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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain
This report provides a discussion on the major issues and concerns of the global supply chain for rare earth elements, their major end uses, and legislative and other policy proposals that Congress may consider to improve the U.S. rare earth position. The concentration of production of rare earth elements (REEs) outside the United States raises the important issue of supply vulnerability, since they are used for new energy technologies and national security applications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87157/
Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain
This report provides a discussion of the major issues and concerns of the global supply chain for rare earth elements (REEs), their major end uses, and legislative and other policy proposals that Congress may consider to improve the U.S. rare earth position. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272008/
Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain
This report provides a discussion on the major issues and concerns of the global supply chain for rare earth elements, their major end uses, and legislative and other policy proposals that Congress may consider to improve the U.S. rare earth position. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491324/
E-Rate for Schools: Background on Telecommunications Discounts Through the Universal Service Fund
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1982/
Ratification of Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs415/
Reaching Low-Income, Uninsured Children: Are Medicaid and SCHIP Doing the Job?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1426/
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations
This report examines the possibility of the federal government reaching its statutory debt limit and not raising it, with a particular focus on government operations. First, the report explains the nature of the federal government's debt, the processes associated with federal borrowing, and historical events that may influence prospective actions. It also includes an analysis of what could happen if the federal government may no longer issue debt, has exhausted alternative sources of cash, and, therefore, depends on incoming receipts or other sources of funds to provide any cash needed to liquidate federal obligations.2 Finally, this report lays out considerations for increasing the debt limit under current policy and what impact fiscal policy could have on the debt limit going forward. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272016/
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations
This report examines the possibility of the federal government reaching its statutory debt limit and not raising it, with a particular focus on government operations. First, the report explains the nature of the federal government's debt, the processes associated with federal borrowing, and historical events that may influence prospective actions. It also includes an analysis of what could happen if the federal government may no longer issue debt, has exhausted alternative sources of cash, and, therefore, depends on incoming receipts or other sources of funds to provide any cash needed to liquidate federal obligations.2 Finally, this report lays out considerations for increasing the debt limit under current policy and what impact fiscal policy could have on the debt limit going forward. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227708/
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations
The gross federal debt, which represents the federal government's total outstanding debt, consists of two types of debt: (1) debt held by the public and (2) debt held in government accounts, also known as intragovernmental debt. Federal government borrowing increases for two primary reasons: (1) budget deficits and (2) investments of any federal government account surpluses in Treasury securities, as required by law. Nearly all of this debt is subject to the statutory limit. The federal debt limit currently stands at $14,294 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86573/
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations
This report examines the possibility of the federal government reaching its statutory debt limit and not raising it, with a particular focus on government operations. First, the report explains the nature of the federal government's debt, the processes associated with federal borrowing, and historical events that may influence prospective actions. It also includes an analysis of what could happen if the federal government may no longer issue debt, has exhausted alternative sources of cash, and, therefore, depends on incoming receipts or other sources of funds to provide any cash needed to liquidate federal obligations. Finally this report lays out considerations for increasing the debt limit under current policy and what impact fiscal policy could have on the debt limit going forward. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103123/
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations
The gross federal debt, which represents the federal government's total outstanding debt, consists of two types of debt: (1) debt held by the public and (2) debt held in government accounts, also known as intragovernmental debt. Federal government borrowing increases for two primary reasons: (1) budget deficits and (2) investments of any federal government account surpluses in Treasury securities, as required by law. Nearly all of this debt is subject to the statutory limit. The federal debt limit currently stands at $14,294 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40117/
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations
This report examines the possibility of the federal government reaching its statutory debt limit and not raising it, with a particular focus on government operations. First, the report explains the nature of the federal government's debt, the processes associated with federal borrowing, and historical events that may influence prospective actions. It also includes an analysis of what could happen if the federal government may no longer issue debt, has exhausted alternative sources of cash, and, therefore, depends on incoming receipts or other sources of funds to provide any cash needed to liquidate federal obligations. Finally this report lays out considerations for increasing the debt limit under current policy and what impact fiscal policy could have on the debt limit going forward. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40116/
