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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Russia
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Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues
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Russia
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Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues
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Russia
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Panama-U.S. Relations
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The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy
The United Arab Emirates' open economy and society have won praise, but lax enforcement of some laws is causing U.S. concern over proliferation of advanced technology to Iran; terrorist transiting; and human trafficking, particularly in the emirate of Dubai. The UAE undertook its first major electoral process in December 2006, although with a small, hand-picked electorate and for a body with limited powers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10606/
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate the communist government of Fidel Castro for much of the past 40 years. Under the Bush Administration, enforcement of U.S. restrictions on Cuba travel has increased, and restrictions on travel and on private remittances to Cuba have been tightened. Several legislative initiatives have been introduced in the 109th Congress that would ease restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba. These bills would, among other things, lift overall restrictions on travel to Cuba, lift the overall embargo, and ease restrictions on exporting agricultural commodities to Cuba. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10478/
The Persian Gulf States: Issues for U.S. Policy, 2006
The U.S.-led war to overthrow Saddam Hussein virtually ended Iraq's ability to militarily threaten the region, but it has produced new and unanticipated security challenges for the Persian Gulf states (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates). The Gulf states, which are all led by Sunni Muslim regimes, fear that Shiite Iran is unchecked now that Iraq is strategically weak. Most Gulf states, particularly Saudi Arabia, have provided only halting support to the fledgling government in Baghdad and revived the focus on U.S.-Gulf defense cooperation as existed in the 1990s. The Bush Administration advocates more rapid and sweeping political and economic liberalization as key to long-term Gulf stability and to reducing support in the Gulf states for terrorist groups such as Al Qaeda. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10457/
Liberia: Current Issues and United States Policy
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Korea: Procedural and Jurisdictional Questions Regarding Possible Normalization of Relations with North Korea
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Central Asia's New States: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States recognized the independence of all the former Central Asian republics and established diplomatic relations with each by mid-March 1992. This report provides an overview of U.S. policy concerns after the Soviet collapse. The report presents the U.S. policy attention and aid to support conflict amelioration, humanitarian needs, economic development, transport (including energy pipelines) and communications, border controls, democracy, and the creation of civil societies in the South Caucasian and Central Asian states. The United States has some economic and business interests in Central Asia, particularly in oil and natural gas development in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1231/
Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues
An array of bilateral issues continues to affect relations between the United States and Syria: the course of Arab-Israeli talks; questions of arms proliferation; Syrian connections with terrorist activity; Syria's role in Lebanon; and Syria's opposition to the U.S. occupation in Iraq. U.S. officials and Members of Congress have blamed Syria for helping transfer rockets and other arms to Hezbollah units. This report outlines the current political situation in Syria, as well as Syria's political relationship with the United States and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10325/
Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress
Since the early 1960s, U.S. policy toward Cuba under Fidel Castro has consisted largely of isolating the communist nation through comprehensive economic sanctions, which have been significantly tightened by the Bush Administration. Another component of U.S. policy consists of support measures for the Cuban people, including private humanitarian donations and U.S.-sponsored radio and television broadcasting to Cuba. There are several schools of thought on how to achieve the objective of bringing democracy and respect for human rights to Cuba: some advocate maximum pressure on Cuba until reforms are enacted; others argue for lifting some U.S. sanctions judged to be hurting the Cuban people; and still others call for a swift normalization of U.S.-Cuban relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10399/
Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations
The United States and Saudi Arabia have long-standing economic and defense ties, and the U.S. has a strong security commitment to Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia was a key member of the allied coalition that expelled Iraqi forces from Kuwait in 1991. Bombing attacks against several U.S. and foreign-operated installations in Saudi Arabia have raised some concerns about security of U.S. citizens and what appears to be growing anti-Americanism in some segments of the Saudi population. Other principal issues of bilateral interest include security in the post-war Gulf region, the Saudi position on the Arab-Israeli conflict, arms transfers to Saudi Arabia, Saudi external aid programs, bilateral trade relationships and oil production, and Saudi policies on human rights and democracy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10310/
Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States recognized the independence of all the former Central Asian republics, supported their admission into Western organizations, and elicited Turkish support to counter Iranian influence in the region. Soon after the terrorist attacks on America on September 11, 2001, all the Central Asia states offered overflight and other support to coalition anti-terrorist efforts in Afghanistan. After September 11, 2001, U.S. policy emphasized bolstering the security of the Central Asian states to help them combat terrorism, proliferation, and arms trafficking. Other U.S. objectives include promoting democratization, free markets, human rights, and energy development, as well as integrating these states into the international community. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10334/
