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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Recreation on Federal Lands
This report discusses recreation in federal lands that covers approximately 653 million acres of federally-owned land in the United States. This preservation/use dichotomy, while varying among agencies, is a focal point for debate over recreation on federal lands. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98069/
Recreation on Federal Lands
The growing and diverse nature of recreation on federal lands has increased the challenge of balancing recreation with other land uses, and balancing different types of recreation. Motorized recreation has been particularly controversial, with issues centering on access and environmental impacts. The 109th Congress may consider legislation and conduct oversight on issues involving recreation on federal lands, including traditional recreational pursuits and newer forms of motorized recreation. Other federal land recreation issues of possible interest include recreational uses within the National Wildlife Refuge System, recreation at federal water, recreation fees, and Grand Canyon Colorado River management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83877/
Recruiting and Retention: An Overview of Fiscal Year 2009 and Fiscal Year 2010 Results for Active and Reserve Component Enlisted Personnel
Report that provides a brief overview of the recruiting and retention results for Active and Reserve Component enlisted personnel during FY2009 and FY2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228013/
Recruiting and Retention: An Overview of FY2004 and FY2005 Results for Active and Reserve Component Enlisted Personnel
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7293/
Recruiting and Retention: An Overview of FY2004 and FY2005 Results for Active and Reserve Component Enlisted Personnel
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7294/
Recruiting and Retention: An Overview of FY2005 and FY2006 Results for Active and Reserve Component Enlisted Personnel
This report provides a brief overview of the recruiting and retention rates for Active and Reserve Component enlisted personnel during FY2005 and the first nine months of FY2006. Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the U.S. has launched several major military operations which have dramatically increased the operations tempo of the military services, required the large scale mobilization of reservists, and resulted in significant battle casualties. These factors have been particularly applicable to the Army, Army Reserve, and Army National Guard, which have shouldered the bulk of the manpower burden associated with the occupation of Iraq. Many observers have expressed concern that these factors might lead to lower recruiting and retention rates, thereby jeopardizing the vitality of today's all-volunteer military. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10373/
Recruiting and Retention: An Overview of FY2005 and FY2006 Results for Active and Reserve Component Enlisted Personnel
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9386/
Recruiting and Retention: An Overview of FY2005 and FY2006 Results for Active and Reserve Component Enlisted Personnel
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8290/
Recruiting and Retention: An Overview of FY2005 and FY2006 Results for Active and Reserve Component Enlisted Personnel
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9810/
Recruiting and Retention: An Overview of FY2008 and FY2009 Results for Active and Reserve Component Enlisted Personnel
This report provides a brief overview of the recruiting and retention rates for Active and Reserve Component enlisted personnel during FY2008 and FY2009. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626911/
Recruiting, Retention, and Quality in the All-Volunteer Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8152/
Recycling Computers and Electronic Equipment: Legislative and Regulatory Approaches for "E-Waste"
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3480/
Recycling Computers and Electronic Equipment: Legislative and Regulatory Approaches for "E-Waste"
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3481/
Redefining the Federal Role in Elementary and Secondary Education: The Goals 2000 Proposal and Reauthorization of the ESEA
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8175/
Reduce, Refinance, and Rent? The Economic Incentives, Risks, and Ramifications of Housing Market Policy Options
This report discusses the background of financial panic in September 2008, precipitated by the housing bubble of 2006. In particular, the report looks at options that the 112th Congress has regarding the housing market: (1) reducing mortgage principal for borrowers who owe more than their homes are worth, (2) refinancing mortgages for borrowers shut out of traditional financing methods, and (3) renting out foreclosed homes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96719/
Reducing Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Military Retirees and the Bipartisan Budget Act: In Brief
This report discusses the reduction of cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for military retirees through the Bipartisan Budget Act (BBA). It includes an overview of the changes, demographics of military retirees, and potential effects of the changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282301/
Reducing Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Military Retirees and the Bipartisan Budget Act: In Brief
This report discusses the reduction of cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for military retirees through the Bipartisan Budget Act (BBA). It includes an overview of the changes, demographics of military retirees, and potential effects of the changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282295/
Reducing Teen Pregnancy: Adolescent Family Life and Abstinence Education Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5749/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: Overview of Policy Issues
