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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Limiting Central Government Budget Deficits: International Experiences
This report focuses on how major developed and emerging-market country governments, particularly the G-20 and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, limit their fiscal deficits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103083/
Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program: An Overview
Report that provides a brief overview of The Hollings Manufacturing Partnership (MEP), a program of regional centers set up to assist small and medium-sized manufacturing companies using knowledge and technologies developed under the auspices of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227613/
Navy Aegis Cruiser and Destroyer Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
The Navy wants to modernize 84 Aegis cruisers and destroyers over a period of more than 20 years at a potential total cost of about $9.7 billion in today's dollars. The modernizations are intended to ensure that the ships can be operated cost-effectively throughout their entire intended service lives. The program poses several potential issue for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10690/
Congressional Budget Resolutions: Revisions and Adjustments
Following a brief discussion of budget resolutions and the congressional budget process, this report examines the several ways in which budget levels and other matters included in budget resolutions may be revised or adjusted, the authorities that underpin the making of such revisions and adjustments, and actual practices of the House and Senate in this regard. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7601/
Everglades Restoration: The Federal Role in Funding
In 2000, Congress approved a 30-year, $7.8 billion restoration plan, termed the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), for the Everglades ecosystem in southern Florida, and authorized an initial set of projects at a cost of $1.4 billion. This report provides information on federal appropriations for Everglades restoration, and discusses some issues related to the authorization and appropriations for restoration projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7566/
Environmental Protection Agency: Appropriations for FY2006
The 109th Congress moved funding jurisdiction for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) from the Veterans Affairs, Housing and Urban Development (VA-HUD), and Independent Agencies appropriations subcommittee to the Interior subcommittee. Title II of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-54, H.R. 2361) provides $7.73 billion for EPA, subject to an across-the-board rescission of 0.476%. Section 439 of Title IV indicates that the rescission is to be applied proportionately among each account, program, project, and activity specified in the law, accompanying reports, and the President’s budget request. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7436/
Homeland Security Department: FY2006 Appropriations
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Community Services Block Grants (CSBG): Funding and Reauthorization
Community Services Block Grants (CSBG), administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), provide federal funds to states, territories and Indian tribes for distribution to local agencies to reduce poverty. Several related national activities — Community Economic Development, Rural Community Facilities, National Youth Sports, Community Food and Nutrition, Job Opportunities for Low-Income Individuals (JOLI) and Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) — also provide grants to local communities for a variety of anti-poverty initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7443/
Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions
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Federal Emergency Management Agency Funding for Homeland Security and Other Activities
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Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2005
From FY1989 through FY2005 (to date), 31 appropriations, authorization, or farm disaster acts added approximately $53.2 billion in supplemental funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs (excluding the Forest Service, which is funded annually under the Interior appropriations bill). Nearly $41 billion, or 77% of the total amount, was for FY1999-FY2005 alone. Two FY2005 supplementals have been enacted to date, the largest of which was a disaster relief package in response to the 2004 hurricanes and other natural disasters, which included $3.5 billion for agricultural losses (attached to the FY2005 Military Construction Appropriations Act (P.L. 108-324)). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7262/
Omnibus Appropriations Act: Overview of Recent Practices
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Performance Management and Budgeting in the Federal Government: Brief History and Recent Developments
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The President's Management Agenda: A Brief Introduction
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FY2006 Appropriations for the Department of Transportation
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Federal Disaster Recovery Programs: Brief Summaries
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Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief
This CRS report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7479/
Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions
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House Rules Changes Affecting the Congressional Budget Process in the 109th Congress (H.Res.5)
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Environmental Protection Agency: FY2006 Appropriations and Highlights
Title II of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-54, H.R. 2361) provides $7.73 billion for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), subject to an across-the-board rescission of 0.476%. Section 439 of Title IV indicates that the rescission is to be applied proportionately among each account, program, project, and activity specified in the law, accompanying reports, and the President’s budget request. The total FY2006 EPA appropriation includes an additional $80 million in unobligated funds “rescinded” from past appropriations, as noted in the following table. P.L. 109-54 provides more funding for EPA than the Administration’s FY2006 request of $7.52 billion, but less than the FY2005 appropriation of $8.03 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7469/
Homeland Security Department: FY2006 Appropriations
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Homeland Security Department: FY2006 Appropriations
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Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
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Farm Commodity Programs: A Short Primer
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Supplemental Appropriations for the 2004 Hurricanes and Other Disasters
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First Responder Grant Formulas: A Comparison of Formula Provisions in S.2845 and H.R. 10, 108th Congress
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Wildfire Protection Funding
The severe 2000 fire season prompted a significant rise in funding for wildfire protection that has been sustained; wildfire appropriations in FY2005 were more than $2.9 billion. Most of the funds ($2.8 billion in FY2005) are to protect federal lands, with funds for reducing fuel loads, for equipment and training, for fighting fires, and for restoring burned sites. Federal funding ($98 million in FY2005) also supports state efforts to protect nonfederal lands. Some wildfire funding ($74 million in FY2005) is used for fire research, fire facilities, and programs to improve forest health. Congress continues to debate wildfire funding levels, with a growing focus on the cost of wildfire suppression. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7620/
Homeland Security Grant Formulas: A Comparison of Formula Provisions in S. 21 and H.R. 1544, 109th Congress
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Homeland Security Grant Formulas: A Comparison of Formula Provisions in S. 21 and H.R. 1544, 109th Congress
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Legislative Procedures for Adjusting the Public Debt Limit: A Brief Overview
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The Government's Long-Term Fiscal Shortfall: How Much is Attributable to Social Security?
