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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
9/11 Commission Recommendations: The Senate Confirmation Process for Presidential Nominees
On July 22, 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, known as the 9/11 Commission, issued its final report, detailing the events up to and including the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission recommended that the Senate adopt rules requiring hearings and votes to confirm or reject national security nominees within 30 days of their submission at the start of each new presidential administration. Implementing the commission's proposal would involve imposing new restrictions on both the power of committee chairs to control the agenda of their committees and the rights of Senators to delay or block nominations through holds and extended debate. This report discusses in detail this proposal, how it could be implemented, and the potential effects of its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7850/
The Electoral College: How It Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections
This report provides information about the electoral college, its origins, who makes up the college today, the 2012 presidental election, and calls for the reform of the electoral college. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122289/
Presidential Appointments, the Senate's Confirmation Process, and Proposals for Change, 112th Congress
The responsibility for populating top positions in the executive and judicial branches of government is shared, with the President having the power of appointment and the Senate having the power of advice and consent. This report provides a brief background on advice and consent issues, an overview of the appointment process in both the executive and legislative branches, and a brief discussion of recent concerns about the system. Next, the report explores the events in the 112th Congress leading up to the introduction and Senate action on S. 679 and S.Res. 116, and concludes with an analysis of the two measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98005/
Presidential Appointments, the Senate's Confirmation Process, and Proposals for Change, 112th Congress
The responsibility for populating top positions in the executive and judicial branches of government is shared, with the President having the power of appointment and the Senate having the power of advice and consent. This report provides a brief background on advice and consent issues, an overview of the appointment process in both the executive and legislative branches, and a brief discussion of recent concerns about the system. Next, the report explores the events in the 112th Congress leading up to the introduction and Senate action on S. 679 and S.Res. 116, and concludes with an analysis of the two measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98004/
The Presidential Records Act: Background and Recent Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Presidential Records Act (PRA) and examines policy options related to the capture, maintenance, and use of presidential records. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306506/
National Monuments and the Antiquities Act
This report discusses the Antiquities Act of 1906, monument issues and controversies, as well as administration and legislative activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332956/
President Obama's First-Term U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations: An Analysis and Comparison with Presidents Since Reagan
This report seeks to inform the current debate in three ways: first, by providing a statistical analysis of President Barack Obama's nominees, during his first term, to U.S. circuit court of appeals and U.S. district court judgeships, and of any actions taken on their nominations by the Senate Judiciary Committee and the full Senate; second, by using various statistical measures to compare the success of President Obama's judicial nominees, during his first term, in advancing through the Senate confirmation process with the success of the judicial nominees during the first terms of the four most recent preceding Presidents (Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush); and third, by identifying various factors which might help explain differences or variations found in judicial nomination statistics across the first terms of the five Presidents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463462/
National Monuments and the Antiquities Act
This report discusses the Antiquities Act of 1906, which authorizes the President to proclaim national monuments on federal lands that contain historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, or other objects of historic or scientific interest. The President is to reserve "the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected." The act was designed to protect federal lands and resources quickly, and Presidents have proclaimed a total of 137 monuments. Congress has modified many of these proclamations and has abolished some monuments. Congress also has created monuments under its own authority. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463245/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives: A Brief Overview
This report provides a brief overview of recent executive branch reorganization actions and related management initiatives. It reviews the relevant plans and preparations of President-elect Barack Obama as the new Administration transitions to assuming management of the executive branch. Briefly examined, as well, are the organization and management efforts of the most recent regimes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462182/
The President-Elect: Succession and Disability Issues During the Transition Period
Procedures governing replacement of a President or Vice President-elect during the transition period depend on when the events that might lead to a temporary or permanent replacement occur. This report describes the general election process by which American voters directly choose members of the electoral college and indirectly choose the President and Vice President. This report also describes the so-called "lame duck" period between the election and the incoming President's inauguration, specifically regarding questions of disability or resignation by a President or Vice President-elect during this time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10828/
Federal Funding of Presidential Nominating Conventions: Overview and Policy Options
This report provides an overview and analysis of two recurring questions surrounding the federal government's role in financing presidential nominating conventions. First, how much public funding supports presidential nominating conventions? Second, what options exist for changing that amount if Congress chooses to do so? Both issues have generated controversy in the past and continue to be the subject of debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31486/
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies
This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31318/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
Two separate but closely related issues confront Congress each time the President introduces armed forces into a situation abroad that conceivably could lead to their involvement in hostilities. One issue concerns the division of war powers between the President and Congress, whether the use of armed forces falls within the purview of the congressional power to declare war and the War Powers Resolution. The other issue is whether or not Congress concurs in the wisdom of the action. A longer-term issue is whether the War Powers Resolution is an appropriate and effective means of assuring congressional participation in actions that might get the United States involved in war. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40210/
Impeachment: An Overview of Constitutional Provisions, Procedure, and Practice
On June 19, 2009, the House voted to impeach U.S. District Judge Samuel B. Kent of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas. The impeachment process provides a mechanism for removal of the President, Vice President, and other federal civil officers found to have engaged in "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors." This report explains the impeachment process, including its history and the process itself. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29531/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
Two separate but closely related issues confront Congress each time the President introduces armed forces into a situation abroad that conceivably could lead to their involvement in hostilities. One issue concerns the division of war powers between the President and Congress, whether the use of armed forces falls within the purview of the congressional power to declare war and the War Powers Resolution. The other issue is whether or not Congress concurs in the wisdom of the action. A longer-term issue is whether the War Powers Resolution is an appropriate and effective means of assuring congressional participation in actions that might get the United States involved in war. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29673/