This report discusses why the federal government's fiscal path is unsustainable and provides an overview of proposals of selected groups that have published detailed recommendations on how to return the federal budget to a sustainable course. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463275/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: Policy Issues
This report addresses questions such as, how large are projected deficits under current policy? How much deficit reduction is necessary? How quickly should the deficit be reduced? The report also discusses policy options for deficit reduction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40136/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: Policy Issues
This report discusses why the federal government's fiscal path is unsustainable and provides an overview of proposals of selected groups that have published detailed recommendations on how to return the federal budget to a sustainable course. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87178/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: Tax Policy Options
This report begins by reviewing the current fiscal situation. As a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), revenues remain at historically low levels while spending remains elevated, contributing to budget deficits. The budget deficit in FY2011 is projected to be nearly $1.5 trillion, or 9.8% of GDP. Further, in recent years, the share of the federal budget devoted to mandatory spending has increased, making it difficult, if not impossible, for fiscal sustainability to be achieved through cuts in discretionary spending alone. Large budget deficits continue to contribute to a growing national debt, which, if left unchecked, could undermine future economic growth. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40118/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: Tax Policy Options
This report analyzes various revenue options for deficit reduction, highlighting proposals made by the President's Fiscal Commission and the Debt Reduction Task Force. Others, such as House Budget Committee Chairman Paul Ryan and the Obama Administration, have noted the importance of tax reform as part of a deficit reduction plans. These plans, however, do not provide the same level of detail as the Fiscal Commission and Debt Reduction Task Force, and are therefore not reviewed in detail as part of this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40119/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: Tax Policy Options
This report analyzes various revenue options for deficit reduction, highlighting proposals made by the President's Fiscal Commission and the Debt Reduction Task Force. Others, such as House Budget Committee Chairman Paul Ryan and the Obama Administration, have noted the importance of tax reform as part of a deficit reduction plans. These plans, however, do not provide the same level of detail as the Fiscal Commission and Debt Reduction Task Force, and are therefore not reviewed in detail as part of this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96684/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: The President's Fiscal Commission and Other Initiatives
This report discusses why the federal government's fiscal path is unsustainable and provides an overview of proposals of selected groups that have published detailed recommendations on how to return the federal budget to a sustainable course. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40141/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: The President's Fiscal Commission and Other Initiatives
This report discusses why the federal government's fiscal path is unsustainable and provides an overview of proposals of selected groups that have published detailed recommendations on how to return the federal budget to a sustainable course. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40140/
Reexamination of Agency Reporting Requirements: Annual Process Under the GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 (GPRAMA)
On January 4, 2011, the GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 (GPRAMA) became law. The acronym "GPRA" in the act's short title refers to the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA 1993), a law that GPRAMA substantially modified. Some of GPRAMA's provisions require agencies to produce plans and reports for a variety of audiences that focus on goal-setting and performance measurement. Other provisions, by contrast, establish an annual process to reexamine the usefulness of certain reporting requirements. The report concludes by looking potential issues for Congress in two categories. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85406/
References for Congressional Offices: Print, Online, and Services
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2290/
Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC): Selection of Judges
This report surveys the process of "designation," an alternative method used by Congress that allows current federal judges to serve temporarily on another federal court without undergoing a separate constitutional appointment. It explores how a reviewing court might evaluate the constitutionality of these proposals that would shift the authority to select Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) judges away from the Chief Justice alone, and vest it in other officials within the judicial, executive, and legislative branches. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306458/
Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts: A Brief Overview
This report discusses the recent disclosures of various National Security Agency (NSA) surveillance and data collection programs that have prompted increased attention on the government's collection of foreign intelligence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284456/
Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts: Introducing a Public Advocate
This report explores all of these difficult constitutional issues prompted by the idea of making Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) court proceedings more adversarial. It includes background on public advocates, their roles and appointment, and Article III issues raised by a FISA public advocate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284522/
Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts: Procedural and Operational Changes
This report begins with an overview of both the FISC and the FISA Court of Review, including the jurisdiction of these courts, how the judges are appointed, and the FISC's practices and procedures for reviewing and issuing surveillance orders. The report then discusses the scope and underlying legal principles behind congressional regulation of the procedures of the federal courts, and applies those principles with respect to the various proposals to reform the FISA judicial review process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462811/
Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives
This report describes and assesses the principal prescriptions that have been offered for broad reform of the international system. It begins with an overview of current law and possible revisions. It then sets the framework for considering economic efficiency as well as tax shelter activities. Finally, it reviews alternative approaches to revision in light of those issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689501/
Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives
This report describes and assesses the principal prescriptions that have been offered for broad reform of the current U.S. system for taxing international businesses. The report begins with an overview of current law and of possible revisions. It then sets the framework for considering economic efficiency as well as tax shelter activities. Finally, it reviews alternative approaches to revision in light of those issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31427/
Refugee Act Reauthorization: Admissions and Resettlement Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8837/
Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy
This report discusses the annual number of refugees that can be admitted into the United States, known as the refugee ceiling, and the allocation of these numbers by region that are set by the President after consultation with Congress at the start of each fiscal year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284506/
Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy
This report discusses the annual number of refugees that can be admitted into the United States, known as the refugee ceiling, and the allocation of these numbers by region that are set by the President after consultation with Congress at the start of each fiscal year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503648/
Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3164/
Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy
This report discusses the annual number of refugees that can be admitted into the United States, known as the refugee ceiling, and the allocation of these numbers by region that are set by the President after consultation with Congress at the start of each fiscal year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227970/
Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy
Typically, the annual number of refugees that can be admitted into the United States, known as the refugee ceiling, and the allocation of these numbers by region are set by the President after consultation with Congress at the start of each fiscal year. For FY2012, the worldwide refugee ceiling is 76,000, with 73,000 admissions numbers allocated among the regions of the world and 3,000 numbers comprising an unallocated reserve. Overseas processing of refugees is conducted through a system of three priorities for admission. Priority 1 comprises cases involving persons facing compelling security concerns. Priority 2 comprises cases involving persons from specific groups of special humanitarian concern to the United States (e.g., Iranian religious minorities). Priority 3 comprises family reunification cases involving close relatives of persons admitted as refugees or granted asylum. Special legislative provisions facilitate relief for certain refugee groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86642/
Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy: Facts and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs996/
Refugee Assistance in the Foreign Aid Bill: Problems and Prospects
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3160/
Refugee Assistance in the Foreign Aid Bill: Problems and Prospects
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3161/
Refugee Assistance in the Foreign Aid Bill: Problems and Prospects
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1252/
Refugee Assistance in the Foreign Aid Bill: Problems and Prospects
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1823/
Regional Free Trade Partners and U.S. Interests: What's Next?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs264/
The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Lessons Learned and Issues for Policy Makers
The first section of this report provides an overview of the RGGI cap-and-trade program and the participating RGGI states. The subsequent sections discuss selected issues raised by RGGI that may be of interest to policy makers. The final section provides some final observations that may be instructive to policy makers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491501/
The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Lessons Learned and Issues for Policymakers
This report discusses recent actions taken by state and local governments to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first section of this report provides an overview of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) cap-and-trade program and the participating RGGI states. The second section discusses selected issues raised by RGGI that may be of interest to policymakers who are considering developing a federal program. The final section provides some final thoughts concerning the RGGI program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463430/
Regional Haze: EPA's Proposal to Improve Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6967/
Regional Security Consultative Organizations in East Asia and Their Implications for the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs134/