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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2011
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Federal Budget: Issues for FY2011, FY2012, and Beyond

The Federal Budget: Issues for FY2011, FY2012, and Beyond

Date: April 12, 2011
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.
Description: The federal budget is central to Congress's ability to exercise its "power of the purse." Over the last several fiscal years the imbalance between spending and revenues has grown as a result of the economic downturn and policies enacted in response to financial turmoil. In FY2010, the last completed fiscal year, the U.S. government spent $3,456 billion (23.8% of GDP) and collected $2,162 billion in revenue (14.9% of GDP), resulting in a budget deficit of $1,294 billion (8.9% of GDP).
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State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations

Date: April 22, 2011
Creator: Leonardo Lawson, Marian; Epstein, Susan B. & Resler, Tamara J.
Description: This report analyzes the FY2012 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biennial Budgeting: Options, Issues, and Previous Congressional Action

Biennial Budgeting: Options, Issues, and Previous Congressional Action

Date: April 12, 2011
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: Proponents of biennial budgeting have generally advanced three arguments-that a two-year budget cycle would (1) reduce congressional workload by eliminating the need for annual review of routine matters; (2) reserve the second session of each Congress for improved congressional oversight and program review; and (3) allow better long-term planning by the agencies that spend federal funds at the federal, state, or local level.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Army Corps Fiscal Challenges: Frequently Asked Questions

Army Corps Fiscal Challenges: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: August 18, 2011
Creator: Carter, Nicole T. & Stern, Charles V.
Description: This report looks at issues in funding all of the Army Corps requests for the fiscal year. The Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for much of the federal water resources infrastructure in the United States. The Corps is faced with more demands for building and maintaining its projects than available federal funding allows. At issue for Congress is deciding how to tackle Corps fiscal challenges during a tight fiscal climate and under earmark moratoriums.
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The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Date: July 1, 2011
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew & Levit, Mindy R.
Description: This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases.
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A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

Date: August 3, 2011
Creator: Saturno, James V. & Lynch, Megan Suzanne
Description: This report provides an overview of the issues and options that have been raised during prior consideration of proposals for an amendment to the constitution regarding the balancing of the U.S. government.
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State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations

Date: March 23, 2011
Creator: Lawson, Marian Leonardo; Epstein, Susan B. & Resler, Tamara J.
Description: This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues

United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues

Date: January 14, 2011
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: Report that tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds.
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A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

Date: July 20, 2011
Creator: Saturno, James V. & Lynch, Megan Suzanne
Description: One of the most persistent political issues facing Congress in recent decades is whether to require that the budget of the United States be in balance. Although a balanced federal budget has long been held as a political ideal, the accumulation of large deficits in recent years has heightened concern that some action to require a balance between revenues and expenditures may be necessary. This report provides an overview of the issues and options that have been raised during prior consideration of proposals for a balanced budget constitutional amendment.
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FY2011 Appropriations: A Side-by-Side Comparison of Key Proposals

FY2011 Appropriations: A Side-by-Side Comparison of Key Proposals

Date: March 18, 2011
Creator: Hatch, Garrett & Lawson, Marian Leonardo
Description: FY2011 funding levels were not enacted in the 111th Congress. Thus, the debate over FY2011 appropriations has continued into the 112th Congress. This report is intended to facilitate comparison of three key spending proposals for FY2011-the Administration's budget request, H.R. 1, and S.Amdt. 149 to H.R. 1-to FY2010 enacted funding levels. The report begins with a brief analysis of how each proposal may impact the federal budget deficit. The bulk of the report consists of a funding table that details the recommended appropriations in these proposals, by subcommittee and bill title, and compares them with FY2010 appropriations.
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A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

Date: July 8, 2011
Creator: Saturno, James V. & Lynch, Megan Suzanne
Description: One of the most persistent political issues facing Congress in recent decades is whether to require that the budget of the United States be in balance. Although a balanced federal budget has long been held as a political ideal, the accumulation of large deficits in recent years has heightened concern that some action to require a balance between revenues and expenditures may be necessary. This report provides an overview of the issues and options that have been raised during prior consideration of proposals for a balanced budget constitutional amendment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Adopting a Long-Term Budget Focus: Challenges and Proposals

