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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Nigeria in Political Transition
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Nigeria in Political Transition
Relations between the United States and Nigeria improved with the transfer of power to a civilian government in 1999. Nigeria continues to make progress in strengthening its fragile democracy but faces serious economic challenges. Nigeria remains relatively stable, although ethnic and religious clashes in some parts of the country have led to massive displacement of civilian populations. This report outlines the current political and economic states of Nigeria, as well as its relationship with the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10296/
Nigeria in Political Transition
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Nigeria's 2015 Elections and the Boko Haram Crisis
This report provides an overview of the social and political situation in Nigeria. The report discusses the 2015 election in Nigeria, the rising threat of Boko Haram, and the U.S. policy and assistance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501641/
Nigeria's 2015 Elections and the Boko Haram Crisis
This report provides an overview of recent 2011 Nigerian elections, development challenges, reform initiatives, social issues, security concerns, and international relations in Nigeria. It ends with some concerns for Congress, including U.S.-Nigerian trade issues, Nigerian counter-terrorism efforts, and U.S. assistance to Nigeria. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501646/
Nigeria's 2015 Elections and the Boko Haram Crisis
This report provides an overview of the political and social situation in Nigeria. The report discusses Nigeria's 2015 elections and the Boko Haram crisis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503655/
Nigeria's Boko Haram and the Islamic State
This report discusses the Nigerian Islamist insurgent group Boko Haram, and their statement pledging loyalty to the leader of the Syria/Iraq-based Islamic State (IS/ISIL) organization and the implication for U.S. foreign policy and national security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503645/
Nigeria's Boko Haram: Frequently Asked Questions
This report discusses Boko Haram, a violent Nigerian Islamist movement, has grown increasingly active and deadly in its attacks against state and civilian targets in recent years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306560/
Nigeria's Boko Haram: Frequently Asked Questions
This report discusses Boko Haram, a violent Nigerian Islamist movement, that has grown increasingly active and deadly in its attacks against state and civilian targets in recent years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306500/
The NIH Recombinant DNA Guidelines: Brief History and Current Status
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Nitrogen Oxides and Electric Utilities: Revising the NSPS
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The No Child Left Behind Act: An Overview of Reauthorization Issues for the 111th Congress
This report provides an overview of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and discusses the reauthorization of the No Child Left Behind Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627250/
The No Child Left Behind Act and "Unfunded Mandates": A Legal Analysis of School District of the City of Pontiac v. Secretary of the United States Department of Education
This report discusses some of the implications of the Sixth Circuit's decision in School District of the City of Pontiac v. Secretary of the United States Department of Education. This includes information regarding the potential practical effect, procedural ramifications, and legal impact of both the original ruling and the recent decision to rehear the case. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700661/
No-fault Eviction of Public Housing Tenants for Illegal Drug Use: A Legal Analysis of Department of Housing and Urban Development v. Rucker
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No-Fault Motor Vehicle Insurance
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The No Fly List: Procedural Due Process and Hurdles to Litigation
This report provides an overview of the operation of the government's watchlists, examine some of the legal issues implicated by challenges to the No Fly list, and describe recent case law on the matter. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462385/
No-Fly Zones: Strategic, Operational, and Legal Considerations for Congress
This report discusses the establishment of no-fly zones and several related issues for Congress surrounding the strategy, including international authorization, congressional authorization, operations, and costs of establishing and maintaining no-fly zones. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463064/
No-Fly Zones: Strategic, Operational, and Legal Considerations for Congress
The ongoing uprising in Libya against the government of Muammar al Qadhafi has been the subject of ongoing domestic and international debate about potential international military intervention, including the proposed establishment of a no-fly zone over Libya. This report discusses several related issues for Congress surrounding the strategy, international authorization, congressional authorization, operations, and costs of establishing and maintaining no-fly zones. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33028/
No-Fly Zones: Strategic, Operational, and Legal Considerations for Congress
This report discusses the establishment of no-fly zones and several related issues for Congress surrounding the strategy, including international authorization, congressional authorization, operations, and costs of establishing and maintaining no-fly zones. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97997/
No Second Amendment Cases for the Supreme Court's 2014-2015 Term...Yet
This report discusses the reluctance by the Supreme Court to take cases involving the Second Amendment. Commentators have observed that the Court appears to have become "gun shy" regarding this issue, given that it has not taken up a Second Amendment case since its landmark rulings in District of Columbia v. Heller in 2008 and McDonald v. City of Chicago in 2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795465/
Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations
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Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations
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Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations
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Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations
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Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations
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Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations
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Nomination and Confirmation of Lower Federal Court Judges in Presidential Election Years
This report seeks to shed light on whether Senate processing of lower court nominations, particularly to the courts of appeals, has tended over recent decades to slow down in presidential election years. The report begins by reviewing recent debate, and historical events dating back to 1980, concerning whether the Senate and its Judiciary Committee customarily observe a practice referred to as the "Thurmond rule." Next, the report provides narratives on each presidential election year from 1980 to 2004, reviewing Senate and committee actions taken on court of appeals and district court nominations in each of the years. The report then compares these years quantitatively, examining the number and percent of nominations processed and the last dates of committee and Senate action taken. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462850/
Nomination and Confirmation of the FBI Director: Process and Recent History
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Nominations to Article III Lower Courts by President George W. Bush During the 110th Congress
This report tracks nominations made by President George W. Bush to judgeships on the U.S. courts of appeals, the U.S. district courts, and the U.S. Court of International Trade — the lower courts on which, pursuant to Article III of the Constitution, judges serve "during good Behaviour." It lists and keeps count of all nominations made to these courts during the 110th Congress, including pertinent actions taken by the Senate Judiciary Committee and the full Senate. It also tracks the number of judicial vacancies on the courts (including vacancies classified by the federal judiciary as "judicial emergencies"), the number of nominations pending to fill the vacancies, and the names of the pending nominees. It presents the number of persons nominated by President Bush to each category of lower Article III court during his entire presidency (breaking down each total to show the number confirmed, pending, returned and not re-nominated, and withdrawn). Last, it provides tabular and graphical comparisons of President Bush's lower court nominee statistics with those of the four Presidents who immediately preceded him. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463022/
Nominations to Article III Lower Courts by President George W. Bush During the 110th Congress
This report tracks nominations made by President George W. Bush to judgeships on the U.S. courts of appeals, the U.S. district courts, and the U.S. Court of International Trade. It lists and keeps count of all nominations made to these courts during the 110th Congress, including pertinent actions taken by the Senate Judiciary Committee and the full Senate. It also tracks the number of judicial vacancies on the courts (including vacancies classified by the federal judiciary as "judicial emergencies"), the number of nominations pending to fill the vacancies, and the names of the pending nominees. It presents the number of persons nominated by President Bush to each category of lower Article III court during his entire presidency (breaking down each total to show the number confirmed, pending, returned and not re-nominated, and withdrawn). Last, it provides a tabular comparison of President Bush's lower court nominee statistics with those of the four Presidents who immediately preceded him. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462139/
Nominations to Cabinet Positions During Inter-Term Transitions Since 1984
This report documents nominations to Cabinet positions during inter-term presidential transitions since 1984. During this period, three two-term Presidents — Ronald W. Reagan, William J. Clinton, and George W. Bush — made 30 nominations during inter-term transitions. For the purposes of this report, CRS considered an inter-term nomination to be one made between November 1 of a President's reelection year and April 30 of the first year of his second term. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461886/
Nominations to Cabinet Positions During Inter-Term Transitions Since 1984
This report discusses nominations to Cabinet positions during inter-term presidential transitions. It begins with a discussion of the positions that make up the Cabinet and the process by which nominations to such positions are considered in the Senate. Following this discussion, the report provides data on, and analysis of, the pace of Senate consideration of inter-term transition nominations to Cabinet positions since 1984. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463310/
Nominations to U.S. Circuit and District Courts by President Obama During the 111th and 112th Congresses
Recent Senate debates in the 112th Congress over judicial nominations have focused on issues such as the relative degree of success of President Barack Obama's nominees in gaining Senate confirmation (compared with other recent Presidents) as well as the effect of delayed judicial appointments on judicial vacancy levels. The following report addresses these issues, and others, by providing a statistical overview of President Obama's nominees to U.S. circuit court of appeals and U.S. district court judgeships, current through May 31, 2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87238/
Non-Governmental Organizations’ Activities in North Korea
This report looks at the activities and effectiveness of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) - non-profit, charitable institutions - in the lives of ordinary North Koreans. The role of NGOs in North Korea may re-emerge as a congressional interest, as the Obama Administration has expressed interest in restarting humanitarian assistance to North Korea. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99053/
Non-Indigenous Species: Government Response to the Brown Tree Snake and Issues for Congress
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Noncitizen Eligibility and Verification Issues in the Health Care Reform Legislation
This report focuses on this nexus of immigration law and health care reform in the major health care reform bills that are receiving action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505445/
Noncitizen Eligibility and Verification Issues in the Health Care Reform Legislation
This report focuses on this nexus of immigration law and health care reform in the major health care reform bills that are receiving action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505536/
Noncitizen Eligibility and Verification Issues in the Health Care Reform Legislation
