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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Physical Security of the U.S. Power Grid: High-Voltage Transformer Substations
This report discusses the electric power industry which consists of electric power grid of over 200,000 miles of high-voltage transmission lines. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332888/
The Pigford Case: USDA Settlement of a Discrimination Suit by Black Farmers
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The Pigford Case: USDA Settlement of a Discrimination Suit by Black Farmers
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Pilotless Drones: Background and Considerations for Congress Regarding Unmanned Aircraft Operations in the National Airspace System
Report that covers the history and current status of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Particular attention is paid to recent privacy implications and potential intrusiveness of drone operations that have emerged as a significant issue before Congress. It also looks at the current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) timeline to establish six test ranges throughout the United States to study unmanned aircraft integration technical issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227807/
PILT (Payments in Lieu of Taxes): Somewhat Simplified
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PILT (Payments in Lieu of Taxes): Somewhat Simplified
This report explains Payments in Lieu of Taxes (PILT) payments, with an analysis of the five major factors affecting the calculation of a payment to a given county. It also describes the effects of certain legislative changes in PILT in 2009 and 2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267812/
PILT (Payments in Lieu of Taxes): Somewhat Simplified
This report explains Payments in Lieu of Taxes (PILT), with an analysis of the five major factors affecting the calculation of a payment to a given county. It also describes the effects of certain legislative changes to PILT in 2009 and 2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282317/
PILT (Payments in Lieu of Taxes): Somewhat Simplified
This report explains Payments in Lieu of Taxes (PILT), with an analysis of the five major factors affecting the calculation of a payment to a given county. It also describes the effects of recent legislative changes to PILT. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491173/
PILT (Payments in Lieu of Taxes): Somewhat Simplified
This report explains Payments in Lieu of Taxes (PILT), with an analysis of the five major factors affecting the calculation of a payment to a given county. It also describes the effects of certain legislative changes to PILT in recent years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501681/
Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs
Congress passed the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-468) to improve pipeline safety and security practices. The Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS), within the Department of Transportation (DOT), is the lead federal regulator of pipeline safety. The OPS uses a variety of strategies to promote compliance with its safety regulations, including inspections, investigation of safety incidents, and maintaining a dialogue with pipeline operators. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87306/
Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs
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Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs
This report discusses the United States pipeline networks and their security. The 109th Congress passed the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-468) to improve pipeline safety and security practices, and to reauthorize the federal Office of Pipeline Safety. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98063/
Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs
This report discusses congressional interest in securing the nation's pipelines. Nearly half a million miles of oil and natural gas transmission pipeline crisscross the United States. While an efficient and fundamentally safe means of transport, many pipelines carry hazardous materials with the potential to cause public injury and environmental damage. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503686/
Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs
This report discusses congressional interest in securing the nation's pipelines. Nearly half a million miles of oil and natural gas transmission pipeline crisscross the United States. While an efficient and fundamentally safe means of transport, many pipelines carry hazardous materials with the potential to cause public injury and environmental damage. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503357/
Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs
This report discusses congressional interest in securing the nation's pipelines. Nearly half a million miles of oil and natural gas transmission pipeline crisscross the United States. While an efficient and fundamentally safe means of transport, many pipelines carry hazardous materials with the potential to cause public injury and environmental damage. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503418/
Pipeline Safety: Federal Program and Reauthorization Issues
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Pipeline Safety: Federal Program and Reauthorization Issues
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Pipeline Security: An Overview of Federal Activities and Current Policy Issues
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Pipeline Security: Industry and Federal Efforts and Associated Legislation
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Pipelines for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Control: Network Needs and Cost Uncertainties
This report examines key uncertainties in CO2 pipeline requirements for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) by contrasting hypothetical pipeline scenarios in one region of the United States. The report summarizes the key factors influencing CO2 pipeline configuration for major power plants in the region, and illustrates how the viability of different sequestration sites may lead to enormous differences in pipeline costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96797/
Piracy: A Legal Definition
Pirate attacks in the waters off the Horn of Africa, including those on U.S.-flagged vessels, have brought continued U.S. and international attention to the long-standing problem of piracy in the region. A recent development in one of the piracy trials in Norfolk, VA, has highlighted a potential limitation in the definition of piracy under the United States Code. This report first examines the historical development of the offense of piracy, as defined by Congress and codified in the United States Code. The focus then turns to how contemporary international agreements define piracy. Finally, the report highlights a recent federal district court ruling that the offense of piracy under 18 U.S.C. § 1651 requires a robbery at sea. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29617/
Piracy: A Legal Definition
This report first examines the historical development of the offense of piracy, as defined by Congress and codified in the United States Code. The focus then turns to how contemporary international agreements define piracy. Finally, the report highlights developments in two trials involving charges of piracy in the federal district court in Norfolk, VA, United States v. Said and United States v. Hasan, specifically focusing on how the courts interpreted the definition of piracy under 18 U.S.C. § 1651. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491492/
Piracy off the Horn of Africa
This report discusses recent (2008-2009) pirate attacks on vessels, including United States vessels, in the waters off the Horn of Africa. The Horn of Africa is sometimes called the Somali Peninsula and includes the nations of Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Somalia. This report explores reasons behind the increased number of pirate attacks in recent years, as well as what efforts are being taken to combat said attacks, including those by the 111th Congress and President Obama and his Administration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26147/
Piracy off the Horn of Africa
