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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2006
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Enforcing Immigration Law: The Role of State and Local Law Enforcement

Enforcing Immigration Law: The Role of State and Local Law Enforcement

Date: August 14, 2006
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa M.; Vina, Stephen R. & Ester, Karma
Description: This report examines the role of state and local law enforcement in enforcing immigration law. The discussion is limited to the role of state and local law enforcement in the investigation, arrest, and detention of all immigration violators. The report does not discuss the prosecution, adjudication, or removal of aliens who violate the law. The report opens with a brief discussion of the types of immigration interior enforcement activities that the former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) pursued and the current immigration activities that are now the focus of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). A discussion of the legal authority that permits state and local law enforcement to enforce immigration law under certain circumstances follows. Current administrative efforts to involve state and local law enforcement in enforcing immigration law as well as selected issues are discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the pros and cons of such a policy and an analysis of policy options for Congress.
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Defense: FY2007 Authorization and Appropriations

Defense: FY2007 Authorization and Appropriations

Date: October 19, 2006
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Description: This report discusses relevant congressional actions that lead to the passing of Defense budgets for FY2007.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Recruiting and the Solomon Amendment: The Supreme Court Ruling in Rumsfeld v. FAIR

Military Recruiting and the Solomon Amendment: The Supreme Court Ruling in Rumsfeld v. FAIR

Date: March 20, 2006
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Description: This report discusses military recruiting and the Solomon amendment, the supreme court ruling on Rumsfeld vs. Fair.
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Defense: FY2006 Authorization and Appropriations

Defense: FY2006 Authorization and Appropriations

Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Description: This report discusses key issues resolved by the conference agreements regarding FY2006 Defense appropriations.
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The Federal Migrant Education Program as Amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

The Federal Migrant Education Program as Amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

Date: January 19, 2006
Creator: Kuenzi, Jeffrey J.
Description: This report describes the legislative and funding history of the program -- highlighting important changes made since it was established. A section on evaluations of the program is included at the end of the report.
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Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related Funding Programs: FY2006 Assistance

Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related Funding Programs: FY2006 Assistance

Date: January 27, 2006
Creator: Veillette, Connie
Description: This report discusses the funds and material support the U.S. has contributed to help Colombia and the Andean region fight drug trafficking since the development of Plan Colombia in 1999.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related Funding Programs: FY2007 Assistance

Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related Funding Programs: FY2007 Assistance

Date: April 18, 2006
Creator: Veillette, Connie
Description: This report discusses the funds and material support the U.S. has contributed to help Colombia and the Andean region fight drug trafficking since the development of Plan Colombia in 1999.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: May 9, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq.
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Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: June 2, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Security Issues and Implications for U.S. Interests

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Security Issues and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report discusses the internal and external security concerns of the South Caucasus states and U.S. interests and policy toward the region. The countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia are generally considered as comprising the South Caucasus region, which borders Russia, Turkey, and Iran.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The United States has pursued close ties with Armenia to encourage its democratization and because of concerns by Armenian-Americans and others over its fate. Close ties with Georgia have evolved from U.S. contacts with its pro-Western leadership. The Bush Administration supports U.s. private investment in Azerbaijan's energy sector as a means of increasing the diversity of world energy suppliers and to encourage building multiple energy pipelines to world markets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: June 2, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic Petroleum Technology Developments

Arctic Petroleum Technology Developments

Date: January 23, 2006
Creator: Gelb, Bernard A; Corn, M. Lynne & Twyman, Terry R
Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for energy development, specifically the North Slope of Alaska for petroleum exploration and development. This report discusses the arguments for and against such development, especially with regard to environmental impacts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Australia: Background and U.S. Relations

Australia: Background and U.S. Relations

Date: April 20, 2006
Creator: Vaughn, Bruce
Description: The Commonwealth of Australia and the United States are close allies under the ANZUS treaty. Australia evoked the treaty to offer assistance to the United States after the attacks of September 11, 2001, in which 22 Australians were among the dead. Australia was one of the first countries to commit troops to U.S. military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. The Howard Government’s strong commitment to the United States in Afghanistan and Iraq and the recently negotiated bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Australia and the United States have strengthened what were already close ties between the two long-term allies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns

Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns

Date: August 10, 2006
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: This report discusses the Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

Date: October 24, 2006
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey
Description: The Berry Amendment requires the Department of Defense (DOD) to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals. This report examines the original intent and purpose of the Berry Amendment, legislative proposals to amend the application of domestic source restrictions, as well as options for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Date: July 13, 2006
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O
Description: In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. Federal research is limited to “the more than 60” existing stem cell lines that were derived (1) with the informed consent of the donors; (2) from excess embryos created solely for reproductive purposes; and (3) without any financial inducements to the donors. No federal funds may be used for the derivation or use of stem cell lines derived from newly destroyed embryos; the creation of any human embryos for research purposes; or cloning of human embryos for any purposes.
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Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Date: July 13, 2006
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Description: In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. This report explains the limitations on this research, as well as corresponding and related legislation to the issue of embryonic stem cell research, including the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2005.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bangladesh: Background and U.S. Relations

Bangladesh: Background and U.S. Relations

Date: September 7, 2006
Creator: Vaughn, Bruce
Description: This report discusses the key issues regarding U.S.-Bangladesh Relations. U.S. policy toward Bangladesh emphasizes support for political stability and democracy; social and economic development; and improvement of human rights. The United States has long-standing supportive relations with Bangladesh and has viewed Bangladesh as a moderate voice in the Islamic world.
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The Basel Accords: The Implementation of II and the Modification of I

The Basel Accords: The Implementation of II and the Modification of I

Date: February 21, 2006
Creator: Eubanks, Walter W
Description: This report provides the basic information needed to understand the issues surrounding the proposed implementation of Basel II and the pending proposed modifications of Basel I in the United States. First, it gives a basic background on capital standards and how capital assessments were made before these accords. Second, it briefly explains how Basel I works. Third, it addresses the major problem with Basel I and the modifications being considered. Fourth, it describes the Basel II framework the United States may implement and the framework the EU is already implementing. The report concludes with a section on Congress and the Basel Accords.
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Banking and Securities Regulation and Agency Enforcement Authorities

Banking and Securities Regulation and Agency Enforcement Authorities

Date: January 17, 2006
Creator: Jackson, William D; Jickling, Mark; Shorter, Gary; Murphy, M. Maureen & Seitzinger, Michael V
Description: The federal bank regulatory agencies — the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and the Office of Thrift Supervision — have extensive authority to enforce various legal and regulatory standards with respect to the banking institutions that they supervise. Similarly, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has a wide range of tools to enforce the securities laws. This report provides a brief sketch of these authorities and identifies the organizational entities within each agency that Congress assigns enforcement responsibilities. It includes a table comparing the formal enforcement tools that the banking agencies may use with those of the SEC.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Army's Future Combat System (FCS): Background and Issues for Congress

The Army's Future Combat System (FCS): Background and Issues for Congress

Date: May 5, 2006
Creator: Feickert, Andrew
Description: The Future Combat System (FCS) is the U.S. Army’s multiyear, multibillion dollar program at the heart of the Army’s transformation efforts. The FCS program exists in a dynamic national security environment which could significantly influence the program’s outcome. The FCS is experiencing a number of program development issues - with some technologies advancing quicker than anticipated, others progressing along predicted lines, while still others not meeting the Army’s expectations. Congress, in its authorization, appropriation, and oversight roles may wish to review the FCS program in terms of its capabilities and program costs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America

Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America

Date: April 10, 2006
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Description: This report discusses the so-called “Article 98 agreements”. The article contains a provision that the Bush Administration has sought bilateral agreements worldwide to exempt U.S. citizens from ICC prosecution. In 2002, Congress passed the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act or ASPA (P.L. 107-206, title II), which prohibits military assistance to countries that are party to the ICC and that do not have Article 98 agreements. Some Members of Congress and Bush Administration officials have expressed concerns about the unintended effects of these sanctions on U.S. relations with Latin America. Policymakers are considering some options to mitigate these effects without undermining ASPA or diplomatic efforts to secure Article 98 agreements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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