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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Foreign Medical Graduates: A Brief Overview of the J-1 Visa Waiver Program
The Educational and Cultural Exchange Visitor program has become a gateway for foreign medical graduates (FMGs) to gain admission to the United States as nonimmigrants for the purpose of graduate medical education and training. These FMGs either enter under the J-1 nonimmigrant visa or receive waivers that require them to work in a designated healthcare professional shortage area for a minimum of three years. The ability of states to request such waivers is known as the "Conrad State Program," and was added temporarily to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) in 1994. It has been extended by the last several Congresses. Legislation has been introduced in the 110th Congress to address the program's expiration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10688/
Foreign Medical Graduates: A Brief Overview of the J-1 Visa Waiver Program
This report focuses on those international medical graduates (IMGs) who are foreign nationals, hereafter referred to as foreign medical graduates (FMGs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822602/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29515/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
he increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. The scientific community has been divided over proposals to impose stricter immigration limits on people with scientific and technical skills. Attempts to settle upon the balance between the needs for a highly skilled scientific and technical workforce, and the need to protect and ensure job opportunities, salaries, and working conditions of U.S. scientific personnel, will continue to be debated. This report addresses these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29517/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29516/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10524/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. Many in the scientific community maintain that in order to compete with countries that are rapidly expanding their scientific and technological capabilities, the country needs to bring to the United States those whose skills will benefit society and will enable us to compete in the new-technology based global economy. This report analyzes this issue in detail and includes discussion of related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26122/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9545/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9878/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8352/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The scientific community has been divided over proposals to impose stricter immigration limits on people with scientific and technical skills. Attempts to settle upon the balance between the needs for a highly skilled scientific and technical workforce, and the need to protect and ensure job opportunities, salaries, and working conditions of U.S. scientific personnel, will continue to be debated. This report addresses these issues and their implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10169/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9926/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc817291/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820748/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822603/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9954/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820671/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
Issues and legislation related to foreign students continue to arise. The funding and English-language competency of foreign students have raised concerns with some universities, advocacy groups, and other observers. Additionally, some recent legislation has focused on attracting foreign students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Legislation passed in the Senate (S. 2611) would create pathways to citizenship for foreign students in the STEM fields of study. Although there are provisions in this legislation for undergraduate students, the major focus has been on students obtaining advanced degrees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10477/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2614/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822388/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc808219/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807401/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc817049/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4417/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2613/
Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education: Background and Funding
The Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) supports projects to encourage innovative reform and expand education opportunities to underrepresented groups. This report describes the historical context leading to the establishment of the Fund for Improvement of Postsecondary Education, provisions governing the program, and the variety of projects funded by FIPSE. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9121/
Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)
This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to education programs that are or will be administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) that were included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) under Division A, Title VIII, Department of Education, and under Title XIV, State Fiscal Stabilization Fund. It also includes a discussion of relevant provisions that were included in the House and Senate bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700772/
Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)
This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to education programs that are or will be administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) that were included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) under Division A, Title VIII, Department of Education, and under Title XIV, State Fiscal Stabilization Fund. It also includes a discussion of relevant provisions that were included in the House and Senate bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700611/
Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)
This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to education programs that are or will be administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) that were included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) under Division A, Title VIII, Department of Education, and under Title XIV, State Fiscal Stabilization Fund. It also includes a discussion of relevant provisions that were included in the House and Senate bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700689/
Funding School Renovation: Qualified Zone Academy Bonds vs. Traditional Tax-Exempt Bonds
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1649/
Goals 2000: Educate America Act Implementation Status and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs630/
The Higher Education Act (HEA): A Primer
This report discusses the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA; P.L. 89-329) that authorizes numerous federal aid programs that provide support to both individuals pursuing a postsecondary education and institutions of higher education (IHEs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276903/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report provides an overview of postsecondary education (institutions and students), an overview of the Higher Education Act (HEA) with a focus on its most significant programs and provisions, and a discussion of major issues that have been, or may be, of interest to the Congress during the HEA reauthorization process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5738/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report provides an overview of postsecondary education (institutions and students), an overview of the Higher Education Act (HEA) with a focus on its most significant programs and provisions, and a discussion of major issues that have been, or may be, of interest to the Congress during the HEA reauthorization process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2165/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report provides the following: an overview of postsecondary education (institutions and students), an overview of the Higher Education Act (HEA) with a focus on its most significant programs and provisions, and a discussion of major issues likely to be of interest to the Congress during the HEA reauthorization process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2166/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report provides the following: an overview of postsecondary education (institutions and students), an overview of the Higher Education Act (HEA) with a focus on its most significant programs and provisions, and a discussion of major issues likely to be of interest to the Congress during the HEA reauthorization process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2164/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report provides the following: an overview of postsecondary education (institutions and students), an overview of the Higher Education Act (HEA) with a focus on its most significant programs and provisions, and a discussion of major issues likely to be of interest to the Congress during the HEA reauthorization process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2167/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report discusses the funding authorizations for programs in the Higher Education Act (HEA). This legislation, administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED), authorizes the federal government’s major student aid programs, as well as other significant initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3797/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report discusses the funding authorizations for programs in the Higher Education Act (HEA). This legislation, administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED), authorizes the federal government’s major student aid programs, as well as other significant initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3792/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report discusses the funding authorizations for programs in the Higher Education Act (HEA). This legislation, administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED), authorizes the federal government’s major student aid programs, as well as other significant initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3791/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report discusses the funding authorizations for programs in the Higher Education Act (HEA). This legislation, administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED), authorizes the federal government’s major student aid programs, as well as other significant initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3790/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report discusses the funding authorizations for programs in the Higher Education Act (HEA). This legislation, administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED), authorizes the federal government’s major student aid programs, as well as other significant initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3796/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report discusses the funding authorizations for programs in the Higher Education Act (HEA). This legislation, administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED), authorizes the federal government’s major student aid programs, as well as other significant initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3795/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report discusses the funding authorizations for programs in the Higher Education Act (HEA). This legislation, administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED), authorizes the federal government’s major student aid programs, as well as other significant initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3794/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report discusses the funding authorizations for programs in the Higher Education Act (HEA). This legislation, administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED), authorizes the federal government’s major student aid programs, as well as other significant initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3793/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report discusses the funding authorizations for programs in the Higher Education Act (HEA). This legislation authorizes the federal government’s major student aid programs, as well as other significant initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3789/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report provides an overview of postsecondary education (institutions and students), an overview of the Higher Education Act (HEA) with a focus on its most significant programs and provisions, and a discussion of major issues that have been, or may be, of interest to the Congress during the HEA reauthorization process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824697/
The Higher Education Opportunity Act: Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act
This report begins with a brief overview of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA), its organization into various titles, and the major programs and program requirements specified under each title. It then identifies and describes selected amendments made to the HEA and other laws by the Higher Education Opportunity Act (HEOA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463214/
Higher Education Tax Benefits: Brief Overview and Budgetary Effects
This report provides a brief overview of the higher education tax benefits that are currently available to students and their families. The report contrasts higher education tax benefits with traditional student aid, presents a brief history of higher education tax policy over the past 60 years, summarizes key features of the available tax benefits, and provides JCT estimates of revenue losses resulting from individual tax provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96712/
Higher Education Tax Benefits: Brief Overview and Budgetary Effects
This report provides a brief overview of the higher education tax benefits that are currently available to students and their families. The report contrasts higher education tax benefits with traditional student aid, presents a brief history of higher education tax policy over the past 60 years, summarizes key features of the available tax benefits, and provides JCT estimates of revenue losses resulting from individual tax provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122214/