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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Changing Postal ZIP Code Boundaries

Changing Postal ZIP Code Boundaries

Date: June 23, 2006
Creator: Stevens, Nye
Description: This report discusses the changing of ZIP Code system and the implications of such an action. The process places responsibility on district managers, rather than local postmasters, to review requests for boundary adjustment, to evaluate costs and benefits of alternative solutions to identified problems, and to provide a decision within 60 days.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cloud Computing: Constitutional and Statutory Privacy Protections

Cloud Computing: Constitutional and Statutory Privacy Protections

Date: March 22, 2013
Creator: Thompson, Richard M., II
Description: This report first describes cloud computing and how it differs from traditional computing. It then describes how the Fourth Amendment and federal electronic privacy statutes apply to communications in the physical world, to Internet communications generally, and specifically to the cloud. Finally, this report surveys recent legislation and other various proposals designed to update the existing statutory framework.
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Communications Act Revisions: Selected Issues for Consideration

Communications Act Revisions: Selected Issues for Consideration

Date: September 19, 2005
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A
Description: This report provides an overview of selected topics which the 109th Congress may address in its examination of telecommunications issues. The issues included in this report cover: broadband Internet regulation and access; broadcast indecency; digital television transition; Federal Communications Commission structure and reform; intercarrier compensation; media ownership rules; municipal deployment of broadband; public safety communications, the “savings clause” and monopoly issues; spectrum auctions; and universal service fund reform.
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Communications Act Revisions: Selected Issues for Consideration

Communications Act Revisions: Selected Issues for Consideration

Date: January 23, 2006
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A
Description: This report provides an overview of selected topics which the 109th Congress may address in its examination of telecommunications issues. The issues included in this report cover: broadband Internet regulation and access; broadcast indecency; digital television transition; Federal Communications Commission structure and reform; intercarrier compensation; media ownership rules; municipal deployment of broadband; public safety communications, the “savings clause” and monopoly issues; spectrum auctions; and universal service fund reform.
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Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress

Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: November 5, 2009
Creator: Petersen, R. E.
Description: This report provides an overview and analysis of issues related to the processing and distribution of congressional information by the Government Printing Office. Subsequent sections address several issues, including funding congressional printing, printing authorizations, current printing practices, and options for Congress. Finally, the report provides congressional printing appropriations, production, and distribution data in a number of tables.
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Constitutionality of Proposals to Prohibit the Sale or Rental to Minors of Video Games with Violent or Sexual Content or "Strong Language"

Constitutionality of Proposals to Prohibit the Sale or Rental to Minors of Video Games with Violent or Sexual Content or "Strong Language"

Date: January 18, 2006
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: It has been proposed that Congress prohibit the sale or rental to minors of video games that are rated “M” (mature) or “AO” (adults-only) by the Entertainment Software Ratings Board. This board is a non-governmental entity established by the Interactive Digital Software Association, and its ratings currently have no legal effect.
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Current Legal Status of the FCC’s Media Ownership Rules

Current Legal Status of the FCC’s Media Ownership Rules

Date: August 23, 2010
Creator: Ruane, Kathleen A.
Description: This report discusses the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC) media ownership regulations, which place limits on the number of broadcast radio and television outlets one owner can possess in a given market and place cross-ownership restrictions on these outlets and on the cross-ownership of broadcast properties and newspapers.
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Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Comparison of H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731

Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Comparison of H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731

Date: April 20, 2015
Creator: Fischer, Eric A.
Description: This report compares provisions in two bills in the House of Representatives that address information sharing and related activities in cybersecurity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
English as the Official Language of the United States: An Overview

English as the Official Language of the United States: An Overview

Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Aleman, Steven R; Bruno, Andorra & Dale, Charles V
Description: This report provides background on contemporary efforts to declare English the official language, a review of selected issues raised by official English proposals in Congress, and a summary of arguments that have been advanced in favor of and in opposition to such proposals.
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English as the Official Language of the United States: Legal Background

