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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2000
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation Policies

Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation Policies

Date: February 14, 2000
Creator: Lipford, William A & Harrison, Glennon J
Description: This report discusses the Bicycle and Pedestrian Legislation, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act Of 1991 (ISTEA), Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century,and Funding under ISTEA and TEA21.
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Biennial Budgeting: Background and Legislative History in the 106th Congress

Biennial Budgeting: Background and Legislative History in the 106th Congress

Date: May 4, 2000
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: Proposals for a two-year budget cycle have previously been reported in the Senate in 1988, 1990, 1994, and 1997. Another such proposal, S. 92, was reported by the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee on March 10, 1999 (S.Rept. 106-12). S. 92 calls for the House and Senate to use the first year of each Congress to consider a two-year budget resolution and two-year appropriation bills, and the second year to consider multiyear authorizations and conduct oversight. More recently, biennial budgeting has also been a topic of interest in the House where the Rules Committee conducted a series of hearings on February 16, March 10, and March 16, 2000.
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Appropriations for FY2000: Legislative Branch

Appropriations for FY2000: Legislative Branch

Date: January 11, 2000
Creator: Dwyer, Paul E
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Legislative Branch Appropriations.
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Appropriations for FY2000: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government

Appropriations for FY2000: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government

Date: May 25, 2000
Creator: Gressle, Sharon S
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government.
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Appropriations for FY2001: Interior and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2001: Interior and Related Agencies

Date: September 22, 2000
Creator: Greenwood, Alfred R
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations.
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Appropriations for FY2001: Interior and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2001: Interior and Related Agencies

Date: October 17, 2000
Creator: Greenwood, Alfred R
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations.
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Appropriations for FY2001: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education

Appropriations for FY2001: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education

Date: August 17, 2000
Creator: Irwin, Paul M
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education.
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Asset Distribution of Taxable Estates: An Analysis

Asset Distribution of Taxable Estates: An Analysis

Date: December 7, 2000
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Description: This report provides data on the distribution of assets in taxable estates that filed returns in 1998. The report also offers a brief overview of the estate and gift tax and "The Death Tax Elimination Act of 2000," which was passed in the 106th Congress and vetoed. This report finds that farm and business assets represent a small share of the total value of taxable estate tax returns filed in 1998. For an overview of estate tax, see CRS Report RL30600, Estate and Gift Taxes: Economic Issues, by Jane G. Gravelle and Steven Maguire. This report will be updated as new data becomes available.
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Army Aviation: The RAH-66 Comanche Helicopter Issue

Army Aviation: The RAH-66 Comanche Helicopter Issue

Date: October 17, 2000
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Although it has been a high priority Army program, a number of factors have complicated the RAH-66 Comanche program. Since its inception, the program has been restructured several times–postponing the initial operational capability (IOC) and increasing overall program costs. Presently, there is debate within the Army regarding whether the program should be reduced significantly to make funds available to pursue other modernization priorities.
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Appropriations for FY2001: Legislative Branch

Appropriations for FY2001: Legislative Branch

Date: September 11, 2000
Creator: Dwyer, Paul E
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Legislative Branch Appropriations.
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Appropriations for FY2001: Military Construction

Appropriations for FY2001: Military Construction

Date: November 7, 2000
Creator: Tyszkiewicz, Mary T
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Military Construction Appropriations.
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Appropriations for FY2001: Military Construction

Appropriations for FY2001: Military Construction

Date: July 18, 2000
Creator: Tyszkiewicz, Mary T
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Military Construction Appropriations.
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Appropriations for FY2001: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government

Appropriations for FY2001: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government

Date: September 21, 2000
Creator: Gressle, Sharon S
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Treasury, Postal Service, and General Government.
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Appropriations for FY2001: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2001: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Date: November 9, 2000
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Agriculture Appropriations.
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Appropriations for FY2001: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2001: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Date: August 31, 2000
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Agriculture Appropriations.
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Appropriations for FY2001: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies

Appropriations for FY2001: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies

Date: September 26, 2000
Creator: Snook, Dennis W & Bourdon, E. Richard
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Subcommittees on VA, HUD and Independent Agencies Appropriations.
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Appropriations for FY2001: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies (P.L. 106-377)

Appropriations for FY2001: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies (P.L. 106-377)

