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 Decade: 1980-1989
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Health Insurance: The Pro-Competition Proposals
For more than a decade, Congress and the Executive Branch have tried to stem spiraling health care costs through various regulatory actions at the Federal and State levels. Planning laws, for example, focus regulatory attention on the capacity of the health care industry to provide health services. Other laws have created programs to monitor and control the use of services provided to individual patients. Direct wage and price controls were applied to the health industry in the early 1970's and in recent years Congress has debated whether to impose controls over hospital spending in the United States. This report discusses the debate surrounding various approaches to lower health care costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8608/
Health Maintenance Organizations
This report discusses the "health maintenance organization", which is an entity that provides specific health services to its members for a prepaid, fixed payment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8788/
Heroin: Legalization for Medical Use
This report discusses the limited legalization of diacetylmorphine (heroin) for use in the medical treatment of intractable pain. The report attempts to present pros and cons on the issue as well as information on pending legislation. The report also provides a comparison of heroin's analgesic qualities to those of currently available and equivalent pharmaceutical alternatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8864/
High Interest Rates: Causes and Effects
This report describes the major market and policy forces that determine the general level of interest rates. The discussion is related to the recent economic experience of high interest rates and inflation, but may be generally applied to any economic environment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8149/
High Interest Rates: Causes, Consequences, and Issues
This paper reviews the causes of the steep interest rate escalation since 1978 and the persistence of high rates during the recent recession and revival. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8873/
Homeless in America
This report discusses questions dealing with the number of homeless Americans as well as trends in society's attitudes toward such people. The incidence of mental illness and the appropriateness, or lack thereof, of deinstitutionalization for such patients is another aspect of the problem which is covered in this packet. A CRS report gives an overview of the situation and of the Federal response. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9047/
The Homeless: Overview of the Problem and the Federal Response
This report discusses the problem of homelessness in the U.S. and the resulting policy response. Unlike the skid row "derelicts" who comprised the typical homeless population of the 1960s, today's street people represent many diverse groups including: the mentally ill, evicted families, the aged, alcoholics, drug addicts, abused spouses, abused young people, and cast-off children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8869/
Honduras: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts
This report provides basic information on the U.S. aid program and on the general situation in Honduras. It also outlines major issues that have arisen in the aid debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8841/
Hospital Cost Containment
This report provides an overview of the dimensions of the problem of rising expenditures for hospital care, the reasons for rising hospital costs, general information on methods of controlling hospital costs and specific programs which have been developed, and some of the issues involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8831/
How the Food Stamp Program Works
This report briefly describes the present operation of the Food Stamp program, reflecting legislative revisions through 1982. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8505/
Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy
Following a review of such broad policy issues, this report treats specific human rights issues of current interest. Discussions of controversy over the selection of an Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs and of human rights policy at the international financial institutions are followed by reviews of U.S. human rights policy toward Argentina, El Salvador, Nicaragua, South Africa, and the Soviet Union. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8859/
Human Rights in U.S. Foreign Relations: Six Key Questions in the Continuing Policy Debate
This report provides background information and a general overview of the role of human rights in U.S. foreign policy. It includes a discussion of some traditional arguments about how international human rights concerns might be integrated with other foreign policy factors. It also includes a discussion of the definition of human rights, of U.S. international obligations to promote human rights, and the apparatus and procedures available to the U.S. Government for implementing human rights policy. Particular attention is paid to congressional actions, not only in debating and holding hearings on human rights issues, but especially in enacting laws to assure that U.S. foreign policy formulation and practice include consideration of the status of human rights in other countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8397/
The Immigration and Nationality Act: Questions and Answers
The basic United States law governing immigration and naturalization is contained in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1101 -- et seq.). This report provides questions and answers to explain the way in which the Immigration and Nationality Act as amended through 1981 regulates the entry of aliens for permanent and temporary residence in the United States, and other major provisions of the law. Emphasis is placed on subjects which have been of particular interest to the Congress in recent years. This supersedes CRS Report No. 81-65 EPW. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8507/
Immigration Issues and Legislation in the 98th Congress
This report discusses Immigration reform, which continues to be of concern in the '96th Congress, and legislation has been moving quickly. Specific issues include illegal immigration, temporary workers, legalization, asylum adjudications, and legal immigration. The legislation under consideration is the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1983, popularly referred to as the Simpson-Mazzoli bill, introduced in the House and Senate on Feb, 17, 1983 as H.R. 1510 and S. 529. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8839/
Imported Automobiles in the United States: Their Rising Market Share and the Macroeconomic Impact of a Proposed Import Restriction
