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 Country: United States
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2008
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Allocation of Wastewater Treatment Assistance: Formula and Other Changes

Allocation of Wastewater Treatment Assistance: Formula and Other Changes

Date: August 19, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report describes the formula and eligibility changes adopted by Congress since 1972 related to the allocation of wastewater treatment assistance. It focuses on the interplay and decision-making by Congress on factors to include in the formula.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Animal Waste and Water Quality: EPA's Response to the Waterkeeper Alliance Court Decision on Regulation of CAFOs

Animal Waste and Water Quality: EPA's Response to the Waterkeeper Alliance Court Decision on Regulation of CAFOs

Date: August 20, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the Clean Water Act, which prohibits the discharge of pollutants from any "point source" to waters of the United States unless authorized under a permit that is issued by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or a qualified state. The act also expressly defines confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) as point sources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) Drought: Federal Water Management Issues

Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) Drought: Federal Water Management Issues

Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.; Kaplan, Stan Mark; Buck, Eugene H.; Brougher, Cynthia & Kristina Alexander
Description: This report provides an introductory analysis of federal water management issues in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF), particularly during drought. The report underscores that decision makers are faced with the tradeoff of the current harm that reduced flows may cause aquatic species against the benefits of maintaining water in storage for future multipurpose use later. The first section briefly introduces the basin's water resources and related federal issues. The second section summarizes current federal reservoir operations. The third section discusses how the municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses of ACF waters affect federal reservoir management. The fourth section covers how species protections affect Corps operations and how Corps operations may affect protected species. The fifth section briefly discusses legislation in the 110th Congress related to the ACF and water supply and management issues in the Southeast. The report concludes with comments about the ACF in the broader context of federal CRS-2 water policies and projects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Projects: Authorization and Appropriations

Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Projects: Authorization and Appropriations

Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Carter, Nicole T. & Hughes, H. S.
Description: This report explains how the congressional authorization and appropriations process overlays the Corps' project development process. Special attention is given to initiating a water resources study, the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) process, civil works appropriations, and emergency response activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water State Revolving Fund: Program Overview and Issues

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund: Program Overview and Issues

Date: February 22, 2008
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to protect public health.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Regulating Ballast Water Discharges: Current Legislative Issues

Regulating Ballast Water Discharges: Current Legislative Issues

Date: August 28, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses different views on the measures to control ballast water discharges from vessels which are a major pathway for introduction of invasive species into U.S. waters.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Rural Water Supply and Sewer Systems: Background Information

Rural Water Supply and Sewer Systems: Background Information

Date: August 25, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Clean Water Act, which impose requirements regarding drinking water quality and wastewater treatment in rural areas. Approximately 27% of the U.S. population lives in areas defined by the Census Bureau as rural. Many rural communities need to complete water and waste disposal projects to improve the public health and environmental conditions of their citizens.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

Date: July 28, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report presents an overview of the large and diverse sector of water infrastructure systems, describes security-related actions by the government and private sector since September 11, and discusses additional policy issues and responses, including congressional interest.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

Date: November 17, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report presents an overview of the large and diverse sector of water infrastructure systems, describes security-related actions by the government and private sector since September 11, 2001, and discusses additional policy issues and responses, including congressional interest.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Infrastructure Needs and Investment: Review and Analysis of Key Issues

Water Infrastructure Needs and Investment: Review and Analysis of Key Issues

Date: November 24, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia & Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report identifies a number of issues that have received attention in connection with water infrastructure investment. It begins with a review of federal involvement, describes the debate about needs, and then examines key issues, including what is the nature of the problems to be solved; who will pay, and what is the federal role; and questions about mechanisms for delivering federal support, including state-by-state allotment of federal funds. Congressional and Administration activity on these issues from the 107th to the 110th Congresses also is reviewed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Rights Related to Oil Shale Development in the Upper Colorado River Basin

Water Rights Related to Oil Shale Development in the Upper Colorado River Basin

Date: November 18, 2008
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: Concerns over fluctuating oil prices and declining petroleum production worldwide have revived interest in oil shale as a potential resource. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-58) identified oil shale as a strategically important domestic resource and directed the Department of the Interior to promote commercial development. Oil shale development would require significant amounts of water, however, and water supply in the Colorado River Basin, where several oil shale reserves are located, is limited. This report will provide a brief overview of water rights in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, including changes that may be made to currently held water rights and the possibility for abandonment of unused water rights.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Wetlands Coverage of the Clean Water Act Is Revisited by the Supreme Court: Rapanos v. United States

The Wetlands Coverage of the Clean Water Act Is Revisited by the Supreme Court: Rapanos v. United States

Date: April 22, 2008
Creator: Meltz, Robert & Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the Supreme Court decision in Rapanos v. United States, which addressed the asserted jurisdiction of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) over wetlands adjacent to "waters of the United States," the problematic phrase used by the Clean Water Act (CWA) to define the geographic scope of the act's wetlands permitting program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department