Reading Instruction: New Federal Initiatives
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs637/
The Reagan Administration Posture Toward the ABM Treaty - Possible Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9593/
The Reagan Administration Posture Toward the ABM Treaty - Possible Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9603/
Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings, 1979-2009
This report analyzes the real weekly earnings from 1979 to 2009 of U.S. workers, including worker pay and fringe benefits, such as employer contributions for health insurance or to a retirement plan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96761/
Reallocation of Hurricanes Katrina Emergency Appropriations: Defense and Other Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8242/
Reallocation of Water Storage at Federal Water Projects for Municipal and Industrial Water Supply
Report that analyzes the legal and policy issues associated with reallocation of water under the Water Supply Act of 1958 (WSA) and industrial (M&I) water supply use at Lake Lanier as an example. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227820/
A Reappraisal of Foreign Investment Policy
The rise of the multinational corporation and the increased flow of capital across national borders have raised anew the question of how to treat foreign direct investment, both inward and outward. The U.S. government and, increasingly, other governments advocate that, with some exceptions, economic policies should be neutral in the treatment of investment, foreign and domestic, inward and outward. This report discusses the changing view of foreign investment, both nationally and internationally. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs140/
Reauthorization of SNAP and Other Nutrition Programs in the Next Farm Bill: Issues for the 113th Congress
This report discusses the Nutrition Title (Title IV) of the pending farm bills and elaborates on the most controversial issues and differences between Senate and House proposals. Policies that are not necessarily controversial but are complex are also included in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272066/
Reauthorization of the America COMPETES Act: Selected Policy Provisions, Funding, and Implementation Issues
This report reviews major policy arguments raised in the congressional debate about the 2007 America COMPETES Act and 2010 reauthorization, examines and analyzes selected policy and funding provisions in these laws, and identifies some potential implementation and oversight issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40161/
Reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8791/
Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues and options for Congress relating to the reauthorization of Ex-Im Bank. The scope of this report is limited to Ex-Im Bank reauthorization issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40166/
Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues and options for Congress relating to the reauthorization of Ex-Im Bank. The scope of this report is limited to Ex-Im Bank reauthorization issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87181/
Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues and options for Congress relating to the reauthorization of Ex-Im Bank. The scope of this report is limited to Ex-Im Bank reauthorization issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93876/
Reauthorization of the Federal Aviation Administration
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4572/
Reauthorization of the Federal Aviation Administration
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4571/
Reauthorization of the Federal Aviation Administration
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4570/
Reauthorization of the Federal Aviation Administration
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4569/
Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act
This report describes the changes that were made by the FISA Amendments Act within the context of the government's authority to conduct surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122252/
Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act
This report describes the changes that were made by the Foreign Intelligence Suveillance Act (FISA) Amendments Act within the context of the government's authority to conduct surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463018/
Reauthorization of the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act (STELA)
This report provides background information regarding satellite retransmission of broadcast signals. The report discusses the 1988 Satellite Home Viewer Act (SHVA) and most recently amended by the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act (STELA., digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462259/
Reauthorizing and Restructuring the Transportation Security Administration's Aviation Security Functions: Legislative Issues and Approaches
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9221/
Reauthorizing the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Issues for Consideration
This report provides a discussion of the National Drug Control Strategy, the National Drug Control Budget, and Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) evaluation of the National Drug Control Strategy implementation. It then provides an analysis of selected legislative and oversight issues that Congress may consider when debating the reauthorization of ONDCP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227695/
Reauthorizing the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Issues for Consideration
Report discussing the National Drug Control Strategy, the National Drug Control Budget, and the Office of National Drug Control Policy's (ONDCP) evaluation of the National Drug Control Strategy implementation. It also provides an analysis of selected legislative and oversight issues that Congress may consider when debating the reauthorization of ONDCP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227694/
Reauthorizing the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Issues for Consideration
