economic issues. The bibliography focuses mainly on literature of recent years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8163/
Bank Failures: Recent Trends and Policy Options
During the 1980s the U.S. banking industry has experienced a rapidly growing number of failures. Many factors have contributed to this trend including deregulation, technology, individual bank management, and economic conditions. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) handles insured bank failures. Congress has been monitoring the recent trend and is concerned with the FDIC’s ability to continue to perform its supervisory and insurance operations. The present situation, information on key factors affecting the banking industry, and the FDIC’s role when a bank fails is discussed in this report. The reference section of this issue brief contains a list of CRS products providing background on the FDIC and legislative issues relevant to the agency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9064/
Bankruptcy and Business Failure Data
The purpose of this report is to provide statistical data on the actual number of businesses that are filing for bankruptcy or ceasing operations. Tabular data of both a historical and current nature concerning business failures and bankruptcies is provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9037/
Basic Reference Sources For Use by Congressional Offices: An Annotated Selection of Publications and Services
This is an annotated guide to publications and other sources of information useful to Members of Congress and their staffs, covering congressional office management, the organization and operation of Congress, legislative responsibilities, services to constituents, and other duties of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8506/
Biotechnology: Commercialization of Academic Research
This report provides an overview of the commercialization of academic research h in the field of biotechnology. It offers a brief definition, background and policy analysis, as well as legislation and hearings regarding the topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8589/
Black and Hispanic Federal Judges: 1900 to Present
This report shows that in recent years, attention has increasingly focused upon the minority composition of the Federal judiciary, in apparent response to concerns that judges appointed to the Federal bench should more compositely reflect the U.S. population they serve. Two of the larger U.S. subpopulations served by the Federal judiciary are blacks and Hispanics. Accordingly, this mini brief lists chronologically and cumulatively the appointments of blacks and Hispanics to the Federal bench, which includes the U.S.Supreme Court, Circuit Courts of Appeals, and District courts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8861/
Block Grants
This report includes the material on block grants, including a CRS Report on the Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1981, several articles, and a guide to State block grant implementation. For additional information and assistance, we have also included addresses of people to contact on the Federal (p. 59) and State levels (p. 70-104). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8409/
Bomber Options for Replacing B52s
One of the main issues discussed in this report is the replacement of the B-52 bombers, due to the fact that many believe that by 1990, the B-52's vulnerability to improving Soviet air defenses will imperil its effectiveness as a penetrating bomber. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8615/
A Brief History of U.S. Immigration Policy
U.S. immigration policy has been shaped not only by the perceived needs of this country, but by the needs and aspirations of the immigrants themselves. This report reviews the major streams of immigration to the United States in the context of the country's changing views of immigration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8492/
Budget Deficits: Causes, Effects and Some Remedial Options
In 1981 Congress enacted extensive changes in taxing and spending policies that supporters of these changes expected to generate sufficient revenues, despite a series of tax rate cuts, to balance the budget by FY84. After the onset of recession in early 1982, however, the Reagan Administration's projections showed widening budget deficits, which culminated in an actual FY83 deficit of $195.4 billion. Despite enactment of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, and, more recently, the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, large deficits are expected to persist, even under continued favorable economic conditions, unless Federal taxing and spending policies are altered dramatically. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9054/
Busing for School Desegregation
The mandatory transportation of school children to desegregate public elementary and secondary schools is an issue of deep contention throughout our society. The House of Representatives has approved language for the Department of Justice FY82 authorization bill (H.R. 3462) restricting the Department's involvement in actions requiring school busing. On Mar. 2, 1962, t h e Senate approved the version of the Department of Justice F Y 8 2 authorization Bill (S. 951) with language restricting the Justice Department's involvement in busing actions as well as imposing limits on the busing plans Federal courts can impose. S. 551 was then sent to the House for consideration. Hearings on S. 951 before a house Judiciary subcommittee began on June 1'7, 1982. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8601/
Busing for School Desegregation: The Debate on Selected Issues
This paper explores selected questions involving the busing of elementary and secondary school students for desegregation. On each of the selected questions a general analysis of the issue involved is presented, followed by two subsections entitled A Critic's Position and An Advocate's Position. In these subsections, an attempt is made to show how a critic of busing for desegregation and an advocate of such busing might fashion arguments on this issue in opposition to, or in support of, busing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8161/
Campaign Finance Reform: A Summary and Analysis of Legislative Proposals In the 98th and 99th Congresses
This report summarizes and analyzes on a conceptual basis the 108 bills and major amendments offered in the 98th and 99th Congresses which proposed changes in the campaign finance laws governing Federal elections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8171/
Campaign Financing
