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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Side-by-Side Comparison of Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Provisions in the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005
From the summary: "This report provides a comparison of Medicare, Medicaid and State Child Health Insurance Program provisions contained in the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (S. 1932) as amended and passed by the Senate. The report compares the bill's provisions with current law." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9230/
Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report outlines federal programs that provide direct or indirect incentives for biofuels. For each program described, the report provides details including administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and expiration date. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94063/
Specialty Crops: 2008 Farm Bill Issues
This report discusses the provisions for specialty crops (fruits, vegetables, tree nuts, and nursery crops) in the 2008 farm bill (P.L. 110-246, Food, Conservation, and Energy Act). Specialty crops are not eligible for direct support under USDA's farm commodity price and income support programs. Federal policies on trade, conservation, credit, marketing programs, domestic food assistance, and research also all affect the specialty crop sector. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94045/
Wetlands: An Overview of Issues
The report documents recent changes in wetland acres. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service released its most recent periodic survey of changes in wetland acreage nationwide in March 2006. Covering 1998 to 2004, it concluded that during this time period there was a small net gain in overall wetland acres for the first time that this survey has been conducted. Others caution, however, that much of this gain was in ponds, rather than natural wetlands. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94041/
Gasoline Prices: Causes of Increases and Congressional Response
This report, after analyzing factors that have contributed to high gasoline prices, describes the major legislative initiatives and discusses the issues involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94047/
Heritage Areas: Background, Proposals, and Current Issues
This report focuses on heritage areas designated by Congress and related issues and legislation. Over more than two decades, Congress has established 40 National Heritage Areas (NHAs) to commemorate, conserve, and promote areas that include important natural, scenic, historic, cultural, and recreational resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94040/
Social Security: What Would Happen If the Trust Funds Ran Out?
This report looks at ways to overhaul the Social Security system due to a projected lack of system funds, which are estimated to become exhausted in 2041. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94044/
Gasoline Prices: Causes of Increases and Congressional Response
This report, after analyzing factors that have contributed to high gasoline prices, describes the major legislative initiatives and discusses the issues involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94046/
Outer Continental Shelf: Debate Over Oil and Gas Leasing and Revenue Sharing
This report provides the background and recent development in Oil and gas leasing in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). This has been an important issue in the debate over energy security and domestic energy resources. The Department of the Interior (DOI) released a comprehensive inventory of OCS resources in February 2006 that estimated reserves of 8.5 billion barrels of oil and 29.3 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of natural gas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94043/
Public Health and Medical Preparedness and Response: Issues in the 110th Congress
This report discusses key issues in public health and medical preparedness and response. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94225/
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): Fact Sheet on Three International Agreements
The report briefly describes persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which are chemicals that do not break down easily in the environment, tend to accumulate as they move up the food chain, and may be harmful to people and wildlife. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94221/
Wave, Tidal, and In-Stream Energy Projects: Which Federal Agency Has the Lead?
This report describes wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technologies — also referred to as hydrokinetic or marine energy. It discusses the recent changes in law aimed to clarify the federal role in ocean wave and renewable energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94227/
Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing: U.S. Policy Development
This report discusses the reprocessing of nuclear fuel that refers to the chemical separation of fissionable uranium and plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94224/
Seafood Safety: Background and Issues
This report provides brief background information regarding seafood safety. The report address the question; are the current food safety programs sufficiently protecting consumers, and if not, what changes should be considered? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94229/
Chemical Regulation in the European Union: Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals
This report discusses a new law, Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), that the European Union (EU) began to implement On June 1, 2007. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94226/
Ethanol Imports and the Caribbean Basin Initiative
This report discusses the fuel ethanol consumption that has grown significantly in the past several years. The report describes the standard that requires U.S. transportation fuels to contain a minimum amount of renewable fuel, including ethanol. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94205/
What Is the “Farm Bill”?
