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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The DHS Directorate of Science and Technology: Key Issues for Congress
The Directorate of Science and Technology is the primary organization for research and development (R&D) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The directorate is headed by the Under Secretary for Science and Technology. In the past, some Members of Congress and other observers have been highly critical of the directorate's performance. Although management changes have somewhat muted this criticism in recent years, fundamental issues remain, which this report discusses in detail. Congressional policymakers are widely expected to consider reauthorization legislation for DHS during the 111th Congress. Such legislation would likely include provisions that would affect the Science and Technology Directorate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26271/
The DHS S&T Directorate: Selected Issues for Congress
This report provides a brief overview of the Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate's mission, organization, and budgetary structure; a discussion of selected critiques of the S&T Directorate; and an analysis of selected issues facing congressional policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287936/
The DHS S&T Directorate: Selected Issues for Congress
This report provides a brief overview of the S&T Directorate's mission, organization, and budgetary structure; a discussion of selected critiques of the S&T Directorate; and an analysis of selected issues facing congressional policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463211/
The DHS S&T Directorate: Selected Issues for Congress
This report provides a brief overview of the Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate's mission, organization, and budgetary structure; a discussion of selected critiques of the S&T Directorate; and an analysis of selected issues facing congressional policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227857/
Disease Funding and NIH Priority Setting
Research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has strong political support, but a heated debate rages over the allocation of NIH funds among various diseases. NIH contends that decisions are made based on scientific opportunity while critics of the NIH process charge that spending often follows current politics and political correctness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs747/
DNA Databanking: Selected Fourth Amendment Issues and Analysis
This report looks at how the practice of DNA database programs, which have been looked at favorably by Congress, are in possible violation of the Fourth Amendment's prohibition on unreasonable searches and seizures. It looks at how the databases' legality has currently been holding up in court, as well as how new advances and revelations in the science of forensic analysis and databanking may have potentially significant legal implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93877/
DOE Laboratory Restructuring Legislation
Interest in restructuring (including eliminating) the Department of Energy (DOE) and its laboratories has increased since the end of the Cold War, and especially since the beginning of the 104th Congress. A number of non-legislative proposals and activities to this end are reviewed, including DOE's own proposals for "alignment and downsizing" of the Department and its laboratories. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs356/
DOE Laboratory Restructuring Legislation in the 104th Congress
Interest in restructuring (including eliminating) the Department of Energy (DOE) and its laboratories has increased since the end of the Cold War, and especially since the beginning of the 104th Congress. A number of non-legislative proposals and activities to this end are reviewed, including DOE's own proposals for "alignment and downsizing" of the Department and its laboratories. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs480/
The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"
This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2155/
The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"
This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9938/
Energy and Water Development: FY2011 Appropriations
This report discusses key budgetary issues for FY2011 involving the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill, which provides funding for civil works projects of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation, the Department of Energy, and a number of independent agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103087/
Energy Efficiency: A New National Outlook?
In 1992, the Nation spent $522 billion for energy ($1996 constant), while energy efficiency and conservation measures were saving the economy about $275 billion per year. Energy is conserved when technical means are employed to improve efficiency or to reduce energy waste. In 1996 constant dollars, conservation research and development (R&D) funding declined from $698 million in FY1979 to $198 million in FY1988 and then climbed to $486 million in FY1994, 31% below the FY1979 peak. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs319/
Environmental, Health, and Safety Tradeoffs: A Discussion of Policymaking Opportunities and Constraints
This report discusses the implications of cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment in the context of congressional and administrative decision-making structures. It identifies constraints on flexible decision-making and some implications of trying to overcome them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1018/
An Examination of the Issues Surrounding Biotechnology Patenting and Its Effect Upon Entrepreneurial Companies
The biotechnology industry is notable both for its heavy concentration of small businesses and its weighty research and development (R&D) expenditures. Given the small size and heavy expenses of many biotechnology firms, their ability to raise venture capital may be of some consequence. The patent law has been identified as a facilitator of these R&D financing efforts. Congress may choose to exercise oversight on these issues. Such consideration would likely include examination of U.S. commitments in international agreements along with other factors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1296/
F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
On December 2, 2011, General Electric and Rolls-Royce announced that they were ending development of the F136 alternate engine for the F-35, ending what had been a contentious and long-running battle of funding versus research and development. This report discusses issues of having only one engine supplier for the F-35, as well as funding issues for the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87152/
Federal and Non-Federal Support of University Based Research
While the federal government continues to be the primary supporter of university based research and development (R&D), the financial composition of support for university-based research has changed considerably over the past 31 years. This report discusses national R&D expenditures for university based research, which reached $36.333 billion in 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9092/
Federal Funding for AIDS Research and Education
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Federal Funding for AIDS Research and Education
