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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
501(c)(4)s and Campaign Activity: Analysis Under Tax and Campaign Finance Laws
This report discusses 501(c)(4) social welfare organizations, including the requirements necessary to maintain 501(c)(4) status and the requirements for annual reporting to the Internal Revenue Service and Federal Election Commission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463001/
2012-2013 Presidential Election Period: National Security Considerations and Options
This report discusses historical national security-related presidential transition activities, provides a representative sampling of national security issues a new Administration may encounter, and offers considerations and options relevant to each of the five phases of the presidential election period. Each phase has distinct challenges and opportunities for the incoming Administration, the outgoing Administration, and Congress. This report is intended to provide a framework for national security considerations during the current election period and will be updated to reflect the election outcome. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122266/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan and the Afghan government. It also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai to address corruption within the Afghan government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462630/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31449/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31448/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29737/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87376/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government, as well as a discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99124/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96813/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
Report that discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai to address corruption within the Afghan government. Election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan are also discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228128/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
Report that discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai to address corruption within the Afghan government. Election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan are also discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228126/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86668/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84120/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84119/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. It also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103237/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94199/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33098/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94201/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94200/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94204/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40257/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94203/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96814/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report covers concerns and issues relating to governance, elections, election fraud/nepotism, human rights, and Afghan culture in Afghanistan. It discusses the pros and cons of U.S.A. intervention in the shaping of these endeavors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85487/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
Report that discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai to address corruption within the Afghan government. Election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan are also discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228127/
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
Report that covers concerns and issues relating to governance, elections, election fraud/nepotism, human rights, and Afghan culture in Afghanistan. It discusses the pros and cons of U.S.A. intervention in the shaping of these endeavors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227959/
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report covers concerns and issues relating to governance, elections, election fraud/nepotism, human rights, and Afghan culture in Afghanistan. It discusses the pros and cons of U.S.A. intervention in the shaping of these endeavors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85438/
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report covers concerns and issues relating to governance, elections, election fraud/nepotism, human rights, and Afghan culture in Afghanistan. It discusses the pros and cons of U.S.A. intervention in the shaping of these endeavors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85439/
Argentina Votes for Change in 2015 Presidential Election
This report briefly discusses the November 22, 2015 elections in Argentina. Mauricio Macri defeated Daniel Scioli. In a close race, Macri, the mayor of Buenos Aires, took 51.4% of the vote compared to 48.6% for Scioli, the governor of Buenos Aires province. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795864/
Argentina's 2015 Presidential Election
This report briefly discusses the Argentinian Presidential election, held on October 25, 2015. The close results set up a second round on November 22, 2015, between Daniel Scioli and Mauricio Macri. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795388/
Aung San Suu Kyi's Party Takes Control of Parliament in Burma
This report discusses politics and government in Burma following elections in November 2015. Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy (NLD) has now assumed control of Burma's Union Parliament. The lower chamber (People's Assembly) and the upper chamber (National Assembly) took office on February 1 and 3, 2016, respectively. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824589/
Automated Political Telephone Calls ("Robo Calls") in Federal Campaigns: Overview and Policy Options
This report provides an overview of how automated political calls are used in federal campaigns, including attention to recent spending estimates and polling data regarding these calls. The report also discusses legislation that would affect the calls, with descriptions of various policy options and how the options or their regulation may be related to campaign finance law and to the First Amendment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503372/
Average Years of Service for Members of the Senate and House of Representatives, 1st - 111th Congresses
The average tenure of Members of the Senate and House of Representatives at the beginning of each Congress has varied substantially since 1789. The purpose of this report is to provide a Congress-by-Congress summary of the average years of service for Senators and Representatives for the First through the 111th Congresses. The report contains a brief summary of some of the explanations by political scientists and others for the various changes in the average years of service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29655/
Beginning and End of the Terms of United States Senators Chosen to Fill Senate Vacancies
