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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2001
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Date: July 10, 2001
Creator: Whitaker, Paige L.
Description: Issue advocacy communications have become increasingly popular in recent federal election cycles. These advertisements are often interpreted to favor or disfavor certain candidates, while also serving to inform the public about a policy issue. However, unlike communications that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate, the Supreme Court has determined that issue ads are constitutionally protected First Amendment speech that cannot be regulated in any manner. According to most lower court rulings, only speech containing express words of advocacy of election or defeat, also known as "express advocacy" or "magic words" can be regulated as election-related communications and therefore be subject to the requirements of the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). Upcoming legislation would further investigate and elaborate upon this issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The World Trade Organization: Background and Issues

The World Trade Organization: Background and Issues

Date: June 4, 2001
Creator: Sek, Lenore
Description: The World Trade Organization (WTO), which was established on January 1, 1995, is the principal organization for rules governing international trade. This report provides general background on the WTO: its establishment, principles, administrative bodies, and membership. It also includes a brief discussion of policy issues pertaining to the WTO agenda, U.S. sovereignty and membership in the WTO, the congressional role in U.S. participation in the WTO, and pursuit of U.S. trade goals in the WTO compared to other options.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear, Biological, Chemical, and Missile Proliferation Sanctions: Selected Current Law

Nuclear, Biological, Chemical, and Missile Proliferation Sanctions: Selected Current Law

Date: January 17, 2001
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence and Law Enforcement: Countering Transnational Threats to the U.S.

Intelligence and Law Enforcement: Countering Transnational Threats to the U.S.

Date: December 3, 2001
Creator: Best Jr., Richard A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues

U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues

Date: November 15, 2001
Creator: Bite, Vita
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

Date: March 22, 2001
Creator: Nowels, Larry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elementary and Secondary Education: Reconsideration of the Federal Role by the 107th Congress

Elementary and Secondary Education: Reconsideration of the Federal Role by the 107th Congress

Date: January 24, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C & Stedman, James B
Description: This issue brief provides an overview of legislation to reauthorize the ESEA, ERDDIA, and NESA. Most of it will focus on the ESEA, since it is much larger in scale. We include a summary review of relevant legislation acted upon during the 106th Congress. This issue brief will be updated regularly to reflect current legislative activity. Other issue briefs and reports, listed at the end of this brief, provide more detailed information on individual programs or types of proposals and analyses of the issues being debated with respect to them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Budget for Fiscal Year 2001

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2001

Date: April 19, 2001
Creator: Winters, Philip D
Description: On December 15, 2000, Congress reached an agreement with the President and passed the remaining appropriations (H.R. 4577; H.Rept. 106-1033) for fiscal year (FY) 2001. The legislation, including tax cuts ($31.5 billion over 10 years), completes budget action in the 106th Congress for FY2001. The action followed extended disagreements over appropriations, which resulted in a series of continuing resolutions on appropriations that funded those parts of the government not covered by regular appropriations or permanent funding during the fall. The fiscal year had begun with only 2 of the 13 regular appropriations enacted into law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: An Overview

Appropriations for FY2001: An Overview

Date: February 23, 2001
Creator: Bley, Mary Frances
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a broad overview of all appropriations activity and a guide to the CRS Appropriation Product Series that provides analytical perspectives on the 13 annual FY2001 appropriations bills.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues

Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues

Date: January 12, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: This issue brief covers only Parts A and E of ESEA Title I. Part A of Title I, grants to LEAs, constitutes over 90% of total Title I funding, while Part E authorizes program evaluation and demonstration projects of innovative practices, including the Comprehensive School Reform Program. Other Parts of Title I authorize the Even Start program of joint services to young disadvantaged children and their parents (Part B), plus aid for the education of migrant (Part C) and neglected or delinquent youth (Part D).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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