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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2011
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Derivatives Regulation in the 111th Congress

Derivatives Regulation in the 111th Congress

Date: March 3, 2011
Creator: Jickling, Mark & Miller, Rena S.
Description: This report summarizes derivatives legislation that was considered but not enacted by the 111th Congress, and it provides background on the derivatives market.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Community Services Block Grants (CSBG): Background and Funding

Community Services Block Grants (CSBG): Background and Funding

Date: May 26, 2011
Creator: Spar, Karen
Description: The Administration's FY2012 budget would zero-out certain national activities related to Community Service Block Grant (CSBG), including Rural Community Facilities and Job Opportunities for Low-Income Individuals (JOLI). The budget requests $20 million for Community Economic Development (down from the FY2010 level of $36 million but more than the final FY2011 level of $18 million), and would target these funds toward the multiagency Healthy Food Financing Initiative. The Administration would fund Individual Development Accounts (IDAs, also known as Assets for Independence) at $24 million in FY2012, which is the same level as in FY2010 and FY2011.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress

Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress

Date: May 20, 2011
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: This report provides background information and potential issues and options for Congress relating to the reauthorization of Ex-Im Bank. The scope of this report is limited to Ex-Im Bank reauthorization issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Date: March 11, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration has requested and how much Congress has appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations. It will be updated periodically as annual appropriation figures are known.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Date: January 26, 2011
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report analyzes how the United States makes policy towards the multilateral development banks (MDBs) and identifies ways by which Congress can shape U.S. policy and influence the activities of the banks themselves.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Public Financing of Presidential Campaigns: Overview and Analysis

Public Financing of Presidential Campaigns: Overview and Analysis

Date: November 28, 2011
Creator: Garrett, R. Sam
Description: This report discusses current controversies and arguments for and against public financing of presidential campaigns; legislative history; elements of the program; taxpayer and candidate participation; financial status of the program; recent legislation; and analysis of various policy proposals. If Congress chooses to alter the program, consensus will be necessary in what has historically been a particularly complex and contentious area of campaign finance policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress

The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress

Date: April 29, 2011
Creator: Garrett, R. S.
Description: This report is intended to provide an accessible overview of major policy issues facing Congress. Citations to other CRS products, which provide additional information, appear where relevant. The report discusses selected litigation to demonstrate how those events have changed the campaign finance landscape and affected the policy issues that may confront Congress, but it is not a constitutional or legal analysis. Finally, campaign finance data appear throughout the report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress

The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress

Date: December 5, 2011
Creator: Garrett, R. S.
Description: This report discusses selected litigation to demonstrate how those events have changed the campaign finance landscape and affected the policy issues that may confront Congress, but it is not a constitutional or legal analysis. Finally, campaign finance data appear throughout the report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress

The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress

Date: June 27, 2011
Creator: Garrett, R. S.
Description: As Congress decides whether to revisit law surrounding political campaigns, it may be appropriate to take stock of the current landscape and to examine what has changed, what has not, and what policy options might be relevant. This report provides a starting point for doing so. It also provides comments on how those events might affect future policy considerations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress

The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress

Date: June 7, 2011
Creator: Garrett, R. S.
Description: This report includes updated material that emphasizes the issues most prominently before the 113th Congress. It also discusses foundational information about major elements of campaign finance policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Date: January 13, 2011
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Description: This report addresses a core issue facing Congress during the 112th Congress: what, if any, additional action should the federal government take to enhance small business access to capital? After briefly discussing the role of small business in job creation and retention, this report provides an assessment of the supply and demand for small business loans. It also examines selected laws enacted during the 110th and 111th Congresses that were designed to enhance small business access to capital by increasing the supply of small business loans and/or the demand for small business loans. This report also includes empirical evidence concerning small business lending and borrowing, including the number and amount of small business loans guaranteed by the SBA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: The United States is the largest investor abroad and the largest recipient of direct investment in the world. Some observers believe U.S. firms invest abroad to avoid U.S. labor unions or high U.S. wages, however, 70% of U.S. foreign direct investment is concentrated in high income developed countries. Even more striking is the fact that the share of investment going to developing countries has fallen in recent years. Most economists conclude that direct investment abroad does not lead to fewer jobs or lower incomes overall for Americans and that the majority of jobs lost among U.S. manufacturing firms over the past decade reflect a broad restructuring of U.S. manufacturing industries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Date: March 25, 2011
Creator: Murray, Justin & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Date: January 26, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report analyzes the extent of foreign portfolio investment in the U.S. economy and assesses the economic conditions that are attracting such investment and the impact such investments are having on the economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