Impeachment: An Overview of Constitutional Provisions, Procedure, and Practice
On June 19, 2009, the House voted to impeach U.S. District Judge Samuel B. Kent of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas. The impeachment process provides a mechanism for removal of the President, Vice President, and other federal civil officers found to have engaged in "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors." This report explains the impeachment process, including its history and the process itself. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29530/
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies
This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29539/
Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions on Regulatory and Other Collegial Boards and Commissions, 110th Congress
This report specifies, for the 110th Congress, all presidential nominations to full-time positions on 34 regulatory and other collegial boards and commissions. Profiles of each board and commission provide information on their organizational structures, membership as of the end of the 110th Congress, and appointment activity during that Congress. The report also includes tables summarizing the collective appointment activity for all 34 bodies, and identifying Senate recesses during the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29619/
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies
This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29542/
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies
This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29541/
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies
This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29540/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
This report discusses two separate but closely-related issues regarding the introduction of U.S. armed forces abroad that conceivably could lead to their involvement in hostilities. One issue concerns the division of war powers between the President and Congress, whether the use of armed forces falls within the purview of the congressional power to declare war and the War Powers Resolution. The other issue is whether or not Congress concurs in the wisdom of the action. A longer-term issue is whether the War Powers Resolution is an appropriate and effective means of assuring congressional participation in actions that might get the United States involved in war. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87313/
Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions
This report supplies brief answers to some frequently asked questions regarding recess appointments. These are appointments to high-level policy-making positions in federal departments which are generally confirmed by the Senate. When the Senate is in recess, the President may make a temporary appointment, called a recess appointment, to any such position without Senate approval. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87369/
Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations
This report identifies, by Senate committee, presidentially appointed positions requiring Senate confirmation based on referrals as of the date of passage of S. 679, which became P.L. 112-166 on August 10, 2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272082/
Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview
This report provides an overview of the Recess Appointments Clause, exploring its historical application and legal interpretation by the executive branch, the courts, and the Comptroller General. Furthermore, congressional legislation designed to prevent the President's overuse or misuse of the Clause is also explored. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87297/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1423/
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1489/
Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview
This report provides background information on funding gaps since FY 1977, and it discusses the general practice of the federal government when a funding gap occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228089/
National Monuments and the Antiquities Act: Recent Designations and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1462/
Export Administration Act of 1979 Reauthorization
The Export Administration Act of 2001 was introduced on January 23, 2001. Hearings were held by the Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee, and the bill was reported for consideration by the full Senate by a vote of 19-1 to March 22, 2001. A companion version in the House, H.R. 2581, was introduced by Rep. Gilmanon July 20, 2001. The House International Relations Committee reported the measure with 35 amendments on August 1. The Export Administration Act of 1979 expired on August 20, 2001, however the President extended export control authority and the Export Administration Regulations by invoking the International Emergency Economic Powers Act. During the 106th Congress, both houses held hearings on export control legislation and the Senate Banking Committee voted to adopt the Export Administration Act of 1999 (S. 1712, reported on October 8, 1999, S.Rept. 106-180). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1999/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1561/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1560/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
Two separate but closely related issues confront Congress each time the President introduces armed forces into a situation abroad that conceivably could lead to their involvement in hostilities. One issue concerns the division of war powers between the President and Congress, whether the use of armed forces falls within the purview of the congressional power to declare war and the War Powers Resolution. The other issue is whether or not Congress concurs in the wisdom of the action. A longer-term issue is whether the War Powers Resolution is an appropriate and effective means of assuring congressional participation in actions that might get the United States involved in war. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10312/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1076/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1077/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1642/
The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1285/
Presidential Authority to Create a National Monument on the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1287/
Authority of a President to Modify or Eliminate a National Monument
President Clinton created a number of new national monuments, using authority given the President under the Antiquities Act of 1906. Many of the designations were controversial and renewed discussion of that Act and whether a President can modify or eliminate a Presidentially created national monument. This report examines that question. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1288/
Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes
The President’s veto is effective not only in preventing the passage of legislation undesirable to the President, but also as a threat, sometimes forcing Congress to modify legislation before it is presented to the President. However, as a veto threat is carried out, Congress is faced with choices: letting the veto stand, the difficult task of overriding the veto, meeting the President’s objections and sending a new bill forward, or resubmitting the same provisions under a new bill number. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1286/
Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview
The interval during the fiscal year when agency appropriations are not enacted into law, either in the form of a regular appropriations act or a continuing resolution, is referred to as a funding gap. When a funding gap occurs, the federal government begins a shutdown of the affected agencies, entailing the prompt furlough of non-emergency personnel and curtailment of agency activities. This report discusses the funding gaps that occurred between FY1977-FY2008, as well as the events surrounding them and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10550/
National Monuments and the Antiquities Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1111/
Presidential and Vice Presidential Terms and Tenure
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1911/
The War Powers Resolution: After Twenty-Eight Years
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1591/
The Unfolding of the Reagan Energy Program: The First Year
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8399/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8689/
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs920/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9847/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8452/
Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-2005: Actions by the Senate, Judiciary Committee, and the President
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8125/