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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Water Resources Development Act (WRDA): Army Corps of Engineers Authorization Issues in the 109th Congress

Water Resources Development Act (WRDA): Army Corps of Engineers Authorization Issues in the 109th Congress

Date: April 24, 2006
Creator: Carter, Nicole T
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Weatherization Assistance Program: A Fact Sheet

The Weatherization Assistance Program: A Fact Sheet

Date: December 8, 1999
Creator: Butler, Alice D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wetland Mitigation Banking: Status and Prospects

Wetland Mitigation Banking: Status and Prospects

Date: September 12, 1997
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: Wetland protection is controversial because the federal government regulates activities on private lands and because the natural values at some of these regulated sites are being debated. This controversy pits property owners and development interests against environmentalists and others who seek to protect the remaining wetlands. Mitigation banking, which allows a person to degrade a wetland at one site if a wetland at another site is improved, has been identified as a potential answer to this shrill and seemingly intractable debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wetlands and Agriculture: Policy Issues in the 1995 Farm Bill

Wetlands and Agriculture: Policy Issues in the 1995 Farm Bill

Date: December 19, 1994
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: Wetlands protection efforts have been a major concern for agricultural interests since Congress enacted so-called swampbuster provisions in the 1985 Food Security Act. Under these provisions, all producers who alter wetlands risk losing certain farm program benefits. Determining which sites are wetlands and enforcement of penalties remain contentious issues. Controversy has been heightened by confusion over how this program is related to the principal Federal regulatory program to protect wetlands, section 404 of the Clean Water Act, and how wetland determinations affect land values and private property rights. Because the 103rd Congress did not reauthorize the Clean Water Act, some of the wetland issues raised in that debate might be raised in the farm bill. Another wetland protection program, the Wetland Reserve (WRP), was enacted in the 1990 farm bill. This program, which pays farmers to place wetlands under long-term or permanent easements, has been far less controversial. This paper reviews the swampbuster and WRP, as well as controversies surrounding delineation of wetlands and relationships between private property rights and wetland protection efforts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Wetlands Coverage of the Clean Water Act is Revisited by the Supreme Court: Rapanos and Carabell

The Wetlands Coverage of the Clean Water Act is Revisited by the Supreme Court: Rapanos and Carabell

Date: February 2, 2006
Creator: Meltz, Robert & Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Wetlands Coverage of the Clean Water Act is Revisited by the Supreme Court: Rapanos and Carabell

The Wetlands Coverage of the Clean Water Act is Revisited by the Supreme Court: Rapanos and Carabell

Date: February 2, 2006
Creator: Meltz, Robert & Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wildfire Damages to Homes and Resources: Understanding Causes and Reducing Losses

Wildfire Damages to Homes and Resources: Understanding Causes and Reducing Losses

Date: March 12, 2012
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi
Description: Wildfires are getting more severe, with more acres and houses burned and more people at risk. This results from excess biomass in the forests, due to past logging and grazing and a century of fire suppression, combined with an expanding wild land-urban interface-more people and houses in and near the forests-and climate change, exacerbating drought and insect and disease problems. This report looks at the causes of wildfires, and the pros and cons of their treatment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wildfire Damages to Homes and Resources: Understanding Causes and Reducing Losses

Wildfire Damages to Homes and Resources: Understanding Causes and Reducing Losses

Date: May 23, 2013
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi
Description: This report focuses on options for protecting structures and for protecting wildlands and natural resources from wildfires. It begins with a brief overview of the nature of wildfires, followed by a discussion of protecting structures. Then, it discusses wildfire damages to wildlands and natural resources, fuel treatment options and their benefits and limitations, and public involvement in federal decisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wildfire Protection Funding

Wildfire Protection Funding

Date: May 2, 2005
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: The severe 2000 fire season prompted a significant rise in funding for wildfire protection that has been sustained; wildfire appropriations in FY2005 were more than $2.9 billion. Most of the funds ($2.8 billion in FY2005) are to protect federal lands, with funds for reducing fuel loads, for equipment and training, for fighting fires, and for restoring burned sites. Federal funding ($98 million in FY2005) also supports state efforts to protect nonfederal lands. Some wildfire funding ($74 million in FY2005) is used for fire research, fire facilities, and programs to improve forest health. Congress continues to debate wildfire funding levels, with a growing focus on the cost of wildfire suppression.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wildfire Protection in the 108th Congress

Wildfire Protection in the 108th Congress

Date: November 19, 2004
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: The 2000 and 2002 fire seasons were, by most standards, among the worst in the past 50 years. Many argue that the threat of severe wildfires has grown in recent years because of unnaturally high fuel loads (e.g., dense undergrowth and dead trees), raising concerns about damage to property and homes in the wildland-urban interface (WUI) — forests near or surrounding homes. Debates about fire control and protection, including funding and fuel treatments (e.g., thinning and prescribed burning), have focused on national forests and other federal lands, but nonfederal lands are also at risk.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department