Japan-U.S. Relations
The post-World War II U.S.-Japan alliance has long been an anchor of the U.S. security role in East Asia. The alliance facilitates, for the U.S., the forward deployment of U.S. military forces in the Asia-Pacific, and provides, for Japan, maneuvering room in dealing with its neighbors, particularly China and North Korea. This report outlines and explains in detail several aspects of the developing U.S.-Japan relationship. Most of said developing relationship has been viewed warily by South Korea and China. Japan is one of the United States' most important economic partners. It is the United States' largest export market outside of North America and second-largest source of imports. This report also describes in detail the economic relationship between the U.S. and Japan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10342/
U.S.-Japan Economic Ties: Status and Outlook
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The Taiwan Security Enhancement Act and Underlying Issues in U.S. Policy
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Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
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China-U.S. Relations
This report discusses the background information and most recent development in U.S.-China relations since mid-1996. The relations also have been marred by continuing allegations of Chinese espionage, ongoing controversy over human rights, charges that China continues to violate its non-proliferation commitments, controversy over the accidental NATO bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, and renewed tensions over Taiwan. The report describes current issues in U.S.-China relations such as; Human Rights Issues, Issues in U.S.-China Security Relations, Economic Issues, and Sovereignty Issues: Taiwan, Tibet, Hong Kong. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1775/
Congo (formerly Zaire)
This report discusses the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire, which is a vast-resource-rich country of 48 million people. Events there affect much of sub-Saharan Africa. In August 1998, Congo was plunged into its second civil war in 2 years. A peace accord was concluded in Lusaka, Zambia, in July and August 1999, and the U.N. Security Council later agreed to send a 5,500-member observer force, MONUC, to assist in the peace process. Fewer than 250 observers have gone to Congo, due to the failure of the parties to the Lusaka accord to fully implement its terms. The assassination of President Laurent Kabila on January 16, 2001, has raised new doubts about the prospects for peace in Congo. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1772/
Liberia: Current Issues and United States Policy
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Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices
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Haiti: Issues for Congress
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Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices
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Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 107th Congress
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Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices
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The Vietnam-U.S. Normalization Process
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Congo (formerly Zaire)
This report discusses the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire, which is a vast-resource-rich country of 48 million people. Events there affect much of sub-Saharan Africa. In August 1998, Congo was plunged into its second civil war in 2 years. A peace accord was concluded in Lusaka, Zambia, in July and August 1999, and the U.N. Security Council later agreed to send a 5,500-member observer force, MONUC, to assist in the peace process. Fewer than 250 observers have gone to Congo, due to the failure of the parties to the Lusaka accord to fully implement its terms. The assassination of President Laurent Kabila on January 16, 2001, has raised new doubts about the prospects for peace in Congo. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1773/
Lebanon
The United States and Lebanon continue to enjoy good relations. Prominent current issues between the United States and Lebanon include progress toward a Lebanon-Israel peace treaty, U.S. aid to Lebanon, and Lebanon's capacity to stop Hezbollah militia attacks on Israel. The United States supports Lebanon's independence and favored the end of Israeli and Syrian occupation of parts of Lebanon. This report outlines in detail these U.S.-Lebanese relations, as well as the current state of the Lebanese government and its political elections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10322/
Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Egyptian politics and current issues in U.S.-Egyptian relations. It briefly provides a political history of modern Egypt, an overview of its political institutions, and a discussion of the prospects for democratization in Egypt, U.S.-Egyptian relations are complex and multi-faceted, and this report addresses the following current topics: the Arab-Israeli peace process, Iraq, terrorism, democratization and reform, human rights, trade, and military cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10369/
China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
Throughout much of the George W. Bush Administration, U.S.-China relations have remained unusually smooth and stable. But U.S. policy toward China now appears to be subject to competing reassessments. State Department officials late in 2005 unveiled what they described as a new policy framework for the relationship -- one in which the United States was willing to work cooperatively with a non-democratic China while encouraging Beijing to become a "responsible stakeholder" in the global system. Other U.S. policymakers appear to be adopting somewhat tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, expressing their concerns about strong PRC economic growth and a more assertive and influential PRC diplomacy in the international arena. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10388/
Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues
An array of bilateral issues continue to affect relations between the United States and Syria: the course of Arab-Israeli talks; questions of arms proliferation; Syrian connections with terrorist activity; Syria's role in Lebanon; and Syria's opposition to the U.S. occupation in Iraq. A variety of U.S. legislative provisions and executive directives prohibit direct aid to Syria and restrict bilateral trade relations between the two countries, due largely to Syria's designation by the U.S. State Department as a sponsor of international terrorism. This report outlines in detail U.S.-Syrian relations, including discussion of the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri, the outbreak of Hezballah-related violence, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10326/
Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations
The United States and Saudi Arabia have long-standing economic and defense ties, and the U.S. has a strong security commitment to Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia was a key member of the allied coalition that expelled Iraqi forces from Kuwait in 1991. Bombing attacks against several U.S. and foreign-operated installations in Saudi Arabia have raised some concerns about security of U.S. citizens and what appears to be growing anti-Americanism in some segments of the Saudi population. Other principal issues of bilateral interest include security in the post-war Gulf region, the Saudi position on the Arab-Israeli conflict, arms transfers to Saudi Arabia, Saudi external aid programs, bilateral trade relationships and oil production, and Saudi policies on human rights and democracy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10311/
Kosovo and U.S. Policy
In 1998 and 1999, the United States and its NATO allies attempted to put an end to escalating violence between ethnic Albanian guerrilas and Yugoslav/Serb forces in Yugoslavia's Kosovo province. These efforts culminated in a 78-day NATO bombing campaign (Operation Allied Force) against Serbia from March until June 1999, when then-Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milosevic agreed to withdraw his forces from the province. Almost all ethnic Albanians want independence for Kosovo; Serbs say it should remain within Serbia. In mid-2005, the U.N. launched a comprehensive review of the Kosovo standards. On the basis of the review, the U.N. Security Council endorsed the start of status negotiations for Kosovo. In 2005, U.S. officials announced a "new stage" in Kosovo policy that aimed to accelerate resolution of the conflict and enhance the Balkan region's integration into Euro-Atlantic institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10391/
Pakistan-U.S. Relations
A U.S.-Pakistan relationship marked by periods of both cooperation and discord was transformed by the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States into the enlistment of Pakistan as a key ally in U.S.-led counterterrorism efforts. This report outlines key aspects of the U.S.-Pakistan relationship, as well as of Pakistan's economic conditions, political environment, handling of ongoing separatist violence, and nuclear nonproliferation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10324/
Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States recognized the independence of all the former Central Asian republics, supported their admission into Western organizations, and elicited Turkish support to counter Iranian influence in the region. The Administration's diverse goals in Central Asia reflect the different characteristics of these states. U.S. interests in Kazakhstan include securing and eliminating Soviet-era nuclear and biological weapons materials and facilities. In Tajikistan, U.S. aid focuses on economic reconstruction. U.S. energy firms have invested in oil and natural gas development in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. This report outlines the above, as well as several ongoing debates regarding general relations between the U.S. and Central Asia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10333/
Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
The post-World War II U.S.-Japan alliance has long been an anchor of the U.S. security role in East Asia. The alliance, with its access to bases in Japan, where about 53,000 U.S. troops are stationed, facilitates the forward deployment of U.S. military forces in the Asia-Pacific, thereby undergirding U.S. national security strategy. For Japan, the alliance and the U.S. nuclear umbrella provide maneuvering room in dealing with its neighbors, particularly China and North Korea. The Bush Administration has made significant strides in its goals of broadening U.S.-Japan strategic cooperation and encouraging Japan to assume a more active international role. Most of these developments have been viewed warily by South Korea and opposed outright by China. Japan is one of the United States' most important economic partners. Outside of North America, it is the United States' largest export market and second-largest source of imports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10341/
U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress
On July 18, 2005, President Bush announced he would "work to achieve full civil nuclear energy cooperation with India" and would "also seek agreement from Congress to adjust U.S. laws and policies," in the context of a broader, global partnership with India to promote stability, democracy, prosperity and peace. Administration officials have promoted nuclear cooperation with India as a way to reduce India's carbon dioxide emissions and its dependence on oil, bring India into the "nonproliferation mainstream" and create jobs for U.S. industry. Nonproliferation experts have suggested that potential costs to U.S. and global nonproliferation policy of nuclear cooperation with India may far exceed the benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10365/
Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States recognized the independence of all the former Central Asian republics, supported their admission into Western organizations, and elicited Turkish support to counter Iranian influence in the region. The Administration's diverse goals in Central Asia reflect the different characteristics of these states. U.S. interests in Kazakhstan include securing and eliminating Soviet-era nuclear and biological weapons materials and facilities. In Tajikistan, U.S. aid focuses on economic reconstruction. U.S. energy firms have invested in oil and natural gas development in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. This report outlines the above, as well as several ongoing debates regarding general relations between the U.S. and Central Asia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10335/
Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues
This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief overview of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objectives in the Middle East. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10305/
U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress
On July 18, 2005, President Bush announced he would "work to achieve full civil nuclear energy cooperation with India" and would "also seek agreement from Congress to adjust U.S. laws and policies," in the context of a broader, global partnership with India to promote stability, democracy, prosperity and peace. Administration officials have promoted nuclear cooperation with India as a way to reduce India's carbon dioxide emissions and its dependence on oil, bring India into the "nonproliferation mainstream" and create jobs for U.S. industry. Nonproliferation experts have suggested that potential costs to U.S. and global nonproliferation policy of nuclear cooperation with India may far exceed the benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10366/
China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
Throughout much of the George W. Bush Administration, U.S.-China relations have remained unusually smooth and stable. But U.S. policy toward China now appears to be subject to competing reassessments. While some U.S. policymakers appear to be willing to work cooperatively with a non-democratic China, others appear to be adopting somewhat tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, expressing their concerns about strong PRC economic growth and a more assertive and influential PRC diplomacy in the international arena. Another matter of growing U.S. concern is China's increasing global "reach" and the consequences that PRC expanding economic and political influence have for U.S. interests. Much of current concern about China appears driven by security calculations at the Pentagon and in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10389/
Lebanon
The United States and Lebanon continue to enjoy good relations. Prominent current issues between the United States and Lebanon include progress toward a Lebanon-Israel peace treaty, U.S. aid to Lebanon, and Lebanon's capacity to stop Hezbollah militia attacks on Israel. The United States supports Lebanon's independence and favored the end of Israeli and Syrian occupation of parts of Lebanon. This report outlines in detail these U.S.-Lebanese relations, as well as the current state of the Lebanese government and its political elections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10321/
India-U.S. Relations
Since 2000, there has been a positive shift in bilateral relations between the U.S. and India. Continuing U.S. interest in South Asia focuses on ongoing tensions between India and Pakistan. The U.S. also seeks to curtail the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles in South Asia. U.S. concerns about human rights issues related to regional dissidence and separatism in several Indian states continue. Communal tensions, religious freedom, and caste-based discrimination have been other matters of concern. India is in the midst of major and rapid economic expansion. Many U.S. business interests view India as a lucrative market and candidate for foreign investment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10313/
U.S.-China Counterterrorism Cooperation: Issues for U.S. Policy
After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the United States faced a challenge in enlisting the full support of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in counterterrorism. This effort raised short-term policy issues about how to elicit cooperation and how to address China's concerns about military action (Operation Enduring Freedom). Longer-term questions have concerned whether counterterrorism has strategically transformed bilateral relations and whether China's support has been valuable and not obtained at the expense of other U.S. interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10319/
China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
Throughout much of the George W. Bush Administration, U.S.-China relations have remained unusually smooth and stable. But U.S. policy toward China now appears to be subject to competing reassessments. State Department officials late in 2005 unveiled what they described as a new policy framework for the relationship -- one in which the United States was willing to work cooperatively with a non-democratic China while encouraging Beijing to become a "responsible stakeholder" in the global system. Other U.S. policymakers appear to be adopting somewhat tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, expressing their concerns about strong PRC economic growth and a more assertive and influential PRC diplomacy in the international arena. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10387/
Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues
The country of Syria is a prominent player in the Middle East scene, due to a number of border disputes with the region, as well as problems of resource allocation, and political rivalries have caused frequent tensions between Syria and its neighbors. An array of bilateral issues continue to affect relations between the United States and Syria: the course of Arab-Israeli talks; questions of arms proliferation; Syrian connections with terrorist activity; Syria's role in Lebanon; and Syria's opposition to the U.S. occupation in Iraq. This report explores these issues, as well as the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri--who had been a vocal Syrian critic--and the Syria Accountability Act, which President Bush signed on December 12, 2003, and which imposes sanctions upon Syria unless it halts support for terrorism. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10506/
India-U.S. Relations
The end of the Cold War freed India-U.S. relations from the constraints of global bipolarity, but interactions continued for a decade to be affected by the burden of history, most notably the longstanding India-Pakistan rivalry and nuclear weapons proliferation in the region. Recent years, however, have witnessed a sea change in bilateral relations, with more positive interactions becoming the norm. India's swift offer of full support for U.S.-led counterterrorism operations after September 2001 was widely viewed as reflective of such change. The United States seeks to curtail the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles in South Asia. Continuing U.S. interest in South Asia focuses on ongoing tensions between India and Pakistan. U.S. concerns about human rights issues related to regional dissidence and separatism in several Indian states continue. Many U.S. business interests view India as a lucrative market and candidate for foreign investment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10504/