This report discusses the procedures for when a Senator is chosen to fill a Senate vacancy during a session of Congress, i.e., when the appointed Senator can begin his or her term of office, and how long the Senator remains in office (until the new "Senator-elect" is sworn in and seated by the Senate). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31349/
Brazil's October 2014 Presidential Election
This report briefly discusses the results of Brazil's recent elections and potential policy shifts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491411/
Brazil's October 2014 Presidential Election
This report briefly discusses the candidates and policy shifts in Brazil's 2014 Presidential election. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463240/
Burma's 2010 Election Campaign: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the November 7, 2010 parliamentary elections in Burma, which have long been controversial, mainly due to election fraud concerns. The report discusses debates about U.S. policy toward Burma, which has been sparked by the elections and the issues surrounding them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29613/
Burma's 2010 Elections: Implications of the New Constitution and Election Laws
This report discusses the November 7, 2010 parliamentary elections in Burma, which have long been controversial, mainly due to election fraud concerns. The report discusses debates about U.S. policy toward Burma, which has been sparked by the elections and the issues surrounding them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501964/
Campaign Finance Policy After Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission: Issues and Options for Congress
This report provides an overview of selected campaign finance policy options that may be relevant to the ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission. It also briefly comments on how Citizens United might affect political advertising. A complete understanding of how Citizens United will affect the campaign and policy environments is likely to be unavailable until at least the conclusion of the 2010 election cycle. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505567/
Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress
This report provides an overview of selected campaign finance policy issues that have received recent legislative attention, or have otherwise been prominent, and which could receive attention during the 111th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821542/
Canada's October 2015 Elections
This report discusses the political climate in Canada, leading up to Canada's next election, scheduled for October 19, 2015. The outcome of the election may have implications for the United States, which is Canada's largest trading partner, largest energy consumer, and NATO ally. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795425/
Candidates, Groups, and the Campaign Finance Environment
This report briefly discusses the current campaign finance environment and the implications of changes to campaign finance policy over the past several decades. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627084/
China's Leaders Quash Hong Kong's Hopes for Democratic Election Reforms
This report briefly discusses a recent decision by China's National People's Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC) that places strict conditions on any possible electoral reforms in Hong Kong. The report covers the decision, Hong Kong's response, and options for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462738/
Contemporary Developments in Presidential Elections
This report considers contemporary developments in presidential elections. It emphasizes three topics chosen for their recurring importance and notable recent developments: (1) nominating procedures; (2) campaign finance; and (3) the electoral college. The report highlights significant developments in these areas, particularly for the 2008 and 2012 elections. It also provides background information about the presidential election process in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84016/
Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives: 1933 to 2009
From 1933 to 2009 (the 73rd Congress through the 111th Congress), the U.S. House of Representatives considered 107 contested election cases. The summaries of contested election cases contained in this report focus primarily on the nature of the contest and the disposition of the case. For more detailed information regarding each contest, it is important to consult relevant House records. This report examines only cases considered by the House of Representatives involving the question of whether a Member-elect was duly elected. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31312/
Contested Presidential Nominating Conventions: Brief Background and Questions
This report briefly addresses selected questions about possible contested Democratic and Republican conventions that might be relevant as Members of Congress prepare for the 2016 election. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847500/
Coordinated Party Expenditures in Federal Elections: An Overview
This report examines campaign finance law in the context of political party committee expenditures. It discusses relevant Supreme Court precedent and recent legislative activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491338/
Côte d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis
This report discusses the contested November 28, 2010, presidential election runoff election in Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Gbagbo and his rival, former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara, both continue to claim to have won the runoff and to exercise exclusive national executive authority, and to attempt to consolidate their control over state institutions. An increase in armed conflicts in late February 2011, among other indicators, signals the possible outbreak of a renewed civil war. This report discusses these events, as well as U.S. and international efforts to support a peaceful transition in Côte d'Ivoire, which has remained largely divided since the civil war that began in 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33101/
Côte d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis
This report discusses the contested November 28, 2010, presidential election runoff election in Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Gbagbo and his rival, former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara, both continue to claim to have won the runoff and to exercise exclusive national executive authority, and to attempt to consolidate their control over state institutions. An increase in armed conflicts in late February 2011, among other indicators, signals the possible outbreak of a renewed civil war. This report discusses these events, as well as U.S. and international efforts to support a peaceful transition in Côte d'Ivoire, which has remained largely divided since the civil war that began in 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33102/
Cote d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis
This report discusses the recent political instability in Côte d'Ivoire, which has surfaced most recently in February 2011, and stems from a contested November 28, 2010, presidential election. This report discusses background information on Côte d'Ivoire's long struggle toward peace, political stability, and democratic governance. This report also addresses U.S. interests regarding Côte d'Ivoire's stability and democratic progress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33100/
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