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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2008
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Advanced Technology Program

The Advanced Technology Program

Date: January 7, 2008
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: President Bush's FY2008 budget request did not include financing for ATP. The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act, P.L. 110-161, replaces ATP with the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) and provides $65.2 million (with an additional $5 million in ATP FY2007 unobligated balances), 17.6% less than the previous fiscal year. P.L. 110- 69, the America COMPETES Act, authorized the creation of TIP.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects

Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects

Date: June 30, 2008
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo & Lister, Sarah A.
Description: Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to produce certain types of plastic. Containers made of these plastics may expose people to small amounts of BPA in food and water. Some animal experiments have found that fetal and infant development may be harmed by small amounts of BPA, but scientists disagree about the value of the animal studies for predicting harmful effects in people. This report discusses this issue and relevant legislation, as well as inquiries into studies currently underway to determine the true harm inherent in BPA and the degree to which people are regularly exposed to BPA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects

Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects

Date: July 23, 2008
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo & Lister, Sarah A.
Description: Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to produce certain types of plastic. Containers made of these plastics may expose people to small amounts of BPA in food and water. Some animal experiments have found that fetal and infant development may be harmed by small amounts of BPA, but scientists disagree about the value of the animal studies for predicting harmful effects in people. This report discusses this issue and relevant legislation, as well as inquiries into studies currently underway to determine the true harm inherent in BPA and the degree to which people are regularly exposed to BPA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects

Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects

Date: September 8, 2008
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo & Lister, Sarah A.
Description: Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to produce certain types of plastic. Containers made of these plastics may expose people to small amounts of BPA in food and water. Some animal experiments have found that fetal and infant development may be harmed by small amounts of BPA, but scientists disagree about the value of the animal studies for predicting harmful effects in people. This report discusses this issue and relevant legislation, as well as inquiries into studies currently underway to determine the true harm inherent in BPA and the degree to which people are regularly exposed to BPA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979: Background, Provisions, and Cost

Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979: Background, Provisions, and Cost

Date: December 17, 2008
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Description: A look at how the Chrysler Loan Guarantee Act of 1979 affected TARP funding for the Detroit Big Three.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979: Background, Provisions, and Cost

Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979: Background, Provisions, and Cost

Date: December 8, 2008
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Description: A look at how the Chrysler Loan Guarantee Act of 1979 affected TARP funding for the Detroit Big Three.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations: An Overview

Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations: An Overview

Date: January 30, 2008
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report discusses The U.S. economy is growing increasingly interconnected with other economies around the world, a phenomenon often referred to as globalization. As U.S. businesses expand globally, however, various groups across the social and economic spectrum are growing concerned over the economic, social, and political impact of this activity. Over the past 15 years, multinational corporations and nations have adopted voluntary, legally enforceable, and industry-specific codes of conduct to address many of these concerns. This report provides background on the issue and briefly examines options for Congress to address it.
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The Constitutionality of Campaign Finance Regulation: Buckley v. Valeo and Its Supreme Court Progeny

The Constitutionality of Campaign Finance Regulation: Buckley v. Valeo and Its Supreme Court Progeny

Date: November 18, 2008
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: This report first discusses the key holdings enunciated by the Supreme Court in Buckley, including those upholding reasonable contribution limits, striking down expenditure limits, upholding disclosure reporting requirements, and upholding the system of voluntary presidential election expenditure limitations linked with public financing. It then examines the Court's extension of Buckley in several subsequent cases, evaluating them in various regulatory contexts: contribution limits, expenditure limits, disclosure requirements, and political party soft money and electioneering communication restrictions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Debarment and Suspension of Government Contractors: An Overview of the Law Including Recently Enacted and Proposed Amendments

Debarment and Suspension of Government Contractors: An Overview of the Law Including Recently Enacted and Proposed Amendments

Date: November 19, 2008
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Description: The amount spent on government contracts, coupled with widely reported contractors misconduct, has generated congressional interest in debarment and suspension. The 110th Congress enacted several bills addressing debarment and suspension, including the Sudan Accountability and Divestment Act, and several others, all of which are detailed in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Date: May 30, 2008
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Description: This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, a historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress

DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress

Date: October 3, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) in recent years has leased some foreign-built cargo ships for total periods, including options and renewals, of almost 10 years - a length of time that some observers argue effectively circumvents a legal requirement that U.S. military ships be built in U.S. shipyards. These observers, particularly the American Shipbuilding Association (ASA), have proposed reducing the current five-year legal limit on ship leases to two years for foreign-built ships. DOD has opposed the idea, arguing that its ship leases are the most cost-effective way to meet its needs for the ships in question.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress

DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress

Date: October 31, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) in recent years has leased some foreign-built cargo ships for total periods, including options and renewals, of almost 10 years - a length of time that some observers argue effectively circumvents a legal requirement that U.S. military ships be built in U.S. shipyards. These observers, particularly the American Shipbuilding Association (ASA), have proposed reducing the current five-year legal limit on ship leases to two years for foreign-built ships. DOD has opposed the idea, arguing that its ship leases are the most cost-effective way to meet its needs for the ships in question.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress

DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress

Date: May 22, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) in recent years has leased some foreign-built cargo ships for total periods, including options and renewals, of almost 10 years - a length of time that some observers argue effectively circumvents a legal requirement that U.S. military ships be built in U.S. shipyards. These observers, particularly the American Shipbuilding Association (ASA), have proposed reducing the current five-year legal limit on ship leases to two years for foreign-built ships. DOD has opposed the idea, arguing that its ship leases are the most cost-effective way to meet its needs for the ships in question.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Economic Slowdown: Issues and Policies

Economic Slowdown: Issues and Policies

Date: November 26, 2008
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.; Hungerford, Thomas L.; Labonte, Marc; Murphy, Edward V.; Weiss, N. Eric & Whittaker, Julie M.
Description: This report first discusses the current state of the economy, including measures that have already been taken by the monetary authorities, and assesses the need for and potential consequences of fiscal stimulus. The second part of the report reviews the proposals discussed during debate on the recently enacted fiscal stimulus, both those adopted and those considered but not adopted. The various stimulus packages differed somewhat, and the report briefly describes those differences. This section also includes a discussion of the potential elements of a second stimulus proposal, and concludes with a discussion of the macroeconomic effects of the proposals. The final section of the paper discusses recent and proposed financial interventions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Economic Slowdown: Issues and Policies

Economic Slowdown: Issues and Policies

Date: September 5, 2008
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.; Hungerford, Thomas L.; Labonte, Marc; Weiss, N. E. & Whittaker, Julie M.
Description: This report first discusses the current state of the economy, including measures that have already been taken by the monetary authorities, and assesses the need for and potential consequences of fiscal stimulus. The second part of the report reviews the proposals discussed during debate on the recently enacted fiscal stimulus, both those adopted and those considered but not adopted.
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The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act and Current Financial Turmoil: Issues and Analysis

The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act and Current Financial Turmoil: Issues and Analysis

Date: October 31, 2008
Creator: Webel, Baird & Murphy, Edward V.
Description: This report briefly introduces aspects of the current financial instability. Following this, it outlines the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA) legislation and the steps that Treasury has taken to implement EESA. Finally, the report concludes with a more in-depth analysis of the current financial instability, including potential causes of financial instability in general, some sources of the current instability, and how financial instability may spill over into the broader economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Enron Loophole

The Enron Loophole

Date: July 7, 2008
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: The Commodity Exchange Act exempts certain energy derivatives contracts from regulation by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). These exemptions are popularly known as the "Enron loophole." Soaring energy prices have raised concerns about whether the CFTC has enough information about these unregulated markets to monitor energy trading in a comprehensive manner. A number of other bills in the 110th Congress would impose new reporting or regulatory requirements on the bilateral energy swaps market, which was not addressed by the Farm Bill.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Government Corporations: An Overview

Federal Government Corporations: An Overview

Date: January 31, 2008
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Description: This report provides an overview of federal government corporations, a category currently consisting of some 17 corporate agencies performing functions assigned to them in law. A government corporation, as defined in this report, is a government agency that is established by Congress to provide a market-oriented public service and required to produce revenues that meet or approximate its expenditures.
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Federal Loans to the Auto Industry Under the Energy Independence and Security Act

Federal Loans to the Auto Industry Under the Energy Independence and Security Act

Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Cooney, Stephen & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report examines various programs considered by Congress, including grants and loans, to help automakers with the increased cost of compliance with higher fuel economy standards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financial Market Intervention

Financial Market Intervention

Date: September 29, 2008
Creator: Murphy, Edward V.
Description: Financial markets continue to experience significant disturbance and the banking sector remains fragile. Efforts to restore confidence have been met with mixed success thus far. After attempting to deal with troubled institutions on a case-by-case basis, Treasury has proposed a plan to purchase mortgage-related assets to alleviate stress in financial markets and in the banking system. This report provides answers to some frequently asked questions concerning the financial disruptions of September 2008 and the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) in H.R. 3997.
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Financial Market Turmoil and U.S. Macreconomic Performance

Financial Market Turmoil and U.S. Macreconomic Performance

Date: December 3, 2008
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Description: This report looks at causes of the 2008 financial crisis and ways that government policy can help to fix it.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
General Services Administration Prospectus Thresholds for Owned and Leased Federal Facilities

General Services Administration Prospectus Thresholds for Owned and Leased Federal Facilities

Date: August 20, 2008
Creator: Wellborn, Clay H.
Description: The General Services Administration (GSA) oversees GSA-owned and -leased federal buildings and courthouses. This report provides an overview of the funding for GSA, GSA procedures, and related legislation, especially in light of recent disasters, i.e., hurricanes, flooding, etc.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Global Financial Crisis: The Role of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

The Global Financial Crisis: The Role of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Date: October 27, 2008
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report discusses two potential roles the International Monetary Fund (IMF) may have in helping to resolve the current global financial crisis: (1) immediate crisis control through balance of payments lending to emerging market and less-developed countries and (2) increased surveillance of the global economy through better coordination with the international financial regulatory agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Global Financial Crisis: The Role of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

The Global Financial Crisis: The Role of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Date: October 30, 2008
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report discusses two potential roles the International Monetary Fund (IMF) may have in helping to resolve the current global financial crisis: (1) immediate crisis control through balance of payments lending to emerging market and less-developed countries and (2) increased surveillance of the global economy through better coordination with the international financial regulatory agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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