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8094/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
In the early 1990s, Congress recognized that several federal agencies had ongoing high performance computing programs, but no central coordinating body existed to ensure long-term coordination and planning. To provide such a framework, Congress passed the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 to enhance the effectiveness of the various programs. In conjunction with the passage of the act, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released Grand Challenges: High-Performance Computing and Communications. Current concerns are the role of the federal government in supporting IT R&D and the level of funding to allot to it. This report also looks at federal budgets for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87315/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
This report discusses background and funding for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) program (previously known as the High-Performance Computing and Communications program, or HPPCC), which involves multiagency research and development (R&D) projects. It includes information about the program, background on federal technology funding, related activities in the 112th and 111th Congresses, and potential issues for Congress to address. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99100/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
In the early 1990s, Congress recognized that several federal agencies had ongoing high performance computing programs, but no central coordinating body existed to ensure long-term coordination and planning. To provide such a framework, Congress passed the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 to enhance the effectiveness of the various programs. In conjunction with the passage of the act, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released Grand Challenges: High-Performance Computing and Communications. Current concerns are the role of the federal government in supporting IT R&D and the level of funding to allot to it. This report also looks at federal budgets for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84062/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6052/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
This report discusses the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 (P.L. 102-194), which was passed to enhance the effectiveness of the various high-performance computing programs. The HPCC Program has evolved over time and is now called the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program, to better reflect its expanded mission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8451/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
This report discusses federal funding for IT research and development. Proponents assert that federal support of IT R&D has produced positive outcomes for the country and played a crucial role in supporting long-term research into fundamental aspects of computing. Critics assert that the government, through its funding mechanisms, may be picking “winners and losers” in technological development, a role more properly residing with the private sector. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8930/
Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship
Interest in methods to provide drugs at lower cost, particularly for the elderly, has rekindled discussion over the role the federal government plays in facilitating the creation of new pharmaceuticals for the marketplace. This report explores the issue of whether or not the substantial federal investment in health-related research and development (R&D) entitles the public to commensurate consideration in prices charged for any resulting drugs. It is intended to provide the reader with an understanding of the rationale for government support of R&D and subsequent efforts to facilitate private sector commercialization of new technologies generated from such work. Concerns surrounding innovation in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology are discussed within the broader context of the federal role in facilitating technological progress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1092/
Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship
This report explores the reasons behind government funding of research and development and subsequent efforts to facilitate private sector commercialization of the results of such work, without addressing issues associated with drug costs or pricing. It particularly looks at the manner in which the National Institutes of Health (NIH) supports research to encourage the development of new pharmaceuticals and therapeutics, particularly through cooperative activities among academia, industry, and government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743611/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3353/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3354/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3355/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3356/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3357/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3358/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5276/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 107th Congress
Federal research and development (R&D) funding priorities reflect presidential policies and national needs. This report discusses past and projected R&D budgets and initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9699/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7864/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5278/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5279/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5280/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5281/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5282/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5283/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5284/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5277/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 109th Congress
Federal research and development (R&D) funding priorities reflect presidential policies and national needs. For FY2007, R&D is requested at almost $137 billion of budget authority, about 1.8% more than enacted in FY2006. The FY2007 budget would fund three interagency R&D initiatives: networking and information technology; climate change science; and nanotechnology. The Administration is using performance measures for R&D budgeting, including the Government Performance and Results Act and the Program Assessment Rating Tool. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10516/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 109th Congress
This report summarizes current research and development (R&D) priority setting issues — in terms of expenditures; agency, topical, or field-specific priorities; and organizational arrangements to determine priorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9455/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2003
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Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2003
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Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2003
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Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2003
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Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3361/