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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2012
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Background and Issues for Congress

U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: September 5, 2012
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane & Williams, Brock R.
Description: Report that provides a general perspective on the U.S. Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) system. The first section discusses free trade zones worldwide. The second section focuses on the U.S. FTZ program --its history, administrative mechanism, structure, growth and industry concentration, and benefits and costs. The third section focuses on current issues for Congress relating to the U.S. FTZ program.
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WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases

WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases

Date: April 23, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: Although the United States has complied with adverse rulings in many past World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes, there are currently 14 cases in which rulings have not yet been implemented or the United States has acted and the dispute has not been fully resolved. Nine unresolved cases involve trade remedies. The report discusses all fourteen cases in detail, which include antidumping, aircraft subsidies, cotton subsidies, online gambling restrictions, music copyright law, and trademark infringement.
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The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Vladivostok, Russia: Postscript

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Vladivostok, Russia: Postscript

Date: November 19, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: Report that examines the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation's (APEC) week-long series of senior-level meetings in Vladivostok on September 2-9, 2012, as well as the role of Congress with respect to APEC, including appropriations necessary to finance APEC's secretariat and U.S. support of APEC activities.
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Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers

Date: July 11, 2012
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Description: This report provides background on the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers (TAA) program. After a brief introduction, it discusses TAA eligibility and benefits as set by TAAEA. It then describes how the program is funded and administered. The report concludes by presenting data on recent application activity and benefit usage.
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U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

Date: April 13, 2012
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit.
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U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

Date: June 18, 2012
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit.
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The Dominican Republic-Central America- United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA DR): Developments in Trade and Investment

The Dominican Republic-Central America- United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA DR): Developments in Trade and Investment

Date: April 23, 2012
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). This permanent, comprehensive, and reciprocal trade agreement eliminates tariff and non-tariff barriers to two-way trade, building on unilateral trade preferences begun under the 1983 Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI). CAFTA-DR reinforces the idea that growth in trade correlates closely with policies that promote economic stability, private investment in production, public investment in education, infrastructure, logistics, and good governance in general.
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The Dominican Republic-Central America- United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTADR): Developments in Trade and Investment

The Dominican Republic-Central America- United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTADR): Developments in Trade and Investment

Date: April 9, 2012
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). This permanent, comprehensive, and reciprocal trade agreement eliminates tariff and non-tariff barriers to two-way trade, building on unilateral trade preferences begun under the 1983 Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI). CAFTA-DR reinforces the idea that growth in trade correlates closely with policies that promote economic stability, private investment in production, public investment in education, infrastructure, logistics, and good governance in general.
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Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2004-2011

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2004-2011

Date: August 24, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Description: This report provides Congress with official, unclassified, background data from U.S. government sources on transfers of conventional arms to developing nations by major suppliers for the period 2004 through 2011. All agreement and delivery data in this report for the United States are government-to-government Foreign Military Sales (FMS) transactions. Similar data are provided on worldwide conventional arms transfers by all suppliers, but the principal focus is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world.
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Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis

Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis

Date: October 26, 2012
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: Report containing information regarding foreign direct investments, including the foreign acquisition of American firms.
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U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Date: January 4, 2012
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA; H.R. 5724 and S. 2830): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians.
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Chinese Tire Imports: Section 421 Safeguards and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Chinese Tire Imports: Section 421 Safeguards and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Date: August 24, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report discusses World Trade Organization (WTO) safeguards provisions contained in Article XIX of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Agreement on Safeguards; the WTO China-specific safeguard and how it differs from preexisting WTO provisions; authorities and procedures set out in Section 421 of the Trade Act of 1974; the International Trade Commission (ITC) determination and the President's decision to provide relief in the 2009 China tires case; and China's WTO case against the U.S. tire safeguard.
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Japan's Possible Entry Into the Trans-Pacific Partnership and Its Implications

Japan's Possible Entry Into the Trans-Pacific Partnership and Its Implications

Date: August 24, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H. & Manyin, Mark E.
Description: This report discusses the effects of the possible entry of Japan to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations. The TPP issue presents both risks and opportunities for the United States and Japan. On the one hand, it could reinvigorate an economic relationship that has remained steady but stagnant, by forcing the two countries to address long-standing, difficult issues, and allowing them to raise their relationship to a higher level. On the other hand, failure to do so could indicate that the underlying problems are too fundamental to overcome and could set back the relationship.
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The Lacey Act: Protecting the Environment by Restricting Trade

