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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Avian Influenza: Agricultural Issues

Avian Influenza: Agricultural Issues

Date: May 10, 2006
Creator: Monke, Jim
Description: Since the fall of 2003, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) has spread throughout Asia, infecting mostly poultry but also a limited number of humans. The virus reached Europe in 2005, and the Middle East and Africa in 2006. Avian flu is highly contagious in domestic poultry. Strict biosecurity measures are practiced by commercial poultry farms and encouraged by governments. The economic effects of avian flu outbreaks can be significant, especially given international trade restrictions. Controlling avian flu in poultry is seen as the best way to prevent a human pandemic from developing, by reducing the number of animal hosts in which the virus may evolve. This report mainly covers avian flu in poultry, and will be updated.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Offsets in a Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cap-and-Trade Program: Potential Benefits and Concerns

The Role of Offsets in a Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cap-and-Trade Program: Potential Benefits and Concerns

Date: June 2, 2008
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Description: This report discusses offsets in relation to a greenhouse gas emissions cap-and-trade program. The first section of this report provides an overview of offsets by discussing different types of offset projects and describing how the offsets would likely be used in an emission reduction program. The next section discusses the supply of offsets that might be available in an emission trading program. The subsequent sections examine the potential offset benefits and the potential concerns associated with offsets. The final section offers considerations for Congress.
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Maritime Security: Potential Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities

Maritime Security: Potential Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities

Date: May 14, 2008
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W. & Frittelli, John
Description: This report outlines the key dimensions of maritime terrorism and how these dimensions may characterize specific attacks in the global maritime domain. The report illustrates credible maritime attack scenarios based on actual past attacks or potential attacks developed for maritime security exercises or other U.S. counter terrorism activities. It discusses the challenge to maritime security planners of facing a virtually unlimited number of potential attack scenarios and how certain federal programs address this challenge. It also reviews various perspectives on the overall likelihood of maritime terror attacks on the United States. Finally the report discusses implications for homeland security policy.
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Veterans Affairs: Health Care and Benefits for Veterans Exposed to Agent Orange

Veterans Affairs: Health Care and Benefits for Veterans Exposed to Agent Orange

Date: August 25, 2008
Creator: Panangala, Sidath Viranga & Weimer, Douglas Reid
Description: This report provides an overview of health care services and disability compensation benefits available to Vietnam veterans, Children of Vietnam Era veterans, and non-Vietnam veterans exposed to herbicides. This is followed by a discussion of litigation pertaining to Navy veterans of the Vietnam Era who served offshore and were never physically present on Vietnamese soil. The report concludes with a discussion of epidemiologic research conducted to study the health effects of Agent Orange and dioxin exposure on Vietnam veterans.
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Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2009

Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2009

Date: November 25, 2008
Creator: Heithusen, Valerie
Description: This report briefly describes current responsibilities and selection mechanisms for 15 House and Senate party leadership posts and provides tables with historical data, including service dates, party affiliation, and other information for each. Tables have been updated as of the report's issuance date to reflect leadership changes. The report will be updated as changes in House and Senate party leadership positions occur.
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Polygraph Use by the Department of Energy: Issues for Congress

Polygraph Use by the Department of Energy: Issues for Congress

Date: October 23, 2008
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: This report examines how the Department of Energy's (DOE) polygraph testing program has evolved and reviews certain scientific findings with regard to the polygraph's scientific validity. Several issues include whether: DOE's new screening program is focused on an appropriate number of individuals occupying only the most sensitive positions; the program should be expanded in order to adequately safeguard certain classified information; further research into the polygraph's scientific validity is needed; there are possible alternatives to the polygraph; and whether DOE should continue polygraph screening.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
United Nations System Efforts to Address Violence Against Women

United Nations System Efforts to Address Violence Against Women

Date: August 12, 2008
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report provides an overview of recent U.N. efforts to address violence against women (VAW) and highlights key U.N. interagency efforts. It also discusses selected U.N. funds, programs, and agencies that address international violence against women. It does not assess the extent to which VAW is directly addressed or is part of a larger initiative or program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trends in U.S. Global AIDS Spending: FY2000-FY2008

Trends in U.S. Global AIDS Spending: FY2000-FY2008

Date: April 10, 2008
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: This report describes how HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria are interlinked and exacerbate efforts to control each disease, but primarily addresses funding issues related to U.S. global HIV/AIDS initiatives. It provides background information on the key U.S. agencies that implement global HIV/AIDS programs, analyzes U.S. spending on HIV/AIDS by U.S. agency and department, and presents some issues Congress might consider, particularly as debate on the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) reauthorization ensues.
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The UNESCO World Heritage Convention: Congressional Issues

The UNESCO World Heritage Convention: Congressional Issues

Date: January 17, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report provides background information on the World Heritage Convention, outlines U.S. participation and funding, and highlights criteria for adding and removing sites from the World Heritage Lists. It discusses possible issues for the 111th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, the role of the legislative branch in designating sites, and the potential implications for a site's inclusion on the Lists.
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Intelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives

Intelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives

Date: July 28, 2008
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: This report analyzes the temporary consolidations of the separate counterintelligence (CI) offices at the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Security Administration (NSA) into a single CI office under DOE control — the first authorized by Congress at Department of Energy request; the second initiated by DOE — and examines the impact of each on the effectiveness of the Department's CI program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department