Date: November 17, 2000
Creator: Snook, Dennis W & Bourdon, E. Richard
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Subcommittees on VA, HUD and Independent Agencies Appropriations.
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Asbestos Compensation Act of 2000

Asbestos Compensation Act of 2000

Date: April 13, 2000
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: This report summarizes H.R. 1283, 106th Congress, the Asbestos Compensation Act of 2000, as ordered to be reported with amendments by the House Committee on the Judiciary on March 16, 2000. The bill would create an administrative procedure for asbestos liability claims.
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Aviation Delays

Aviation Delays

Date: September 22, 2000
Creator: Moore, J. Glen
Description: Flight delays and cancellation in the U.S. air transportation system rose to record levels in 2000. The problem costs the airlines an estimated $3 billion annually and causes great inconvenience for shippers and passengers. Billions of federal dollars are being spent to modernize the air traffic control (ATC) system, purchase new equipment and expand airport capacity. But the airlines express little confidence that these efforts will provide near-term relief or be enough in the long-term to accommodate the forecasted growth in air traffic ­ up from about 670 million passengers this year to 1.0 billion forecast by 2010 and 1.5 billion by 2025.
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Authority of a President to Modify or Eliminate a National Monument

Authority of a President to Modify or Eliminate a National Monument

Date: August 3, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: President Clinton created a number of new national monuments, using authority given the President under the Antiquities Act of 1906. Many of the designations were controversial and renewed discussion of that Act and whether a President can modify or eliminate a Presidentially created national monument. This report examines that question.
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Brazil's Economic Reform and the Global Financial Crisis

Brazil's Economic Reform and the Global Financial Crisis

Date: June 9, 2000
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: Despite backing from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), capital flight from Brazil in 1998 prompted the government to jettison its pegged currency stabilization program and float the real on January 15, 1999, becoming another casualty of the volatile international capital markets. Brazil adjusted to its financial crisis faster than expected, which is considered over. This report provides a final summary of Brazil's financial crisis and related IMF assistance in support of Congressional interest in various aspects of the 1990s global financial turmoil. It will not be updated.
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China's Accession to the World Trade Organization: Legal Issues

China's Accession to the World Trade Organization: Legal Issues

Date: June 2, 2000
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J
Description: The People's Republic of China (PRC) applied to resume membership in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1986 and continues to negotiate its accession to GATT's successor, the World Trade Organization (WTO). A country may join the WTO on terms agreed by the applicant and WTO Members if two-thirds of Members approve the country's accession agreement. A Member may "opt out" of WTO relations with another country by invoking Article XIII of the WTO Agreement, its "non-application" clause. The United States and the PRC agreed to bilateral terms for the PRC's accession in November 1999.
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Campaign Finance: Constitutional and Legal Issues of Soft Money

Campaign Finance: Constitutional and Legal Issues of Soft Money

Date: August 10, 2000
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: "Soft money" has become one of the major issues in the area of campaign financing in federal elections. The controversy surrounding this issue is due to the perception that soft money may be the largest loophole in the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). Soft money is broadly defined as funds that are raised and spent according to applicable state laws; that would be impermissible, under the FECA, to spend directly in federal elections and that may have an indirect influence on federal elections. This Issue Brief discusses three major types of soft money: political party soft money, corporate and labor union soft money, and soft money used for issue advocacy communications.
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Campaign Finance Regulation Under the First Amendment:

Campaign Finance Regulation Under the First Amendment:

Date: September 8, 2000
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige & Jennings, Christopher Alan
Description: This Report first discusses the critical holdings enunciated by the Supreme Court in Buckley, including those: upholding reasonable contribution limits, striking down expenditure limits, upholding disclosure reporting requirements, and upholding the system of voluntary presidential election expenditure limitations linked with public financing. It then examines the Court’s extension of Buckley in fourteen subsequent cases, evaluating them in three regulatory contexts: contribution limits (California Medical Association v. FEC; Citizens Against Rent Control v. Berkeley; Nixon v. Shrink Missouri Government PAC), expenditure limits (First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti; FEC v. Massachusetts Citizens for Life; Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce; FEC v. National Right to Work; Colorado Republican Federal Campaign Committee v. FEC; FEC v. Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee; FEC v. National Conservative Political Action Committee), and disclosure requirements (Buckley v. American Constitutional Law Foundation; Brown v. Socialist Workers ‘74 Campaign Committee; FEC v. Akins; McIntrye v. Ohio Elections Commission).
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