Adopting a Long-Term Budget Focus: Challenges and Proposals

Date: January 13, 2011
Creator: Lynch, Megan Suzanne; Labonte, Marc & Levit, Mindy R.
Description: Report concerning the current federal budget process, including criticisms of that process. Information is provided regarding the current horizons used in the budget process, including already existing long-term components; the rationale for increased focus on long term budgeting; general challenges to long-term budgeting; and an analysis of general proposals that have been made to increase the focus of long-term budgeting in the budget process.
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Congressional Budget Resolutions: Historical Information

Congressional Budget Resolutions: Historical Information

Date: April 4, 2011
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr. & Murray, Justin
Description: This report looks at the history and processes of budget resolution in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
FY2011 Appropriations in Budgetary Context

FY2011 Appropriations in Budgetary Context

Date: April 14, 2011
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew & Belasco, Amy
Description: This report compares the various funding levels that have been considered during the 112th Congress with H.R. 1473, a compromise reached just before the expiration on April 8 of the sixth continuing resolution (CR). H.R. 1473 provides discretionary budget authority to run the federal government for the remainder of FY2011, and includes both discretionary and mandatory spending reductions.
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Financial Services and General Government Appropriations: FY2012 Budget Request Fact Sheet

Financial Services and General Government Appropriations: FY2012 Budget Request Fact Sheet

Date: February 24, 2011
Creator: Hatch, Garrett
Description: This report includes information about the Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) appropriations bill and funding requests for the Department of the Treasury, the Executive Office of the President (EOP), the judiciary, the District of Columbia, and 26 independent agencies. Among the independent agencies funded by the bill are the General Services Administration (GSA), the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), the Small Business Administration (SBA), the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC), and the United States Postal Service (USPS).
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Fund for "Gifts to the United States for Reduction of the Public Debt": Current Law and Proposed Legislation

Fund for "Gifts to the United States for Reduction of the Public Debt": Current Law and Proposed Legislation

Date: November 16, 2011
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Description: This report describes current law for the Public Debt Reduction Fund and discusses proposed legislation in order to evaluate four bills which have been introduced in the 112th Congress to add another method of making a contribution to reduce the national debt.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Veterans Affairs: Historical Budget Authority, Fiscal Years 1940 Through 2010

Veterans Affairs: Historical Budget Authority, Fiscal Years 1940 Through 2010

Date: January 20, 2011
Creator: Scott, Christine
Description: This report provides information on the historical budget authority of the Department of Veterans Affairs (formerly the Veterans Administration) for FY1940 through FY2010. Budget authority is presented in both current dollars and constant 2010 dollars (i.e., inflation-adjusted).
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Past Government Shutdowns: Key Resources

Past Government Shutdowns: Key Resources

Date: April 8, 2011
Creator: Nagel, Jared Conrad & Murray, Justin
Description: This report provides an annotated list of historical documents and other resources related to several past government shutdowns. The report also includes links to full-text documents when available. There is limited information and guidance related to shutdowns, and it is difficult to predict what might happen in the event of one, but information about past events may help inform future deliberations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

Date: January 4, 2011
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Description: Report summarizing the 2011 Fiscal Year budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. In addition, this report breaks down the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request.
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Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

Date: June 10, 2011
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Description: This report summarizes the FY2011 budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. This report breaks down in detail the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

Date: March 25, 2011
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Description: This report summarizes the FY2011 budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. This report breaks down in detail the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

Date: March 10, 2011
Creator: Sargent, Jr., John F.
Description: This report summarizes the FY2011 budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. This report breaks down in detail the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Date: February 24, 2011
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: The interval during the fiscal year when agency appropriations are not enacted into law, either in the form of a regular appropriations act or a continuing resolution, is referred to as a funding gap. When a funding gap occurs, the federal government begins a shutdown of the affected agencies, entailing the prompt furlough of non-emergency personnel and curtailment of agency activities. This report discusses the funding gaps that occurred between FY1977-FY2010, as well as the events surrounding them and related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Date: April 20, 2011
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: The interval during the fiscal year when agency appropriations are not enacted into law, either in the form of a regular appropriations act or a continuing resolution, is referred to as a funding gap. When a funding gap occurs, the federal government begins a shutdown of the affected agencies, entailing the prompt furlough of non-emergency personnel and curtailment of agency activities. This report discusses the funding gaps that occurred between FY1977-FY2010, as well as the events surrounding them and related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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