After two generations of almost unchallenged supremacy, the U.S. auto industry has recently faced plummeting sales, rising competition from imports, and mounting requirements for capital investment and structural change. This has resulted in massive spilling of red ink in the industry's profit and loss columns, further financial pressures on the ailing Chrysler Corporation, layoffs of nearly 250,000 workers (as of August 4, 1980 in the automotive industry alone according to the United Auto Workers Union) and soaring claims for unemployment compensation and trade adjustment assistance. This study focuses on import competition in the auto industry and the economic impact of proposals to limit such competition through either import quotas or agreements with foreign governments (Japan) to restrict automotive exports to the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8147/
Increased U.S. Military Sales to China: Arguments and Alternatives
The report examines the current debate in the United States over proposals for increased U.S. military sales to China. The study first examines the background of U.S.-China security ties since the Nixon Administration, and then sets forth the parameters of the current debate by noting a number of issues concerning U.S. military transfers to China on which all sides generally agree. It shows that Americans familiar with the issue tend to identify with different groups of opinion or "schools of thought" on the question of U.S. military transfers to China, and provides a detailed pro-con analysis of the issue. It concludes by noting cross pressures that are likely to greet U.S. policy makers as they grapple with this issue in the months ahead and offers an assessment of four policy options of possible use by U.S. policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8154/
Independent Truckers: The Effects of Recent Legislation on Earnings (Effects of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982 and the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1983, as they affect highway-related taxes, two trailers, length and width of vehicles, and weights and loads)
Congress passed legislation late in 1982 that is expected to have a significant effect on the annual net earnings of independent truckers. About 90 percent of fresh produce, most used household goods, and from one-third to one-half of all fabricated steel and other commodities transported by truck are hauled by independent truckers. The legislation raised the Federal fuel tax by 5 cents per gallon and significantly raised a highway use tax that is based on the weight of the vehicle. The legislation also allowed truckers to use two trailers, longer and wider vehicles, and carry heavier loads. This CRS report discusses these 1982 changes in Federal legislation. It also contains an estimate of the upper and lower bound of the impact that these changes could have on the annual net earnings of independent truckers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8812/
Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs)
Recent changes in the Nation's tax laws have made Individual Retirement Accounts available to many people previously excluded. This report provides general information on IRAs including material explaining these recent changes and their consequences. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8165/
Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs): Tax Incentives for Retirement Savings
This report discusses Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRA) and their tax incentives. Many workers covered by employer-sponsored retirement plans do not work long enough with one employer to be entitled to a pension. Others may be covered by a profit-sharing plan to which the employer may have little or no profits to contribute. Since these individuals were "covered" by a retirement plan, they were ineligible to make tax-deductible contributions to a tax-sheltered Individual Retirement Arrangement (IRA). Many observers considered this a tax inequity and felt that all employees should be eligible to establish their own IRAs or make tax-deductible contributions to their employer's plan. Congress responded to this situation by approving retirement savings incentives for all workers as part of the tax cut bill (H.R. 4242). All workers, whether or not covered by an employer pension plan, are now permitted tax deductible contributions to IRAs up to $2,000 a year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8611/
Infant Formula: National Problems
This report discusses congressional concerns regarding infant formula that was deficient in a required nutrient. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9046/
Information Services for Agriculture: The Role of Technology
Significant improvements in technology-supported information services have created opportunities for their utilization by the farmers and ranchers of our Nation. This report highlights the development and expanded offering of these systems, describes current operational and experimental systems, and presents salient legislative initiatives which address this priority area. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8510/
The Insanity Defense: An Overview and Legislative Proposals
This report will discuss the insanity defense as used in the federal courts. It will briefly trace the history of the evolution of that defense from its earliest formulation to the version used in the John Hinckley case, and will provide, in summary form, descriptive analysis of various pieces of Legislation to change federal law with regard to the substantive definition of the defense, the allocation of the burden of persuasion when the defense is invoked, and procedures following the successful use of the defense. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8500/
Iran-Contra Affair: Biographical Profiles
This report provides biographical information on individuals who have been associated in public reports with the controversy surrounding the secret U.S. arms sales to Iran and the channeling of profits to the rebels or Contras in Nicaragua. The information has been compiled from public sources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8423/
The Iran-Iraq War: Implications for U.S. Policy
This report discusses the Iran-Iraq conflict at its present state, which has become a war of attrition with neither side capable of achieving a decisive military victory over the other in the short term. U.S. policy concerns currently are threefold: first, that Iraq, despite moves to sustain its economic and military capacities, ultimately might suffer a destabilizing defeat to the detriment of U.S. interests in the Persian Gulf region; second, that future instability in Iran could open opportunities for Soviet exploitation; and third, that the conflict might expand beyond its present confines to threaten friendly regional states and the availability of their vast petroleum resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9596/