The Lacey Act: Protecting the Environment by Restricting Trade

Date: April 12, 2012
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report looks at the history and applications of the Lacey Act. As it stands now the Act, via a 2008 amendment, allows the U.S. to enforce the laws of other countries as well. One currently proposed legislation would limit application of the law to specific wood products, while another would eliminate any reference to violations of foreign laws and end criminal prosecutions for violating the act.
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Domestic Content Legislation: The Buy American Act and Complementary Little Buy American Provisions

Domestic Content Legislation: The Buy American Act and Complementary Little Buy American Provisions

Date: April 25, 2012
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Description: Congress has broad authority to place conditions on the purchases made by the federal government or with federal dollars. One of many conditions that it has placed on direct government purchases is a requirement that they be produced in the United States. The most well-known of these requirements is the Buy American Act, which is the major domestic preference statute governing procurement by the federal government. This report summarizes (1) the Buy American Act, what it does and does not cover; (2) the Little Buy American Acts found in permanent law, emphasizing what they govern, major exceptions and why Congress felt them necessary in light of the requirements of the Buy American Act; and (3) the temporary Little Buy American provision found in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.
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U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

Date: October 19, 2012
Creator: Williams, Brock R. & Donnelly, J. Michael
Description: This report provides an overview of the current status, trends, and forecasts for U.S. import and export flows as well as certain trade balances. The purpose of this report is to provide current data and brief explanations for the various types of trade flows, along with a brief discussion of trends that help inform the discussion of the various policy issues mentioned above.
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Potential Trade Effects of Adding Vietnam to the Generalized System of Preferences Program

Potential Trade Effects of Adding Vietnam to the Generalized System of Preferences Program

Date: August 14, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Martin, Michael F.
Description: Report that looks at the effects of adding Vietnam to the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) as a "developing country."
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The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues

The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues

Date: April 27, 2012
Creator: Villarreal, M. Angeles
Description: The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement, or U.S. Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement, is a comprehensive free trade agreement (FTA) between the United States and Colombia, which will eventually eliminate tariffs and other barriers in bilateral trade in goods and services. The agreement will enter into force on May 15, 2012. The United States is Colombia's leading trade partner. Colombia accounts for a very small percentage of U.S. trade (1.0% in 2011), ranking 22nd among U.S. export markets and 23rd as a supplier of U.S. imports. Economic studies on the impact of a U.S.-Colombia FTA have found that, upon full implementation of an agreement, the impact on the United States would be positive but very small due to the small size of the Colombian economy when compared to that of the United States (about 2.2%). This report also discusses concerns that Congress has with Colombian human rights violations.
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Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Date: February 1, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Description: This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party nations of such military items.
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Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Date: March 7, 2012
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: This report, updated as warranted, discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation.
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Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Date: February 24, 2012
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. Congress has oversight of the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), P.L. 96-8, which has governed arms sales to Taiwan since 1979, when the United States recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) instead of the ROC. Two other relevant parts of the "one China" policy are the August 17, 1982, U.S.-PRC Joint Communique and the "Six Assurances" to Taiwan. U.S. arms sales to Taiwan have been significant. The United States also expanded military ties with Taiwan after the PRC's missile firings in 1995-1996. However, the U.S.-ROC Mutual Defense Treaty terminated in 1979.
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Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Date: November 29, 2012
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: Report that discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation.
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Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1831 and 1832

Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1831 and 1832

Date: August 28, 2012
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: Report that gives an overview of 18 U.S.C. 1832 (theft of trade secrets) and 18 U.S.C. 1831 (economic espionage). It also describes what constitutes as a stolen trade secret, and how such crimes are prosecuted.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: January 6, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report focuses on the United States' relationship with Iran and how the Obama Administration is handling prior administration's economic sanctions against Iran. The Obama Administration's policy approach toward Iran has contrasted with the Bush Administration's by attempting to couple the imposition of sanctions to an active and direct U.S. effort to negotiate with Iran on the nuclear issue. That approach was not initially altered because of the Iranian dispute over its June 12, 2009, elections.
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