This is one report in the series of reports that discuss the campaign finance practices and related issues. Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. The report talks about the today’s paramount issues such as perceived loopholes in current law and the longstanding issues: overall costs, funding sources, and competition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8515/
Campaign Financing in Federal Elections: A Guide to the Law and Its Operation
This report provides an introduction to the laws governing the financing of Federal election campaigns and presents data on campaign finance activity in the 1980’s. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8170/
Candidates for Presidential Nomination in 1988: Major Declared Contestants and Campaign Organizations
This report lists the candidates that have withdrawn from the 1988 Presidential race. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9067/
Caribbean Basin Initiative
On August 5, 1983, President Reagan signed Public Law 98-67, which provides duty-free entry into the United States for certain Caribbean exports and allows U.S. business people to take tax deductions for the expense of attending conventions in the Caribbean region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8605/
Caribbean Basin Initiative
The Reagan Administration has proposed legislation which would seek to use trade and aid to promote political stability and economic growth in the Caribbean Basin region. Among other things, it would create a one-way free trade zone, where the small nations of the region would have an opportunity for export-led growth through duty-free access to the U.S. market. It would also provide $350 million in economic aid for 1982 to El Salvador and other Caribbean countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8832/
The Case for and Against an Import Surcharge
The United States is now running a deficit of over $100 billion in its foreign trade and the Federal budget is in the red by roughly $200 billion. To deal with these two deficits, Congress is considering a temporary import surcharge. This brief examines the case for and against such a surcharge as well as its use against Japan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9240/
Casework in a Congressional Office
This paper presents a general overview of congressional office procedures associated with handling casework, and the assistance provided by a Member of Congress to help constituents in their dealings with Federal agencies. It discusses options for assisting Member's constituents, and the role of staff and Members in providing casework services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8162/
Cash and Non-Cash Benefits for Persons with Limited Income: Eligibility Rules, Recipient and Expenditure Data, FY1981-83
This report summarizes basic eligibility rules, as of May 1984, for more than 70 cash and non-cash programs that benefit primarily persons of limited income. It also gives funding formulas, benefit levels, and, for fiscal years 1981-1983, recipient numbers and expenditure data for each program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9041/
Catastrophic Health Insurance: Comparison of the Major Provisions of the "Medicare Catastrophic Protection Act of 1987" (H.R. 2470, as passed by the House July 22, 1987) and the "Medicare Catastrophic Loss Prevention Act of 1987" (S. 1127, as passed by the Senate Finance Committee, July 27, 1987)
Catastrophic Health Insurance: Comparison of the Major Provisions of the “Medicare Catastrophic Protection Act of 1987” (H.R. 2470, as passed by t h e House July 22, 1987) and the "MEDICARE CATASTROPHIC LOSS PREVENTION ACT OF 1987" (S. 1127, as reported by the S e n a t e Finance Committee, July 27, 1987) digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8425/
Catastrophic Health Insurance: Medicare
Catastrophic medical costs are broadly defined as large unpredictable health care expenses; these are usually associated with a major illness or serious injury. The absence of catastrophic health insurance protection for the elderly is the subject of concern in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8717/
The Changing World of Financial Intermediaries and Related Institutions: Survey of Major Developments and Their Implications for Public Policy
Inflation, high and variable interest rates, and new electronic technology have had a profound impact on financial institutions throughout the world. This report surveys how the various kinds of financial institutions in the United States have been affected by these developments, how they have reacted, what major legislative action has been taken, and what policy issues remain. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8504/
Chemical Warfare: A Primer on Agents, Munitions, and Defensive Measures
The recent Department of Defense proposal to develop a capability to modernize and expand the current U.S. chemical warfare munition stocks with binary nerve agent munitions has focused attention on the subject of chemical warfare. This paper provides a brief introductory discussion of modern chemical warfare, describing the types of agents, delivery methods, and defense against chemical agents. It does not discuss policy, strategy, tactics, or disarmament aspects of chemical warfare. These issues w i l l be covered i n CRS Issue Brief IB 8l08l . digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8160/
Child Support Enforcement
During the first session of the 98th Congress, the House passed H.R. 4325, 422-0. This measure requires States to adopt several methods of enforcing overdue child support obligations, including mandatory wage withholding; requires States to permit establishment of paternity until a child's 18th birthday; alters the incentive payment formula for child support collections; and extends the formula to collections made on behalf of non-AFDC children. The report includes background and policy analysis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8713/
The Child Support Enforcement Program
This report provides summary information on the child support enforcement program, established under title IV-D of the Social Security Act. It includes basic program statistics and a description of the administrative structure and major characteristics of the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8411/
China-U.S.-Soviet Relations
In 1979, a time of clear downturn in U.S.-Soviet relations over such sensitive issues as SALT, Soviet troops in Cuba, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the Carter Administration moved ahead with a series of measures designed to improve relations with Moscow's major adversary in Asia, the Peoples Republic of China (P.R.C.). The purpose of this report is to provide background for and summarize current developments in U.S. - People’s Republic of China (PRC) relations, including current and pending congressional actions involving the PRC. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8496/