Date: March 7, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: The U.S. merchandise trade deficit is a part of the overall U.S. balance of payments, a summary statement of all economic transactions between the residents of the United States and the rest of the world, during a given period of time. Some Members of Congress and other observers have grown concerned over the magnitude of the U.S. merchandise trade deficit and the associated increase in U.S. dollar-denominated assets owned by foreigners. This report provides an overview of the U.S. balance of payments, an explanation of the broader role of capital flows in the U.S. economy, an explanation of how the country finances its trade deficit or a trade surplus, and the implications for Congress and the country of the large inflows of capital from abroad.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Limiting Central Government Budget Deficits: International Experiences

Limiting Central Government Budget Deficits: International Experiences

Date: January 31, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report focuses on how major developed and emerging-market country governments, particularly the G-20 and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, limit their fiscal deficits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP): Implementation and Status

Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP): Implementation and Status

Date: January 31, 2011
Creator: Webel, Baird
Description: The Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) was created by the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act (EESA) enacted on October 3, 2008 to address the ongoing financial crisis. This report provides a brief outline of the programs created under TARP, recent changes made by Congress, and a summary of the current status and estimated costs of the program. It also provides an Appendix that contains detailed discussions of the individual TARP programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP): Implementation and Status

Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP): Implementation and Status

Date: March 4, 2011
Creator: Webel, Baird
Description: The Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) was created by the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act1 (EESA) enacted on October 3, 2008, to address the ongoing financial crisis. This report provides a brief outline of the programs created under TARP, recent changes made by Congress, and a summary of the current status and estimated costs of the program. It also provides an Appendix that contains detailed discussions of the individual TARP programs. This report will be updated as warranted by market and legislative events.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sovereign Debt in Advanced Economies: Overview and Issues for Congress

Sovereign Debt in Advanced Economies: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: May 26, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: Sovereign debt, also called public debt or government debt, refers to debt incurred by governments. Since the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, public debt in advanced economies has increased substantially. A number of factors related to the financial crisis have fueled the increase, including fiscal stimulus packages, the nationalization of private-sector debt, and lower tax revenue. Even if economic growth reverses some of these trends, such as by boosting tax receipts and reducing spending on government programs, aging populations in advanced economies are expected to strain government debt levels in coming years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sovereign Debt in Advanced Economies: Overview and Issues for Congress

Sovereign Debt in Advanced Economies: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: May 26, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: Sovereign debt, also called public debt or government debt, refers to debt incurred by governments. Since the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, public debt in advanced economies has increased substantially. A number of factors related to the financial crisis have fueled the increase, including fiscal stimulus packages, the nationalization of private-sector debt, and lower tax revenue. Even if economic growth reverses some of these trends, such as by boosting tax receipts and reducing spending on government programs, aging populations in advanced economies are expected to strain government debt levels in coming years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Veterans' Benefits: Current Life Insurance Programs

Veterans' Benefits: Current Life Insurance Programs

Date: January 4, 2011
Creator: Scott, Christine
Description: Report providing information on the current Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) life insurance programs available for servicemembers and veterans, management and administration issues, and associated policy issues and legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Date: January 24, 2011
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration has requested and how much Congress has appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Date: March 11, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration has requested and how much Congress has appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: General Capital Increases

Multilateral Development Banks: General Capital Increases

Date: March 4, 2011
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration has requested and how much Congress has appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department