This report describes the Farm Bill (P.L. 110-246, Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, which was enacted into law on June 18, 2008. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94207/
Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the WTO
This report discuses programs with in the World Trade Organization (WTO) regarding trade between members. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94208/
Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the WTO
This report discusses the trade preferences and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) most-favored-nation (MFN) requirements, World Trade Organization (WTO) waivers for preferential trade agreements, and WTO waivers for U.S. preference programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94209/
Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSR): Program Overview and Issues
This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program. The program was intended to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects that were needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to meet the Act's health objectives. It includes an overview of funding, allotments and set-asides, drinking water infrastructure needs, program issues, and legislative activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94206/
Clean Water Act: Legislation Concerning Discharges from Recreational Boats
This report discusses background of the Clean Water Act; bills introduced in response, two of which were passed by Congress on July 22 (S. 2766 and S. 3298); and draft permits proposed by EPA on June 17. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94235/
Agriculture and Forestry Provisions in Climate Change Legislation (S. 3036)
This report summarizes some of the domestic agriculture and forestry provisions in the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2008 (S. 3036, formerly S. 2191), as ordered reported out of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works in December 2007. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94232/
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA): President's Budget Request for FY2009
The report discusses the FY2009 budget, for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the Department of Commerce. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94231/
Global Climate Change: Status of Negotiations
This report discusses a broad array of issues surrounding the global climate change, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Kyoto Protocol, and “conference of the parties” (COP-13) in 2007. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94238/
Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects
This report discusses the effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on fetal and infant development, which is used to produce certain types of plastic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94234/
International Food Aid Provisions of the 2008 Farm Bill
The report discusses the international food aid provision (2008 Farm Bill) of U.S. agricultural commodities for emergency relief and economic development. This provision addresses the United States' major response to food security problems in developing countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94239/
Food Safety Provisions of the 2008 Farm Bill
The report discusses the food safety provision in the 2008 Farm Bill. Food safety re-emerged as an issue in the 110th Congress following a series of widely publicized incidents — including adulterated Chinese seafood and pet food ingredient imports, findings of bacteria-tainted spinach, meat, and poultry produced domestically, and several large food recalls. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94236/
Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework
This report explains the nature of U.S. authority over offshore areas pursuant to international and domestic law. It also describes the laws, at both the state and federal levels, governing the development of offshore oil and gas and the litigation that has flowed from development under the current legal regimes. Also included is an outline of the recent changes to the authorities regulating offshore development wrought by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and subsequent legislation enacted by the 109th Congress prior to adjournment. Finally, this report discusses legislation under consideration by the 110th Congress that might also amend existing law in this area. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94031/
Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework
This report explains the nature of U.S. authority over offshore areas pursuant to international and domestic law. It also describes the laws, at both the state and federal levels, governing the development of offshore oil and gas and the litigation that has flowed from development under these legal regimes. Also included is an outline of the changes to the authorities regulating offshore development wrought by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and subsequent legislation and executive action as well as a discussion of recent executive action and legislative proposals to encourage further offshore exploration and production. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94030/
Ecosystem Restoration in the Great Lakes: The Great Lakes Regional Collaboration Strategy
This report summarizes The Great Lakes Regional Collaboration Strategy, analyzes issues related to the Strategy and its implementation, and discusses federal legislation related to restoration in the Great Lakes. The Strategy is a series of recommendations for actions and activities aimed at starting the restoration of the Great Lakes ecosystem. The Strategy encompasses eight issue areas: aquatic invasive species, fish and wildlife habitat (habitat/species), coastal health, contaminated sediments, nonpoint source pollution, toxic pollutants, indicators and information, and sustainable development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94033/
The European Union's Energy Security Challenges
This report examines some of Europe's critical energy security challenges and EU efforts to coordinate a common European energy strategy. It also includes an overview of broader transatlantic energy security cooperation and will be updated as needed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94072/
Clean Air Permitting: Status of Implementation and Issues
This report describes the statutory background of the Title V program and the status of implementation, in terms of federal approval of state and local permitting authorities and permit issuance. It also discusses broad policy issues identified by various stakeholders, including program complexity and costs, and inconsistencies due to a lack of sufficient federal guidance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94071/
Animal Waste and Hazardous Substances: Current Laws and Legislative Issues
This report describes the provisions of Superfund and Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), and enforcement actions under these laws that have increasingly been receiving attention. Congressional scrutiny in the form of legislative proposals and a House hearing in the 109th Congress are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94074/
Clean Air Issues in the 110th Congress: Climate Change, Air Quality Standards, and Oversight
