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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The "8(a) Program" for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues

The "8(a) Program" for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues

Date: October 12, 2012
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Luckey, John R.
Description: This report provides a brief history of the 8(a) Program, summarizes key requirements, and discusses legal challenges alleging that the program's presumption that members of certain racial and ethnic groups are socially disadvantaged violates the constitutional guarantee of equal protection.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 1995 Japan-U.S. Auto and Parts Trade Dispute: Terms of the Settlement and Implications

The 1995 Japan-U.S. Auto and Parts Trade Dispute: Terms of the Settlement and Implications

Date: August 9, 1995
Creator: Nanto, Dick K. & Bass, Gwenell L.
Description: On June 28, 1995, the United States and Japan reached a settlement in a long-running dispute over access to Japan's market for automobiles and parts. 100-percent tariffs by the United States on imports of luxury cars from Japan had been threatened under a Section 301 unfair trade practices case dealing with the aftermarket for autoparts in Japan. This report describes the dispute, the settlement, and questions and issues that still remain.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2007-2009 Recession: Similarities to and Differences from the Past

The 2007-2009 Recession: Similarities to and Differences from the Past

Date: October 6, 2010
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: According to the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), the U.S. economy was in a recession for 18 months from December 2007 to June 2009. It was the longest and deepest recession of the post-World War II era. This report provides information on the patterns found across past recessions since World War II to gauge whether and how this recession might be different.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues

The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues

Date: March 26, 1997
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Description: The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA, P.L. 95-87), enacted in 1977, established reclamation standards for all coal surface mining operations, and for the surface effects of underground mining. It also established the Abandoned Mine Land (AML) program to promote the reclamation of sites mined and abandoned prior to the enactment of SMCRA. To finance reclamation of abandoned mine sites, the legislation established fees on coal production. These collections are divided into federal and state shares; subject to annual appropriation, AML funds are distributed annually to states with approved reclamation programs. This report describes the distribution of these funds and the various issues that arise from said distribution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Access to Broadband Networks

Access to Broadband Networks

Date: June 29, 2006
Creator: Goldfarb, Charles B.
Description: The purpose of this report is to provide a more concrete discussion of access to wireline broadband networks. To that end, this report provides a discussion of what broadband networks look like; how both consumers and independent applications providers gain access to these networks; and the parameters available to network providers (such as their choices about network architecture, overall bandwidth capacity, bandwidth reserved for their own use, traffic prioritization, the terms and rates for access to their networks and for their retail services) that can affect end users’ and independent applications providers’ access to those networks.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Accounting Problems at Fannie Mae

Accounting Problems at Fannie Mae

Date: November 15, 2005
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: On September 22, 2004, the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Supervision (OFHEO) made public a report that was highly critical of accounting methods at Fannie Mae, the government-sponsored enterprise that plays a leading role in the secondary mortgage market. OFHEO charged Fannie Mae with not following generally accepted accounting practices in two critical areas: (1) amortization of discounts, premiums, and fees involved in the purchase of home mortgages and (2) accounting for financial derivatives contracts. According to OFHEO, these deviations from standard accounting rules allowed Fannie Mae to reduce volatility in reported earnings, present investors with an artificial picture of steadily growing profits, and, in at least one case, to meet financial performance targets that triggered the payment of bonuses to company executives. On November 15, 2004, Fannie Mae reported that it was unable to file a third-quarter earnings statement because its auditor, KPMG, refused to sign off on the accounting results. On December 15, 2004, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), after finding inadequacies in Fannie’s accounting policies and methodologies, directed Fannie Mae to restate its accounting results since 2001. Shortly thereafter, the company’s CEO and CFO resigned. It is estimated that earnings since 2001 will be revised downwards ...
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The Advanced Technology Program

The Advanced Technology Program

Date: July 6, 2005
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: The Advanced Technology Program (ATP) was created by P.L. 100-418, the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, to encourage public-private cooperation in the development of pre-competitive technologies with broad application across industries. This activity has been targeted for elimination as a means to cut federal spending. Since FY2000, the original House-passed appropriation bills have not included funding for ATP. Many of the Administration’s budget requests have proposed termination of the program. However, ATP continues to be supported, although at levels below that achieved in FY1995 when the activity was expanded significantly. This report discusses funding (or lack thereof) appropriated for the ATP for FY2006.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Advanced Technology Program

The Advanced Technology Program

Date: August 10, 1999
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: The Advanced Technology Program (ATP) was created by P.L. 100-418, the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, to encourage public-private cooperation in the development of pre-competitive technologies with broad application across industries. This activity has been targeted for elimination as a means to cut federal spending. This report discusses the ATP and related issues of federal appropriations (or the lack thereof).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Advanced Technology Program

The Advanced Technology Program

Date: January 7, 2008
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: President Bush's FY2008 budget request did not include financing for ATP. The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act, P.L. 110-161, replaces ATP with the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) and provides $65.2 million (with an additional $5 million in ATP FY2007 unobligated balances), 17.6% less than the previous fiscal year. P.L. 110- 69, the America COMPETES Act, authorized the creation of TIP.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Advertising of Alcoholic Beverages: Should a Radio and TV Ban be Imposed?

Advertising of Alcoholic Beverages: Should a Radio and TV Ban be Imposed?

Date: July 26, 1985
Creator: Mulock, Bruce K.
Description: This issue brief discusses the ongoing debate centered around television and radio advertising of alcoholic beverages, especially as it relates to the possible negative influence on the drinking habits of minors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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