This report focuses on this nexus of immigration law and health care reform in the major health care reform bills that are receiving action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505538/
Noncitizen Eligibility for Federal Public Assistance: Policy Overview and Trends
This report deals with the four major federal means-tested benefit programs: the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly food stamps), the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant programs, and Medicaid. It is organized into four main parts: an overview of existing eligibility law for the four programs and the policies that preceded the 1996 act; an overview of related immigrant policies affecting eligibility (specifically, the treatment of sponsored aliens); an analysis of trends in noncitizen poverty and benefit use; and a summary of the eligibility rules for aliens residing in the United States illegally. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490965/
Noncitizen Eligibility for Federal Public Assistance: Policy Overview and Trends
This report discusses the extent to which residents of the United States who are not U.S. citizens should be eligible for federally-funded public aid. This issue meets at the intersection of two major policy areas: immigration policy and welfare policy. This report deals with the four major federal means-tested benefit programs: the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly food stamps), the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant programs, and Medicaid. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462100/
Noncitizen Eligibility for Federal Public Assistance: Policy Overview and Trends
This report discusses the extent to which residents of the United States who are not U.S. citizens should be eligible for federally-funded public aid. This issue meets at the intersection of two major policy areas: immigration policy and welfare policy. This report deals with the four major federal means-tested benefit programs: the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly food stamps), the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant programs, and Medicaid. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122311/
Nondiscrimination in Environmental Regulation: A Legal Analysis
This report will examine the relevant legal authorities that may be asserted to address disproportionate impacts that result from how an agency implements environmental regulations, including the Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. Constitution, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and various environmental and conservation statutes. It will discuss administrative efforts to address "environmental justice," a term used by some advocates to refer to the distribution of environmental quality across various demographic groups, including the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Plan EJ 2014. It will also analyze the use of these authorities to prevent such impacts and the likelihood of success for future challenges under each legal theory. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463063/
Nonforeign Cost-of-Living Allowances and Possible Transition to Locality Pay
This report provides an overview of the history of the nonforeign COLA and locality pay programs; identifies and describes potential changes to the existing nonforeign COLA system, including the possibility of instituting locality pay; and analyzes the potential effects of keeping the existing system or adopting a nonforeign COLA phase-out plan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462890/
Nonimmigrant Overstays: Brief Synthesis of the Issue
This report discusses a fundamental problem of immigration control in which foreign nationals enter legally on a temporary basis and continue to stay after their visas expire. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276859/
Nonimmigrant Overstays: Brief Synthesis of the Issue
This report discusses a fundamental problem of immigration control in which foreign nationals enter legally on a temporary basis and continue to stay after their visas expire. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505592/
Nonimmigrant Overstays: Brief Synthesis of the Issue
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Nonmarital Childbearing: Trends, Reasons, and Public Policy Interventions
This report analyzes the trends in nonmarital childbearing, discusses some of the characteristics of unwed mothers, addresses some issues involving the fathers of children born outside of marriage, covers many of the reasons for nonmarital childbearing, examines the impact of nonmarital births on families and on the nation, and presents the public policy interventions that have been used to prevent nonmarital births or ameliorate some of the negative financial consequences that are sometimes associated with nonmarital childbearing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26294/
Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union
This report focuses on funding for threat reduction and nonproliferation programs in the states of the former Soviet Union. Although the United States has expanded its efforts to programs that seek to assist other nations in securing nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons materials, the overwhelming majority of U.S. funds still support programs in the former Soviet states. Nevertheless, because U.S. funding and focus has shifted in recent years, this report provides only a partial view of U.S. nonproliferation and threat reduction programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505364/
Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union
This report focuses on funding for threat reduction and nonproliferation programs in the states of the former Soviet Union. Although the United States has expanded its efforts to programs that seek to assist other nations in securing nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons materials, the overwhelming majority of U.S. funds still support programs in the former Soviet states. Nevertheless, because U.S. funding and focus has shifted in recent years, this report provides only a partial view of U.S. nonproliferation and threat reduction programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689186/
Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union
This report focuses on funding for threat reduction and nonproliferation programs in the states of the former Soviet Union. Although the United States has expanded its efforts to programs that seek to assist other nations in securing nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons materials, the overwhelming majority of U.S. funds still support programs in the former Soviet states. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700842/