This report provides a brief overview of the climate change issue as well as other Clean Air Act issues of interest in the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94079/
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments
This report provides a brief history and recent developments regarding the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT). The U.N. General Assembly adopted the CTBT in 1996. The report discusses the national positions on testing and the CTBT, The North Korean nuclear test, stockpile stewardship, and CTBT pros and cons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94057/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses the recent development in different programs administered by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) with the goal to promote agricultural exports and to provide food aid. These programs include direct export subsidies, export market development, export credit guarantees, and foreign food aid. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94058/
Soil and Water Conservation: An Overview
The report offers the most recent development regarding the soil and water conservation topics and current major conservation activities. The report discusses the farm bill, which the 110th Congress is considering. The House passed its version of the farm bill on July 27, 2007 (H.R. 2419) by a vote of 231 to 191. Numerous options for conservation provisions were offered as the legislation moved through the House, but the conservation title was passed largely as reported by the Agriculture Committee and modified by a chairman's mark. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94059/
National Park System: Establishing New Units
This report discusses the National Park System that includes 391 diverse units administered by the National Park Service (NPS) of the Department of the Interior. Units of the system generally are managed to preserve resources in their natural or historical conditions for the benefit of future generations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94170/
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks: Prevention and Cleanup
This report addresses a nationwide water pollution problem caused by leaking underground storage tanks (USTs). The report discusses key issue that state resources have not met the demands of administering the underground storage tanks (UST) leak prevention program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94179/
Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Developments and Issues
This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996. These amendments directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to update the standard for arsenic in drinking water. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94173/
Flood Risk Management and Levees: A Federal Primer
This report provides a primer on responsibilities for flood management, describes the role of federal agencies, and discusses flood issues before the 110th Congress. The report also discusses the legislative response to Hurricane Katrina. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94013/
Water Quality Issues in the 110th Congress: Oversight and Implementation
This report discusses issues surrounding the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972 and programs set up to meet the water quality standards that it outlined. The report focuses specifically on the legislative issues for the 110th Congress in relation to the CWA including the authorization of water infrastructure funding, regulatory protection of wetlands, and other CWA issues that may require separate oversight or legislation. It also includes a brief comparison of the expected appropriations for FY2008 and FY2009. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94085/
Federal Lands Managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Forest Service (FS): Issues for the 110th Congress
The report starts out with a brief overview and analysis of Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Other issues discussed briefly include roadless areas in the National Forest System, national forest planning, national forest county payments, BLM land sales, and grazing management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94082/
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 110th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices
This report identifies and discusses oversight issues and legislation introduced in the 110th Congress to address specific concerns related to how Endangered Species Act (ESA) is implemented and how endangered species are managed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94081/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report discusses fish and marine mammals which are important resources in open ocean and near shore coastal areas. It also discusses many federal laws and regulations that guide their management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94087/
Clean Air Issues in the 110th Congress: Climate Change, Air Quality Standards, and Oversight
This report provides a brief overview of the climate change issue as well as other Clean Air Act issues of interest in the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94080/
Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol, Bali “Action Plan,” and International Actions
This report discusses concerns over climate change, often termed “global warming,” which have emerged both in the United States and internationally as major policy issues. The report discusses different treaties that address climate change, and other international meetings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94088/
Climate Change: Design Approaches for a Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program
This report explores strategies to control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and options to address the cost issue in four parts. First, the basic economic tradeoff between controlling the quantity of GHG emissions and the program's compliance costs is introduced and explained. Second, the five dimensions of the cost issue that have arisen so far in the climate change debate are identified and discussed. Third, a representative sample of proposed approaches to address cost concerns is compared and analyzed according to the five cost dimensions identified previously. Finally, the proposed options are summarized and opportunities to combine or merge different approaches are analyzed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94084/
Domestic Food Assistance: The Farm Bill and Other Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report covers issues and legislative changes addressed in the farm bill, legislative changes included in the FY2008 Agriculture appropriations measure (included in the FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act; P.L. 110-161), and proposed legislation that involves programs and activities that are normally not part of the farm bill (e.g., child nutrition program proposals). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94089/
Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)
This report discusses carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), but not other types of carbon sequestration activities whereby CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored in vegetation, soils, or oceans. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94086/
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