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 Country: United States
 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2012
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agriculture in the WTO: Limits on Domestic Support

Agriculture in the WTO: Limits on Domestic Support

Date: December 4, 2012
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: A potential major constraint affecting U.S. agricultural policy choices is the set of commitments made as part of membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its various agreements governing agriculture and trade, including dispute settlement. This report provides a brief overview of the WTO commitments most relevant for U.S. domestic farm policy. A key question that policymakers ask of virtually every new farm proposal is, how will it affect U.S. commitments under the WTO?
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Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Date: February 1, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Description: This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party nations of such military items.
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The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Date: September 26, 2012
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report gives a brief overview of P.L. 110-49, the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007. Although both the President and Congress are directly involved in formulating the scope and direction of U.S. foreign investment policy, this law broadens Congress' oversight role; it also explicitly includes the areas of homeland security and critical infrastructure as separately-identifiable components of national security that the President must consider when evaluating the national security implications of a foreign investment transaction.
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Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2004-2011

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2004-2011

Date: August 24, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Description: This report provides Congress with official, unclassified, background data from U.S. government sources on transfers of conventional arms to developing nations by major suppliers for the period 2004 through 2011. All agreement and delivery data in this report for the United States are government-to-government Foreign Military Sales (FMS) transactions. Similar data are provided on worldwide conventional arms transfers by all suppliers, but the principal focus is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world.
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Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling

Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling

Date: July 3, 2012
Creator: Jurenas, Remy & Greene, Joel L.
Description: This report covers the dispute between the U.S with its neighbors Canada and Mexico, who say that the recent country-of-origin labeling (COOL) system implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is unfair and does not meet its original objectives. This dispute was brought before the WTO dispute panel and found to be valid. The report ends with a discussion of options for the U.S. in regards to modifying COOL to follow WTO rulings.
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Dispute Settlement in the U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA)

Dispute Settlement in the U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA)

Date: March 21, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: A look at the U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA), including its background and, most specifically, steps taken when disputes occur.
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Domestic Content Legislation: The Buy American Act and Complementary Little Buy American Provisions

Domestic Content Legislation: The Buy American Act and Complementary Little Buy American Provisions

Date: April 25, 2012
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Description: Congress has broad authority to place conditions on the purchases made by the federal government or with federal dollars. One of many conditions that it has placed on direct government purchases is a requirement that they be produced in the United States. The most well-known of these requirements is the Buy American Act, which is the major domestic preference statute governing procurement by the federal government. This report summarizes (1) the Buy American Act, what it does and does not cover; (2) the Little Buy American Acts found in permanent law, emphasizing what they govern, major exceptions and why Congress felt them necessary in light of the requirements of the Buy American Act; and (3) the temporary Little Buy American provision found in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.
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EU-U.S. Economic Ties: Framework, Scope, and Magnitude

EU-U.S. Economic Ties: Framework, Scope, and Magnitude

Date: May 30, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report provides background information and analysis of the U.S.-EU economic relationship for members of the 112th Congress as they contemplate the costs and benefits of closer U.S. economic ties with the EU. It examines the economic and political framework of the relationship and the scope and magnitude of the ties based on data from various sources. In addition, the report analyzes the implications these factors have for U.S. economic policy toward the EU.
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Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Date: April 3, 2012
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank, EXIM Bank, or the Bank), an independent federal government agency, is the official export credit agency (ECA) of the United States. It helps finance U.S. exports of manufactured goods and services, with the objective of contributing to the employment of U.S. workers, primarily in circumstances when alternative financing is not available. Members of the 112th Congress may examine issues related to the Ex-Im Bank that center on the economic rationale for the Bank; the impact of the Bank on the federal budget and U.S. taxpayers; the Bank's support for specific types of business or industries; the current balance between the Bank's advancement of U.S. commercial interests and other U.S. policy goals; the competitive position of the Bank compared to foreign ECAs; and the Bank's organizational structure.
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Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis

Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis

Date: October 26, 2012
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: Report containing information regarding foreign direct investments, including the foreign acquisition of American firms.
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Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

Date: June 18, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report looks at how free trade areas (FTAs) affect U.S. trade in regards to trade policy, specifically tariffs. It looks closely at the Bush Administration's Trade Promotion Policy, and pending FTAs leftover from this administration. Additionally, it looks at the Obama Administration's work in the prospective Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP).
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Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate

Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate

Date: April 19, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C.
Description: This report presents, first, a brief history, economic rationale, and legal background leading to the establishment of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). Second, the report presents a discussion of U.S. implementation of the GSP, along with the present debate surrounding its renewal and legislative developments to date. Third, an analysis of the U.S. program's effectiveness and the positions of various stakeholders are presented. Fourth, implications of the expiration of the U.S. program and possible options for Congress are discussed.
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International Trade: Rules of Origin

International Trade: Rules of Origin

Date: January 5, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Martin, Michael F.
Description: This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, we describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, we discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, we conclude with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process.
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International Trade: Rules of Origin

International Trade: Rules of Origin

Date: January 5, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Martin, Michael F.
Description: This report deals with Rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, we describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, we discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, we conclude with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: December 7, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and, in so doing, provides examples, based on a wide range of open source reporting, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: April 26, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The objective of sanctions may be on its way to achievement but has not been accomplished to date. U.S. officials believe that these sanctions caused Iran to return to the nuclear bargaining table in April 2012 with greater seriousness and intent toward peaceful resolution. Despite the imposition of what many now consider to be "crippling" sanctions, some in Congress believe that economic and diplomatic pressure on Iran needs to increase further and faster. In the 112th Congress, legislation would enhance both the economic sanctions and human rights-related provisions of a previous Iran sanctions laws However, movement on new sanctions might be on hold pending the outcome of a second round of nuclear talks slated for May 23 in Baghdad.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: October 15, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides examples of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran, based on a wide range of open-source reporting.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: September 13, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides examples of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran, based on a wide range of open-source reporting.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: July 16, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report looks at the purposes and results of U.S. sanctions on Iran, which were initiated as a result of Iran's nuclear program and human rights issues. It ends by discussing future issues that Congress can consider regarding the sanctions.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: June 18, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report looks at the purposes and results of U.S. sanctions on Iran, which were initiated as a result of Iran's nuclear program and human rights issues. It ends by discussing future issues that Congress can consider regarding the sanctions.
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The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

Date: July 26, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions.
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The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

Date: June 13, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions.
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The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

Date: June 15, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions.
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The Lacey Act: Protecting the Environment by Restricting Trade

The Lacey Act: Protecting the Environment by Restricting Trade

Date: April 12, 2012
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report looks at the history and applications of the Lacey Act. As it stands now the Act, via a 2008 amendment, allows the U.S. to enforce the laws of other countries as well. One currently proposed legislation would limit application of the law to specific wood products, while another would eliminate any reference to violations of foreign laws and end criminal prosecutions for violating the act.
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