Japan: Prospects for Greater Market Openness
Japan has made considerable progress in opening its economy to imports, but significant obstacles remain. This report analyzes the underlying causes of Japan's market protection and assesses the prospects for Japan moving in the direction of greater market openness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5/
Japan-U.S. Trade
This report provides background and current analysis of the Japan--U.S. trade situation, discusses the political and economic tensions which this imbalance has created, and outlines the problems involved in several current negotiations, such as the question of trade barriers to U.S. agricultural exports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8711/
Japan-U.S. Trade Relations
This report discusses trade relations between the U.S. and Japan. Commercial aspects of the United States-Japan alliance, in recent years, have begun to dominate the dialogue between the two nations. In particular, friction points have developed over chronic U.S. bilateral trade deficits with Japan, allegations of Japanese protectionism, and rapid incursions into U.S. markets by Japanese export products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8612/
The Japanese Health Care System
This report provides (1) a description of the coverage, benefits, financing and administration of the Japanese health insurance plans; (2) a discussion of the way in which reimbursement levels for health care providers are determined; and (3) an analysis of the way in which the provision of health care system is organized in Japan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2/
Japan's International Trade Patterns, Institutions, and Policies
This report presents an overview of Japan's performance in its trading relations. The report begins with a discussion of the development, size, and importance of Japan's international trading sector. It then examines the composition, institutions, and policies for trade. This is followed by a review of Japan's balance of payments, capital flows, value of the yen, and direction of trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8511/
Job Training Programs: Reauthorization and Funding Issues
This paper is divided into the following sections: (1) History of Federal Employment and Training Programs; (2) Reauthorization Issues; (3) Administration Legislative and Budget Proposals; and (4) Congressional Action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8828/
Kissinger Commission Implementation: Actions by the Congress Through 1986 on the Recommendations of the National Bipartisan Commission of Central America
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8422/
The Labor Market of the 1980s: Unemployment Omens in a Growing Economy
This report provides discussion over the nature of job growth, the labor market of the 1980s, and the skill and pay ladder. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9607/
The Labor Market of the 1980s: Unemployment Omens in a Growing Economy
This report provides discussion over the nature of job growth, the labor market of the 1980s, and the skill and pay ladder. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9616/
Land Disposal Policies of the Principal Federal Land Management Agencies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8155/
Large and Continuing Deficits: Their Influence on Macroeconomic Performance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8803/
Leasing of Energy and Mineral Resources on Federal Lands
This report discusses the leasing of energy and mineral resources on federal lands. Leasing of energy minerals has been an issue of varying intensity for most of the past century, as oil, gas, and coal became indispensable commodities in both U.S. and world commerce. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8792/
Legal Analysis of President Reagan's Proposed Constitutional Amendment on School Prayer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8801/
Legal Implications of the Contagious Disease or Infections Amendment to the Civil Rights Restoration Act, S.557
This report discusses the civil rights restoration act, S. 557, as it passed the House and Senate. This provision would most likely be interpreted as codifying the existing standards relating to section 504 interpretation concerning discrimination against individuals with handicaps. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9610/
Legal Right of Minors to Obtain Contraceptives
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8418/
The Liability Insurance Controversy
This report discusses liability insurance, as the primary method of managing business related risks that has been recognized as one of the foundations of American commerce. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9598/
The Liability Insurance Controversy
This report discusses liability insurance, as the primary method of managing business related risks that has been recognized as one of the foundations of American comnerce. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9588/
The Liability Insurance Crisis
This report discusses liability insurance crisis, including complaints from businesses, professionals , and municipalities as well threat of lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9589/
The Liability Insurance Crisis
This report discusses liability insurance crisis, including complaints from businesses, professionals , and municipalities as well threat of lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9599/
Lobby Act Reform
This report discusses the methods to achieve effective accountability form lobbyists groups and individuals who seek to influence the governmental decision-making process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8403/
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation: More Energy from Less Fuel
This report discusses magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation, which is a method for converting heat directly into electrical energy without the use of a rotating electrical power generator. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8402/
Major Trends in U.S. Foreign Assistance to Central America: 1978-1986
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8417/
Mandated Employer Provided Health Insurance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8517/
Manual on the Federal Budget Process
The purpose of this manual is to assist users of Federal budget information in understanding how the process works and how data are to be interpreted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9606/
Manual on the Federal Budget Process
The purpose of this manual is to assist users of Federal budget information in understanding how the process works and how data are to be interpreted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9597/
Martial Law in Poland
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8807/