This report discusses recent (2010) pirate attacks on vessels, including United States vessels, in the waters off the Horn of Africa. The Horn of Africa is sometimes called the Somali Peninsula and includes the nations of Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Somalia. This report explores reasons behind the increased number of pirate attacks in recent years, as well as what efforts are being taken to combat said attacks, including those by the 111th Congress and President Obama and his Administration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40075/
Piracy off the Horn of Africa
This report discusses recent pirate attacks on vessels, including United States vessels, in the waters off the Horn of Africa. The Horn of Africa is sometimes called the Somali Peninsula and includes the nations of Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Somalia. This report explores reasons behind the increased number of pirate attacks in recent years, as well as what efforts are being taken to combat said attacks, including those by the 111th Congress and President Obama and his Administration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501978/
Pivot to the Pacific? The Obama Administration's "Rebalancing" Toward Asia
In the fall of 2011, the Obama Administration issued a series of announcements indicating that the United States would be expanding and intensifying its already significant role in the Asia-Pacific, particularly in the southern part of the region. Given that one purpose of the "pivot" or "rebalancing" toward the Asia-Pacific is to deepen U.S. credibility in the region at a time of fiscal constraint, Congress's oversight and appropriations roles, as well as its approval authority over free trade agreements, will help determine to what extent the Administration's plans are implemented and how various trade-offs are managed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86617/
Plan Colombia: A Progress Report
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Plan Colombia: A Progress Report
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Plan Colombia: A Progress Report
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Plan Colombia: A Progress Report
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Plan Colombia: A Progress Report
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Plant Closings, Mass Layoffs, and Worker Dislocations: Data Issues
For at least 15 years Members of Congress have continued to ask: How many U.S. manufacturing plants have closed? For at least 15 years they have continued to ask: How many U.S. manufacturing plants have relocated abroad, and where have they gone? For at least 15 years the answer has been: For the most part, those questions can't be answered, based on Government data. How many plants are moving to Mexico? What industries and what States are the plants from? How many U.S. workers are losing their jobs as a result? It appears that still, after two legislative attempts to mandate collection of these data, the Government publishes no counts of U.S. plant closings, and almost no information on plant relocations. Options for strengthening the data systems include addressing three main weaknesses: inadequate data program design, a plant closing definition that misses its mark, and publication of partial instead of complete survey results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26029/
The PLO and Its Factions
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The Pocket Veto: Its Current Status
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Point and Click: Internet Search Engines, Subject Guides, and Searching Techniques
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Point and Click: Internet Searching Techniques
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Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process
This report summarizes points of order under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended, and related points of order established in the budget resolutions adopted by Congress in 2007, 2008, and 2009, as well as the Rules of the House for the 111th Congress, the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990, and the Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Act of 2010. In addition, it describes how points of order are applied and the processes used for their waiver in the House and Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31310/
Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process
The Congressional Budget Act of 1974 created a process that Congress uses each year to establish and enforce the parameters for budgetary legislation. This report summarizes points of order under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended, as well as related points of order established in the budget resolutions adopted by Congress in 2007 and 2008, the Rules of the House for the 110th Congress, and the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990. In addition, it describes how points of order are applied and the processes used for their waiver in the House and Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10533/
Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process
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Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process
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Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process
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Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process
This report summarizes points of order under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended, and related points of order established in the budget resolutions adopted by Congress in 2007, 2008, and 2009, as well as the Rules of the House for the 112th Congress, the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990, and the Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Act of 2010. In addition, it describes how points of order are applied and the processes used for their waiver in the House and Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83840/
Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process
This report summarizes the points of order currently in effect under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended, as well as related points of order established in various other measures that have a direct impact on budget enforcement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503373/
Points of Order Limiting the Contents of Reconciliation Legislation: In Brief
This report discusses the Budget Act that provides an optional expedited procedure for considering legislation in the Senate, called reconciliation, which was first used in 1980. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503399/
Points of Order, Rulings, and Appeals in the House of Representatives
This report briefly describes points of order in the House of Representatives. A point of order is a formal appeal made when a Member of House believes that the House's legislative procedures or are about to be violated in some way. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29534/
Points of Order, Rulings, and Appeals in the House of Representatives
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Polar Bears: Listing Under the Endangered Species Act
On May 14, 2008, Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne announced the listing of polar bears as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The listing itself was praised by some environmentalists, other parties, who opposed the listing itself, argued that the science supporting listing was weak, but felt that the regulations mitigated some of the economic impacts of the listing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87325/
Polar Bears: Listing Under the Endangered Species Act
This report discusses the protection of polar bears under the Endangered Species Act and how they are affected by climate change, contaminants, and subsistence and sport hunting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98089/
Polar Bears: Proposed Listing Under the Endangered Species Act
This report discusses the polar bear status and they are affected by climate change, contaminants, and subsistence and sport hunting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96770/
Polar Research: U.S. Policy and Interests
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