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Speaker Hastert's Plan to Offset Spending: A Procedural Perspective
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Older Americans Act: Disaster Assistance for Older Persons After Hurricane Katrina
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Child Welfare: State Performance on Child and Family Services Reviews
This report begins with a short history of the legislation and other factors that led to the creation of the current CFSR and then briefly describes how a CFSR is conducted and what “substantial conformity” with federal child welfare policy means in the context of this review. Much has been made of the fact that no state was found to be in substantial conformity with all aspects of federal policy reviewed during the initial (FY2001-FY2004) round of the CFSRs. This report seeks to better understand that fact by looking closely at state performance on each of the performance indicators that determined compliance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7688/
Fiscal Year 2005 Homeland Security Grant Program: State Allocations and Issues for Congressional Oversight
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The Hill-Burton Uncompensated Services Program
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Spectrum Management and Special Funds
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Spending Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Overview, FY2006 Budget in Brief, and Key Issues for Congress
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's FY2006 Budget Request: Description, Analysis, and Issues for Congress
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Budget Reconciliation and the PBGC
The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) posted a deficit of $23.5 billion as of the latest reporting period, and the deficit is expected to grow further. Major bills introduced in the 109th Congress to reform funding rules for the defined benefit pension system and to raise PBGC premiums include H.R. 2830 and S. 1783. Neither has yet passed the full House or Senate. PBGC premiums are an important source of revenue for meeting the budget reconciliation targets. The House Budget Committee has reported out H.R. 4241, a budget reconciliation package that would raise PBGC premiums. The Senate has passed S. 1932, a budget reconciliation package that also contains PBGC premium increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8307/
Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration
This report briefly discusses the budget reconciliation process, which is an optional two-step process Congress may use to assure compliance with the direct spending, revenue, and debt-limit levels set forth in budget resolutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31324/
Defense: FY2006 Authorization and Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Defense. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant. The report lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7815/
Defense Transformation: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress
This report addresses defense transformation from a DOD-wide perspective. The Bush Administration identified transformation as a major goal for the Department of Defense (DOD) soon after taking office and has since worked to refine and implement its plans for defense transformation. Defense transformation can be defined as large-scale, discontinuous, and possibly disruptive changes in military weapons, concepts of operations (i.e., approaches to warfighting) and organization. The issue for the 109th Congress is how to take the concept of defense transformation into account in assessing and acting on Administration proposals for DOD. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9356/
Department of Justice Reauthorization: Provisions to Improve Program Management, Compliance, and Evaluation of Justice Assistance Grants
This report opens with a description of the current makeup of OJP. It then discusses some of the issues facing OJP that have been identified by GAO and the OIG that have led to the current congressional proposal to restructure the Office. A description of the legislation that has been reported by the House Judiciary Committee is discussed and analyzed within the context of restructuring OJP. The report concludes with a discussion of possible issues and questions that could be raised with respect to the legislative proposal to restructure OJP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7911/
Elementary and Secondary Education: Reconsideration of the Federal Role by the 107th Congress
This issue brief provides an overview of legislation to reauthorize the ESEA, ERDDIA, and NESA. Most of it will focus on the ESEA, since it is much larger in scale. We include a summary review of relevant legislation acted upon during the 106th Congress. This issue brief will be updated regularly to reflect current legislative activity. Other issue briefs and reports, listed at the end of this brief, provide more detailed information on individual programs or types of proposals and analyses of the issues being debated with respect to them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1422/
Crime Control Assistance Through the Byrne Programs
The statute provides that states receive and distribute block grant funds and that the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) of the U.S. Department of Justice awards discretionary grants for specified activities. Allocated largely on the basis of population, block grant funds are used for personnel, equipment, training, technical assistance, and information systems to improve criminal justice systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs534/
Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress
This report gives an overview of fuel use by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and its pursuit of numerous initiatives for reducing its fuel needs and changing the mix of energy sources that it uses. The report includes an extensive background on DOD fuel use including how the DOD uses and buys fuel, challenges and risks associated with the DOD's fuel use, DOD energy initiatives, and past legislation that addressed DOD energy use; it also presents issues for Congress and legislative action to be addressed during FY2013. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96725/
Disadvantaged Businesses: A Review of Federal Assistance
It is the policy of the federal government to encourage the development of small disadvantaged businesses (SDBs) owned by minorities and women. SDBs are statutorily defined as small businesses that are owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals who have been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias and who have limited capital and credit opportunities. This report presents an overview of the major federal programs now in existence and indicates where interested persons can obtain further information about specific programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2186/
Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations
This report describes the various components of the DRF, including (1) what authorities have shaped it over the years; (2) how FEMA determines the amount of the appropriation requested to Congress (pertaining to the DRF); and (3) how emergency supplemental appropriations are requested. In addition to the DRF, information is provided on funds appropriated in supplemental appropriations legislation to agencies other than the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Aspects of debate concerning how disaster relief is budgeted are also highlighted and examined, and alternative budgetary options are summarized. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40079/