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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Air Quality and Motor Vehicles: An Analysis of Current and Proposed Emission Standards
The extent to which emissions from motor vehicles and the amount of sulfur in commercial gasoline should be regulated has become a controversial issue. The EPA is proposing national limits on gasoline sulfur levels which would become effective in 2004. This report provides background information on the regulation of vehicle emissions in the United States, analyzes key elements of the National Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) program and the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Tier 2 proposal, summarizes major views on the proposal that have been expressed by the automobile industry, the oil refining industry, and some environmental organizations, and discusses relevant legislative activity in the 106th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs849/
Air Quality and Vehicle Emission Standards: An Overview of the National Low Emission Vehicle Program and Related Issues
This report provides background information on federal emission standards for motor vehicles under the Clean Air Act and stricter standards originally developed to address the severity of air quality problems in California, explains the low emission standards and flexible compliance mechanisms to which states and manufacturers have voluntarily agreed under the National Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Program, discusses the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) estimates of the program's air quality benefits and costs, and examines regulatory issues related to its implementation including sulfur levels in gasoline and the relative stringency of emission standards for light trucks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs845/
Are High Interest Rates a Threat to Sustained Economic Recovery?
A major question that arises in Congress during its considerations of what policies promote and what inhibit the restoration of a healthy economy is the influence that interest rates exert. In particular, are high interest rates a threat to sustained economic recovery? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9033/
China in Transition: Changing Conditions and Implications for U.S. Interests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs72/
China's Prospects After Tiananmen Square: Current Conditions, Future Scenarios, and a Survey of Expert Opinion
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs14/
Clean Water Act and TMDLs
Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation of this provision has been dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. The TMDL issue has become controversial, in part because of requirements and costs now facing states to implement a 25-year-old provision of the law. Congressional activity to reauthorize the Act, a possibility in the 2nd Session of the 105th Congress, could include TMDL issues, but the direction for any such action is unclear at this time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs417/
Competitiveness: Economic Issue or Illusion?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs98/
Cost-Benefit Analysis: Issues in Its Use in Regulation
This report sketches issues underlying broader use of cost-benefit analysis. It focuses on cost-benefit as one of several related frameworks for assessing regulatory actions or policies. Cost-benefit is the broadest of these frameworks, which also include impact assessment, risk assessment, and cost-effectiveness. Which analytical framework is appropriate depends on the regulatory context. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs188/
Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts
This report begins with a comprehensive presentation of current economic conditions focusing on income growth, unemployment, and inflation. The posture of monetary and fiscal policy is surveyed as are the forecasts of economic activity. It concludes with data on the factors important for economic growth. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs623/
The Delaney Clause: The Dilemma of Regulating Health Risk for Pesticide Residues
Under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for establishing tolerances for pesticide residues in or on foods and feeds. Tolerances are legal limits to the amount of pesticide residues that can be found on a raw agricultural commodity at the farm gate or in a processed food. The FFDCA has two sections, 408 and 409, which set up different and inconsistent criteria for setting tolerances for pesticide residues in foods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs27/
The Delaney Dilemma: Regulating Pesticide Residues in Foods -- Seminar Proceedings, March 16, 1993
A provision in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Delaney Clause, appears to lower risks in the setting of tolerances for pesticide residues. It prohibits any substance from being added to processed foods if it induces cancer in man or animals. In reality, the provision created a dilemma because the zero-risk statute makes it difficult to regulate pesticides. Because of the prescription of Delaney, tolerances (legal limits) are established differently for carcinogens and non-carcinogens and in raw and processed foods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs60/
Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 106th
The 104th Congress pursued efforts to reform environmental regulations on several fronts: (1) revising regulatory decision making processes; (2) attaching specific reforms to funding bills; (3) establishing a House corrections day calendar of bills addressing specific regulatory problems; and (4) incorporating regulatory reforms into individual program reauthorization bills. The 105th Congress has pursued regulatory reform in four primary directions: (1) proposals to establish a comprehensive cost-benefit/risk analysis framework for regulatory programs, (2) private property “takings” initiatives, (3) amendments and reforms directed at individual environmental statutes, and (4) oversight of environmental programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs953/
Federal Regulation of Working Hours: The Ballenger and Ashcroft Proposals (H.R. 1 and S.4)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs739/
Federal Regulatory Structure for Egg Safety: Fact Sheet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs894/
Federal Sales of Natural Resources: Pricing and Allocation Mechanisms (1998)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs751/
The Financial Outlook for Social Security and Medicare
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs778/
Food Additive Regulations: A Chronology
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs203/
Food Safety Agencies and Authorities: A Primer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs694/
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Aid: Implementing the Assistance Program, 1992-1994
In fiscal year 1994, the new states of the former Soviet Union became collectively the second largest recipient of U.S. foreign assistance made available from all sources. Whether and how the assistance program is helping to bring about democratic systems and free market economies is increasingly a question of interest to Congress and the public at large. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26073/
Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: Fact Sheet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1005/
Japan's Budget: Role in Economic Policymaking
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs106/
Japan's Economy: From Bubble to Bust
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs104/
Japan's Looming Bank Crisis: A Half Trillion Dollars in Non-Performing Loans?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs108/
Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs758/
"Mad Cow Disease" or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Scientific and Regulatory Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs385/
Managed Health Care: Federal and State Regulation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs456/
Maritime Economic Deregulation: Background and Selected Public Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs818/
NAFTA: A Broad Economic Perspective
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs54/
Nationwide Permits for Wetlands Projects: Permit 26 and Other Issues and Controversies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1042/
Nitrogen Oxides and Electric Utilities: Revising the NSPS
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs381/
The President's Forest/Roadless Area Initiative
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1014/
Roadless Areas: The Administration's Moratorium
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1012/
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs500/
Science Behind the Regulation of Food Safety: Risk Assessment and the Precautionary Principle
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs990/
South Korea's Economy and Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs107/
Tobacco Control: Enforcement and Effectiveness of Federal and State Youth Access Laws
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs515/
Tobacco Legislation in the 105th Congress: Side-by-Side Comparison of S. 1415, S. 1530, S. 1638, S. 1889, H.R. 3474, and H.R. 3868
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs516/
Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs592/
Trade, Competitiveness, and International Economic Policy: A Bibliography of CRS Products
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs80/
U.S. Living Standards Compared to Those of Six Other Industrialized Nations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs51/