English as the Official Language of the United States: Legal Background

Date: December 23, 2010
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: For over a decade, legislation that would either declare English the official language of the United States government or that would oppose such declarations has been introduced in Congress. This report discusses the legal effect of some of these congressional proposals, as well as current federal policy on foreign language assistance, the constitutional law implications of official English proposals, and legal issues regarding state laws on official English.
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Farm Product "Check-Off" Programs: A Constitutional Analysis

Farm Product "Check-Off" Programs: A Constitutional Analysis

Date: June 21, 2005
Creator: Vina, Stephen R
Description: This report begins with a brief introduction to check-off programs and then describes many of the First Amendment principles that have been discussed in checkoff cases. Next is an analysis of the first two challenges that reached the Supreme Court, as well as a brief discussion of subsequent lower court decisions. This report concludes with a discussion of Johanns v. Livestock Marketing Association and its possible implications for check-off programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
FCC Media Ownership Rules: Issues for Congress

FCC Media Ownership Rules: Issues for Congress

Date: August 28, 2003
Creator: Goldfarb, Charles B.
Description: The Federal Communications Commission adopted an order on June 2, 2003 that modified five of its media ownership rules and retained two others.1 The new rules will go into effect on September 4, 2003 – thirty days after their appearance in the Federal Register. Because of the potential that changes in these rules – which set limits on national television ownership, newspaper-broadcast and radio-television cross-ownership in a market, and ownership of multiple television or radio stations in a market – could have far-reaching effects, a number of bills have been introduced in the 108th Congress that reflect a range of positions on these issues. This report analyzes each of the areas that have changed as a result of the FCC action or may change as a result of congressional action. The various positions in the debate also are summarized.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
FCC Media Ownership Rules: Issues for Congress

FCC Media Ownership Rules: Issues for Congress

Date: September 17, 2003
Creator: Goldfarb, Charles B.
Description: The Federal Communications Commission adopted an order on June 2, 2003 that modified five of its media ownership rules and retained two others. The new rules were scheduled to go into effect on September 4, 2003, but the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit stayed implementation of the new rules pending adjudication of claims that the rules are unlawful. (Prometheus Radio Project v. FCC, 3rd Cir., No 03-3388, stay issued 9/3/03). Because of the potential that changes in these rules – which set limits on national television ownership, newspaper-broadcast and radio-television cross-ownership in a market, and ownership of multiple television or radio stations in a market – could have far-reaching effects, a number of bills have been introduced in the 108th Congress that reflect a range of positions on these issues. This report analyzes each of the areas that have changed as a result of the FCC action or may change as a result of congressional action. The various positions in the debate also are summarized.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The FCC's Political Broadcasting Regulations

The FCC's Political Broadcasting Regulations

Date: October 27, 2004
Creator: Welborn, Angie A.
Description: This report provides an overview of the Federal Communication Commission's political broadcasting regulations, including general public interest obligations; the equal opportunity (equal time) regulations; and the various interpretations of the Fairness Doctrine, which is no longer enforced by the Commission. A brief section of frequently asked questions regarding political broadcasting is also provided.
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The FCC's Rules and Policies Regarding Media Ownership, Attribution, and Ownership Diversity

The FCC's Rules and Policies Regarding Media Ownership, Attribution, and Ownership Diversity

Date: March 12, 2015
Creator: Scherer, Dana A.
Description: This report discusses the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) broadcast media ownership rules, which restrict the number of media outlets that a single entity may own or control. Its attribution rules define which relationships the FCC counts as ownership. In 2004 and again in 2011, the U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, directed the FCC to review its broadcast ownership diversity policies in conjunction with the media ownership rules.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Advertising Law: An Overview

