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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
China's Space Program: An Overview

China's Space Program: An Overview

Date: October 18, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: The People’s Republic of China successfully completed its second human spaceflight mission on October 17, 2005. China is only the third country, after Russia and the United States, able to launch people into space. Its first human spaceflight was in 2003 when a single astronaut, or “taikonaut,” made a flight lasting slightly less than a day. The 2005 flight lasted five days, and involved two taikonauts. As the United States embarks upon President Bush’s “Vision for Space Exploration” to return astronauts to the Moon by 2020 and someday send them to Mars, some may view China’s entrance into the human exploration of space as a competitive threat, while others may view China as a potential partner.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Space Program: An Overview

China's Space Program: An Overview

Date: October 21, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Description: This report discusses the nature and scope of the Chinese space program. The People's Republic of China launched its first astronaut, or "taikonaut," Lt. Col. Yang Liwei, on October 15, 2003 Beijing time (October 16 Eastern Daylight Time). China thus became only the third country, after Russia and the United States, able to launch humans into orbit. Lt. Col. Yang landed on October 16 Beijing time (October 15 EDT) after making 14 orbits (21 hours and 23 minutes).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Space Program: Options for U.S.-China Cooperation

China's Space Program: Options for U.S.-China Cooperation

Date: May 21, 2008
Creator: Logan, Jeffrey
Description: China has a determined, yet still modest, program of civilian space activities planned for the next decade. The potential for U.S.-China cooperation in space -- an issue of interest to Congress -- has become more controversial since the January 2007 Chinese anti-satellite test. Some argue that Chinese capabilities now threaten U.S. space assets in low earth orbit. Others stress the need to expand dialogue with China. This report outlines recent activities and future plans in China's civilian space sector. It also discusses benefits and trade-offs of possible U.S.-China collaboration in space, as well as several options to improve space relations, including information exchange, policy dialogue, and joint activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Space Program: Options for U.S.-China Cooperation

China's Space Program: Options for U.S.-China Cooperation

Date: September 29, 2008
Creator: Logan, Jeffrey
Description: This report outlines recent activities and future plans in China's civilian space sector. It also discusses benefits and trade-offs of possible U.S.-China collaboration in space, as well as several options to improve space relations, including information exchange, policy dialogue, and joint activities. The report also includes discussion of China's controversial January 2007 testing of antisatellite weapons.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hubble Space Telescope: NASA's Plans for a Servicing Mission

Hubble Space Telescope: NASA's Plans for a Servicing Mission

Date: May 23, 2008
Creator: Morgan, Daniel
Description: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) estimates that without a servicing mission to replace key components, the Hubble Space Telescope will cease scientific operations in 2008. In January 2004, then-NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe announced that the space shuttle would no longer be used to service Hubble. Hubble supporters criticized this as a result of President Bush's new Vision for Space Exploration; said supporters sought to reverse the decision and proceed with a shuttle servicing mission. In October 2006, NASA approved a shuttle mission to service Hubble. That mission is now scheduled for October 8, 2008.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Programs: Issues for Congress

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Programs: Issues for Congress

Date: August 4, 2004
Creator: Best Jr., Richard A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Programs: Issues for Congress

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Programs: Issues for Congress

Date: February 22, 2005
Creator: Best Jr., Richard A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

Date: November 14, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S & Squassoni, Sharon
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

Date: December 5, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S. & Squassoni, Sharon
Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act (P.L. 106-178), as originally enacted, prohibited the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from purchasing Russian goods and services for the U.S.-led International Space Station (ISS) unless the President certified that Russia was not proliferating certain technologies to Iran. On July 12, 2005, the Bush Administration submitted to Congress an amendment to allow NASA to purchase goods and services from Russia to support the ISS. That presented a classic policy dilemma. Without access to Russian spacecraft, the U.S. use of the ISS could be extremely limited. Yet Russian entities were continuing proliferation activities relating to missile proliferation according to the Department of State. This report explains the Bush Administration proposal and resulting congressional action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Space Station and the Space Shuttle

The International Space Station and the Space Shuttle

Date: May 29, 2008
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Description: This report discusses the International Space Station (ISS) program, which began in 1993, with Russia joining the United States, Europe, Japan, and Canada.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Space Station and the Space Shuttle

The International Space Station and the Space Shuttle

Date: March 18, 2009
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Description: This report discusses recent developments and funding for the International Space Station and the Space Shuttle program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Space Station and the Space Shuttle

The International Space Station and the Space Shuttle

Date: November 3, 2008
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Description: This report discusses the International Space Station (ISS) program, which began in 1993, with Russia joining the United States, Europe, Japan, and Canada. Crews have occupied ISS on a 4-6 month rotating basis since November 2000.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station:  Issues and Options

The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

Date: March 2, 2005
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon & Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

Date: March 2, 2005
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon & Smith, Marcia S.
Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA) was enacted to help stop foreign transfers to Iran of weapons of mass destruction, missile technology, and advanced conventional weapons technology, particularly from Russia. Section 6 of the INA bans U.S. payments to Russia in connection with the International Space Station (ISS) unless the U.S. President determines that Russia is taking steps to prevent such proliferation. The ISS is currently under construction in orbit. According to current plans, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will become dependent on Russia for certain ISS crew-related services beginning in April 2006 for which NASA must pay. Thus, the INA could significantly affect U.S. utilization of ISS. This report outlines the history of INA, its effect on Russian and Iranian proliferation, its impact on the ISS program, and options for resolving associated issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Landsat and the Data Continuity Mission

Landsat and the Data Continuity Mission

Date: May 22, 2009
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Description: This report discusses the U.S. Landsat Mission, which has collected remotely sensed imagery of the Earth's surface for more than 35 years. The two satellites currently in orbit are operating beyond their designed life and may fail at any time. Most Landsat data is used by federal agencies. Efforts to commercialize Landsat operations have not been successful. This report discusses issues facing Congress regarding funding for new Landsat satellites.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis

The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis

Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: Some policymakers have concluded that the energy challenges facing the United States are so critical that a concentrated investment in energy research and development (R&D) should be undertaken. The Manhattan project, which produced the atomic bomb, and the Apollo program, which landed American men on the moon, have been cited as examples of the success such R&D investments can yield. Investment in federal energy technology R&D programs of the 1970s, in response to two energy crises, have generally been viewed as less successful than the earlier two efforts. This report compares and contrasts the goals of, and the investments in, the three initiatives, which may provide useful insights for Congress as it assesses and debates the nation's energy policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Role in Space Control: A Primer

Military Role in Space Control: A Primer

Date: September 23, 2004
Creator: Fernandez, Adolfo J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

Date: November 3, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

Date: March 17, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

Date: May 20, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

Date: June 22, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

Date: November 25, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: This report discusses the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS, formerly SBIRS-Low), managed by the Missile Defense Agency, which performs missile tracking and target discrimination for missile defense objectives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NASA's Space Shuttle

NASA's Space Shuttle

Date: February 4, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NASA's Space Shuttle

NASA's Space Shuttle

Date: February 19, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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