This report provides a discussion of the National Drug Control Strategy, the National Drug Control Budget, and the Office of National Drug Control Policy's (ONDCP's) evaluation of the National Drug Control Strategy implementation. It then provides an analysis of selected legislative and oversight issues that Congress may consider when debating the reauthorization of ONDCP. Policymakers may question the status of the war on drugs, whether drug use should be seen as more of a law enforcement issue or a public health issue, and whether drug control resources are more effective when directed toward prevention and treatment or toward law enforcement. Another issue for consideration is whether the National Drug Control Budget--as currently conceived--represents a comprehensive view of federal drug control activities in the United States. Further, Congress may exercise oversight over ONDCP's means of evaluating the nation's federal drug control programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491470/
Reauthorizing the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Issues for Consideration
This report provides a discussion of the National Drug Control Strategy, the National Drug Control Budget, and Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) evaluation of the National Drug Control Strategy implementation. It then provides an analysis of selected legislative and oversight issues that Congress may consider when debating the reauthorization of ONDCP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462551/
Reauthorizing the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000
This report discusses the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 (SRS; P.L. 106-393) enacted by Congress as a temporary, optional program of payments based on historic rather than current revenues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501965/
Rebuilding Household Wealth: Implications for Economic Recovery
Report regarding the slower than normal pace of the ongoing economic recovery and the likely role in that of weak consumer spending forced by a sharp loss of household net worth during the recession and the subsequent need to rebuild that lost wealth. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227931/
Recall of Legislators and the Removal of Members of Congress from Office
This report discusses the manner in which a Member of Congress may be removed from office by “expulsion,” and then examines the issue of “recall” of legislators. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96732/
Recall of Legislators and the Removal of Members of Congress from Office
Under the United States Constitution and congressional practice, Members of Congress may have their services ended prior to the normal expiration of their constitutionally established terms of office by their resignation or death, or by action of the house of Congress in which they are a Member by way of an "expulsion," or by a finding that in accepting a subsequent "incompatible" public office, the Member would be deemed to have vacated his congressional seat. This report discusses the manner in which a Member of Congress may be removed from office by "expulsion," and then examines the issue of "recall" of legislators. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501738/
The Receipt of Gifts by Federal Employees in the Executive Branch
This report provides information on the federal statutes, regulations, and guidelines concerning the restrictions on the acceptance of gifts and things of value by officers or employees in the executive branch of the United States government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491007/
The Receipt of Gifts by Federal Employees in the Executive Branch
This report provides information on the federal statutes, regulations, and guidelines concerning the restrictions on the acceptance of gifts and things of value by officers or employees in the executive branch of the United States government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462326/
Receipt of Unemployment Insurance by Higher-Income Unemployed Workers ("Millionaires")
This report addresses many of the questions that have arisen regarding proposals to restrict unemployment benefits for the wealthy, including the potential number of people who would be affected and the potential savings to federal and state governments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332890/
Receipt of Unemployment Insurance by Higher-Income Unemployed Workers ("Millionaires")
This report provides information relevant to proposals that would restrict the payment of unemployment benefits to individuals with high incomes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463474/
Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines
This report provides an overview of the importance of honey bee pollination to U.S. agricultural production, especially specialty crops. It describes the extent and symptoms of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and how it differs from previous honey bee colony losses, describing some of the reasons why scientists believe honey bee colonies are being affected by CCD. Finally, this report discusses policy options and subsequent action that Congress could consider in this area. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96769/
Recent Tax Changes Affecting Installment Sales
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1316/
Recent Trends in the Federal Tax Burden
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1312/
Recently Expired Charitable Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders"): In Brief
This report briefly summarizes the temporary charitable tax provisions that expired at the end of 2013 and are being considered for extension. The report also discusses the economic impact of these charitable tax provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306508/
Recently Expired Charitable Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders"): In Brief
This report discusses the four charitable tax provisions are discussed in this report: the enhanced charitable deduction for contributions of food inventory; tax-free distributions from individual retirement accounts for charitable purposes; basis adjustment to stock of S corporations making charitable contributions of property; and special rules for contributions of capital gain real property for conservation purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462759/