Federal Advertising Law: An Overview

Date: February 9, 1998
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: This report provides a brief overview of federal law with respect to five selected advertising issues: alcohol advertising, tobacco advertising, the Federal Trade Commission Act, advertising by mail, and advertising by telephone. There are numerous federal statutes regulating advertising that do not fit within any of these categories; as random examples, the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requires disclosures in advertisements for prescription drugs ; the Truth in Lending Act governs the advertising of consumer credit ; and a federal criminal statute makes it illegal falsely to convey in an advertisement that a business is connected with a federal agency.
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Federal Services for Constituents Available in Foreign Languages: Selected Sources

Federal Services for Constituents Available in Foreign Languages: Selected Sources

Date: March 14, 2003
Creator: Wu, Leneice & Shapiro, Sherry
Description: This report is a directory of sources on various federal constituent services available in foreign languages, to assist congressional offices in serving non-English speaking constituents. The topics covered are: access to jobs and workers’ issues, Americans with Disabilities Act, childcare, consumer protection, disaster relief, elder care, emergency preparedness, environmental protection, Federal Bureau of Investigation, food safety, health, higher education, homeland security, housing, immigration, immunizations, Medicaid, Medicare, the Presidency, retirement, Small Business Administration, Social Security Administration, taxes, telephone service, travel and tourism, veterans affairs, and voting.
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Federal Services for Constituents Available in Spanish: Selected Sources

Federal Services for Constituents Available in Spanish: Selected Sources

Date: March 14, 2003
Creator: Wu, Leneice & Shapiro, Sherry
Description: This report is a directory of sources on various federal constituent services available in Spanish to assist congressional offices in serving Spanish-speaking constituents. The topics covered are: access to jobs and workers’ issues, Americans with Disabilities Act, childcare, consumer protection, disaster relief, elder care, emergency management, emergency preparedness, environmental protection, Federal Bureau of Investigation, food safety, health, higher education, homeland security, housing, immigration, immunizations, Medicaid, Medicare, the Presidency, retirement, Small Business Administration, Social Security Administration, taxes, telephone service, travel and tourism, veterans affairs, and voting.
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Finding Quotes for Speeches: Fact Sheet

Finding Quotes for Speeches: Fact Sheet

Date: September 22, 2015
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey C.
Description: This report provides sources for finding quotes. The resources are divided into three categories: (1) General Quotations, (2) Americana, and (3) Religion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress

The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress

Date: March 12, 2014
Creator: Moore, Linda K.
Description: This report provides and introduction to key provisions in the Spectrum Act to improve public safety communications and discusses planning authority, state and local participation, federal governance and other issues regarding the evolving network technologies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress

The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress

Date: February 27, 2015
Creator: Moore, Linda K.
Description: This report provides and introduction to key provisions in the Spectrum Act to improve public safety communications and discusses planning authority, state and local participation, federal governance and other issues regarding the evolving network technologies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress

The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress

Date: April 28, 2016
Creator: Moore, Linda K.
Description: This report discusses the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet), which is a federal agency that includes private sector and other non-federal representation on its board of directors. It examines the challenges for public safety leaders and policymakers in establishing the framework for a nationwide network that meets state, local, tribal and territorial needs for robust, interoperable emergency communications.
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The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress

The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress

Date: June 17, 2016
Creator: Moore, Linda K.
Description: This report discusses the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet), which is a federal agency that includes private sector and other non-federal representation on its board of directors. FirstNet was created by Congress with provisions in Title VI (Spectrum Act) of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-96) to ensure the deployment and operation of a nationwide, broadband network for public safety communications.
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Free Mail for Troops Overseas

Free Mail for Troops Overseas

Date: August 22, 2006
Creator: Stevens, Nye
Description: Members of the armed forces on duty in designated combat areas can send personal correspondence, free of postage, to addresses in the United States. There has never been a comparable provision of free postage of letters or packages sent from family members in the United States to loved ones in wartime service overseas. Two bills (H.R. 923 and H.R. 2874) have been introduced that would allow family members and, in the case o H.R. 2874, certain charities to send letters and packages to service men and women in combat zones free of postage.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department