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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate: Marine Mammal Issues

Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate: Marine Mammal Issues

Date: May 12, 1995
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Description: After global warming became a concern in the mid-1950s, researchers proposed measuring deep ocean temperatures to reveal any significant trends in core ocean warming. Acoustic thermometry can detect changes in ocean temperature by receiving low-frequency sounds transmitted across an ocean basin because the speed of sound is proportional to water temperature. Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate, or ATOC, is an international program involving 11 institutions in seven nations. It is designed as a 30-month "proof-of-concept" project to provide data on possible global climate change, with funding provided by the U.S. Department of Defense. A debate has arisen over ATOC's impact on marine mammals versus the benefits of better global warming information derived from ATOC. This report dicusses the ATOC program and related concerns.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE

African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE

Date: August 5, 1997
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne & Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: The conservation of African elephants has been controversial recently on two fronts: the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES, to which the United States is a party), and a Zimbabwean program for sustainable development called CAMPFIRE, which is partially funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Two controversies have sprung up recently about the African elephant. One is the changing status of this species under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), of which the United States is a signatory. The other is over a program in Zimbabwe called "CAMPFIRE." The partial funding of this program by the U.S. Agency for International Development has been criticized by animal welfare groups and some conservation groups, though it has been supported by other conservation groups as well as many hunting organizations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Animal Agriculture: Issues for the 106th Congress

Animal Agriculture: Issues for the 106th Congress

Date: September 2, 1999
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses a variety of animal agriculture issues that generated debate during the 106th Congress, including low livestock prices, especially for hogs. Economic difficulties have revived questions such as the impacts of consolidation in the livestock industry, and the price effects of animal imports from Canada and Mexico. This report also discusses a number of legislative proposals to assist livestock producers and enforce sanitary and phytosanitary standards, as well as continuing trade disputes and negotiations with China, the European Union, New Zealand, and Australia.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Date: September 5, 1996
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Kumins, Lawrence C & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is an area rich in fauna, flora, and oil potential, where development has been debated for over 36 years. Current law forbids oil and gas leasing. This report discusses debate over whether or not to open the ANWR up for development and includes discussion of various legislative options under consideration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biological Diversity Treaty: Fact Sheet

Biological Diversity Treaty: Fact Sheet

Date: May 16, 1995
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: As human activity continues to change and modify natural areas, widespread extinctions of plants, animals, and other types of species result. In 1992, negotiations conducted under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) were completed on a comprehensive global treaty to protect biological diversity (biodiversity). In June 1993, President Clinton signed the treaty and sent it to the Senate for advice and consent. It is not pending in the Senate. The treaty entered into force on December 29, 1993. As of May 15, 1995, 118 nations had ratified the treaty.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Date: April 16, 1993
Creator: Axt, Josephie R; Lee, Margaret Mikyung & Ackerman, David M
Description: This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Brief Summaries of Federal Animal Protection Statutes

Brief Summaries of Federal Animal Protection Statutes

Date: November 30, 1998
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: This report contains brief summaries of federal animal protection statutes, listed alphabetically. It does not include treaties, although it does include statutes enacted to implement treaties. It includes statutes concerning animals that are not entirely, or not at all, animal protection statutes. For example, it includes a statute authorizing the eradication of predators, because one of the statute's purposes is to protect domestic and "game, animals; and it includes statutes to conserve fish, although their ultimate purpose may not be for the fishes' benefit. It also includes statutes that allow the disabled to use service animals, and even includes statutes aimed at acts of animal rights advocates (the Animal Enterprise Protection Act of 1992, and the Recreational Hunting Safety and Preservation Act of 1994).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cattle Prices: Questions and Answers

Cattle Prices: Questions and Answers

Date: November 14, 1996
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: After 7 years of relatively high returns, cattle producers by 1994 were experiencing steeply falling prices--mainly caused by abundant supplies of cattle destined for U.S. feedlots. Record-high grain prices and dry pastures amplified the problem. Because of the lengthy biological cycle governing cattle production, large numbers will be coming onto the market for some time, as producers undertake the slow process of curtailing herd expansion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future

Date: August 24, 1994
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This report discusses the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It is divided into six sections: Introduction, Background, CITES and the Endangered Species Act, Implementation, Upcoming Events, and Appendices.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Dolphin Protection and Tuna Seining

Dolphin Protection and Tuna Seining

Date: August 29, 1997
Creator: Buck, Eugene H
Description: From its inception in 1972, one of the goals of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was to reduce the incidental mortality of dolphins in the ETP tuna fishery. Regulations promulgated under MMPA authority set standards for tuna seining and motivated technological improvements that reduced dolphin mortalities in this fishery -- by 1977, annual dolphin mortality by U.S. tuna seiners had declined to about 25,450 animals. Despite the extensive mortalities, no ETP dolphin population has been listed as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. However, two ETP dolphin stocks were listed as depleted under the MMPA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351

Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351

Date: March 2, 1998
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: Because of wide-spread interest in possible amendments to the Endangered Species Act (ESA), CRS has received numerous requests for an analysis and critique of S.1180 and H.R. 2351. This report analyzes those bills. HR. 2351 was introduced on July 31, 1997 and S. 1180 on September 16, 1997. Each bill is discussed under various topic headings. The Senate bill will be described first, since it has been reported.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act and Private Property

The Endangered Species Act and Private Property

Date: March 7, 1993
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: If the 103rd Congress embarks upon an effort to reauthorize the Endangered Species Act (ESA), it will run into an old acquaintance: the property rights issue. As now written, the ESA has at least the potential to curtail property rights (whatever its actual impact as implemented may be). This report explores the legal repercussions of those impacts, especially whether they constitute takings of property under the fifth amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Endangered Species List Revisions: A Summary of Delisting and Downlisting

Endangered Species List Revisions: A Summary of Delisting and Downlisting

Date: January 5, 1998
Creator: Noecker, Robert J
Description: This report outlines the process and reasons for delisting or downlisting, and summarizes the 27 species delisted due to extinction, recovery, or data revision, and the 22 species that have been downlisted from endangered to threatened status due to stabilized or improving populations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 105th Congress

Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 105th Congress

Date: October 28, 1998
Creator: Buck, Eugene H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The Sweet Home Decision

Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The Sweet Home Decision

Date: July 6, 1995
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the Endangered Species Act, the regulation of the Fish and Wildlife Service defining "harm" for purposes of the "take" prohibitions of the Endangered Species Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hog Prices: Questions and Answers

Hog Prices: Questions and Answers

Date: December 15, 1999
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: This report discusses price changes in the pork industry. In late 1998, the lowest hog prices in decades created a crisis in the pork industry and prompted the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Congress to take a series of actions to assist producers, including direct cash payments, and the purchase of extra pork products to reduce market supplies. The industry sought additional aid as low prices persisted into 1999.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Humane Treatment of Farm Animals: Overview and Selected Issues

Humane Treatment of Farm Animals: Overview and Selected Issues

Date: December 6, 1995
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Amendments Act of 1994, S. 2230 (103rd Cong., 2nd Sess.): A Brief Analysis

The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Amendments Act of 1994, S. 2230 (103rd Cong., 2nd Sess.): A Brief Analysis

Date: August 25, 1994
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: This report provides an analysis of S. 2230, the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Amendments of 1994 introduced June 23, 1994, to amend the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. It includes sections on stated purposes, enhanced powers of the National Indian Gaming Commission, proposed tribal-state compacting process, modifications of current law with respect to class II gaming, modification of current law with respect to class III gaming, and miscellaneous amendments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities

The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities

Date: December 15, 1992
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Mad Cow Disease" or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Scientific and Regulatory Issues

"Mad Cow Disease" or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Scientific and Regulatory Issues

Date: July 9, 1997
Creator: Johnson, Judith A & Vogt, Donna U
Description: This report discusses the regulatory issues regarding cattle disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and a rare, fatal human illness, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994

Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994

Date: September 28, 1994
Creator: Buck, Eugene H
Description: This report summarizes provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994 and outlines this Act's implementation schedule for use by Members of Congress and their staff.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Market-Based Environmental Management: Issues in Implementation

Market-Based Environmental Management: Issues in Implementation

Date: March 7, 1994
Creator: Moore, John L.; Blodgett, John E.; Copeland, Claudia; Gushee, David E.; Mayer, Susan L.; McCarthy, James E. et al.
Description: Increasingly, efforts to protect integral features of the natural environment that are essential to human well being face a double challenge. First, the magnitude of some conventional and emerging threats to environmental quality is growing, despite solid progress in controlling some causes. This is particularly the concern on a global scale in terms of atmospheric changes and loss of biological diversity. Second, easily-implemented uniform control methods using feasible technologies or other direct regulatory approaches are already in place for many pollution and resource management problems in the United States. Additional progress with so-called command and control policies can be expensive and disruptive, and thus counter productive to overall economic well being. This type of dilemma is common where environmental deterioration results from diffuse and complex causes inherent in technically-advanced high-consumption industrial societies such as the U.S. Solutions to these types of environmental problems are complicated by the diffuse benefits which obscures the net gains of additional controls that have concentrated and highly visible costs. Given this double bind, many policy analysts and academics have for years advocated more cost-effective and flexible approaches relying on market forces to further some environmental management objectives. Although market-based theory and practical environmental policy are ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexican Spotted Owls: Federal Protection

Mexican Spotted Owls: Federal Protection

Date: June 30, 1993
Creator: Heck, Jennifer A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection

Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection

Date: October 21, 1993
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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