China-U.S. Trade
The improved political relationship between the United States and the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.), initiated by the Nixon Administration and furthered by the Carter Administration's decision to establish diplomatic relations, has spurred a rapid increase in Sino-U.S. trade. While still small relative to overall U.S. foreign trade, the volume of trade represents an abrupt shift from the no-trade policy that had been pursued since 1950. Despite the rapid expansion, outstanding issues remain as serious barriers to normalized trade. Resolution of those issues may require concession or accommodations by the Chinese leadership as well as action by both the U.S. Congress and the Executive Branch. However, the development of a new approach to foreign economic relations by the post-Mao Chinese leadership and the establishment of diplomatic relations have laid the ground work for a further expansion of commercial relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8404/
Chronology and Brief Description of Federal Food Assistance Legislation, 1935-1983
Since 1935 when Congress first approved the donation of agricultural surplus commodities to low-income populations and school lunch programs, some 57 laws have been passed creating and revising Federal food assistance programs. This report is a chronology of these laws. It briefly describes the major provisions which have led to the network of Federal food assistance programs we know today-- the food stamp program, school lunch and breakfast programs, summer food and child care food programs, special and commodity supplemental food programs for women, infants and children (WICa nd CSFP), elderly nutrition programs, and commodity donation programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8866/
Civil Defense and the Effects of Nuclear War
This Info Pack contains material on nuclear weapons and on the anticipated physical, economic, and social consequences of nuclear attacks on the United States, basic information on the civil defense program, and material discussing some of the arguments, pro and con, surrounding the civil defense issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8603/
Civil Rights Legislation: Responses to Grove City College v. Bell
This report discusses how broad should the coverage of Federal civil rights laws be? This was the central issue in the debate over legislation introduced in response to the February 1984 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Grove City College v. Bell. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9068/
Civil Rights Restoration Act: Bibliography-in-Brief, 1984-1988
This bibliography includes references to magazine articles, monographs, and congressional documents which discuss civil rights legislation following 1984 Supreme Court decision in Grove City v. Bell which ruled title IX applies only to the specific program receiving federal financial assistance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9069/
The Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987: Legal Analysis of S.557
The Senate i n January 1988 passed S. 557 with amendments to “restore the...broad institution – wide application" of certain federal civil rights laws in the wake of t h e U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Grove City College v. Bell . This report discusses the background and contents of this legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9613/
Closing a Congressional Office: A Brief Overview
This paper sets forth questions that a congressional office needs to consider in the process of closing down. These include statutory and non-statutory matters such as staff, the franking privilege, retirement benefits for Members and staff, allowances, and the disposition of congressional papers, and other office items. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8087/
Commerical Television Broadcasting: An Economic Analysis of Its Structure and Competitive Alternatives
This report analyzes the economic structure of both the conventional commercial television broadcasting industry as well as the significant commercial competitive alternatives. Federal Communications Commission policies and their effect on the competitive structure and development of the television industry are also discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8145/
Common Legal Questions and Answers Concerning Currency, Legal Tender and Money
This report answers common legal questions relating to currency, legal tender, and money. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9034/
A Comparison of Benefits Earned Under Social Security and Civil Service Retirement
This report provides a brief side-by-side comparison of Civil Service Retirement and Social Security benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8802/
Compendium of Precedents Involving Evidentiary Rulings and Applications of Evidentiary Principles from Selected Impeachment Trials
At the present time, there are no binding rules of evidence or set of evidentiary principles to be applied in Senate impeachment trials. Rather, recourse is taken to the evidentiary rules and principles applicable in contemporaneous court proceedings and to precedents from past impeachment trial to provide guidance for Senate Impeachment Trial Committees or for the full Senate on evidentiary questions which arise in the impeachment context. This report compiles evidentiary precedents from the Senate impeachment trials of Judges Harry E. Claiborne, Halsted Ritter, Harold Louderback, and Charles Swayne. The evidentiary rulings and principles gleaned from this examination are arranged in subject matter categories, and within those categories, in reverse chronological order by trial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3/
Compensation for Crime Victims
This report discusses the growing interest in recent years in providing compensation for the innocent victims of violent crime through programs financed by the Federal and/or State Governments. At issue have been the general propriety, desirability, and feasibility, as well as the cost, of Federal support of such programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9040/
Congress and Foreign Policy: Selected References
This spreading list presents literature on the role of Congress in the conduct of foreign relations. Citations include such topics as the relationship between Congress and the executive, role of committees, and the impact of foreign policy decisions. The focus is on the current literature, but older materials are included to provide historical background on this topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9614/