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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
NATO Enlargement: The Process and Allied Views
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs421/
NATO Expansion: Cost Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs611/
NATO's Evolving Role and Missions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs612/
NATO Enlargement: Pro and Con Arguments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs613/
NATO Enlargement: Pro and Con Arguments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs614/
Military Changes to the Unified Command Plan: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs947/
Chemical Agent Attacks in Japan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs186/
Appropriations for FY2000: Military Construction
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Military Construction Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs946/
A UN Rapid Reaction Force
This report, completed in June 1995, discusses the content and context of the January 1995 proposal by then-United Nations Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali that U.N. Member States consider the creation of a special rapid reaction force to perform U.N. peacekeeping operations. It contains brief background information on similar proposals and a description of the current U.N. "standby forces" system. It reviews the concerns and issues raised by the Boutros-Ghali proposal, including political acceptability, financing, and the problems of force design and operation. It concludes with an analysis of the strategic, budgetary, political and military implications for the United States. This report will not be updated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6965/
Bosnia: Civil Implementation of the Peace Agreement
Since Dayton Peace Accords, the civilian side of peace implementation has been challenged by the scope of the tasks, and by the lack of commitment demonstrated by the Bosnian parties to various aspects of the peace agreement. In addition, issues such as International Framework for peace implementation, formation of governmental institution, election, civil police task force and displaced persons are discussed in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs607/
Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs90/
Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs274/
Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs275/
Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs276/
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-1999
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs945/
Kosovo: Lessons Learned from Operation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs948/
Kosovo Conflict Chronology: September 1998 - March 1999
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs942/
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START I and II): Verification and Compliance Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs310/
Appropriations for FY1999: Military Construction
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Legislative Branch Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs618/
EURATOM and the United States: Renewing the Agreement for Nuclear Cooperation
The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) is a regional organization established in 1958 to "create conditions necessary for the establishment and growth of nuclear industries." The United States promoted its establishment to benefit sales of U.S. nuclear power reactors and related equipment. fuels and technology in Europe. The agreement for nuclear cooperation between the United States and EURATOM expired at the end of 1995. On November 29 President Clinton submitted to Congress a new agreement. reached after several years of difficult negotiation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs312/
NATO: Congress Addresses Expansion of the Alliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs423/
Long Beach: Proposed Lease by China Ocean Shipping Co. (COSCO) at Former Naval Base
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs609/
NATO: Article V and Collective Defense
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs422/
National Missile Defense: Status of the Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs616/
Iraq Crisis: U.S. and Allied Forces
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs617/
Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798-1993
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs52/
National Emergency Powers
This report the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601-1651) that eliminated or modified some statutory grants of emergency authority, required the President to declare formally the existence of a national emergency and to specify what statutory authority, activated by the declaration, would be used, and provided Congress a means to countermand the President's declaration and the activated authority being sought. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8844/
Peacekeeping Options: Considerations for U.S. Policymakers and the Congress
This report provides a frame of reference for considering the relative merits of using these organizations in peace and security operations. It first reviews the types of actions and activities available to deal with situations ranging from low-level tension to open conflict to post-conflict transition. It then examines, for each of the organizations, the major considerations, i.e., effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages, and other important issues for U.S. policy makers in their use. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821988/
Persian Gulf War: Defense-Policy Implications for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6963/
Key Foreign and Defense Policy Issues in the 104th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs124/
Critical Infrastructures: A Primer
The nation’s health, wealth, and security rely on the supply and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, processes and organizations across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures. Computers and communications, themselves critical infrastructures, are increasingly tying these infrastructures together. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs724/
Cruise Missile Inventories and NATO Attacks on Yugoslavia: Background Information
This short report provides background information on the Air Force’s Conventional Air-Launched Cruise Missile (CALCM) and the conventionally armed version of the Navy’s Tomahawk land-attack cruise missile (TLAM). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1044/
The Maritime Security Program (MSP) in an International Commercial Context: A Discussion
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs817/
Kosovo: International Reactions to NATO Air Strikes
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs941/
Kosovo and NATO: Selected Issues of International Law
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs944/
Japan's Sea Shipment of Plutonium
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs53/
Defense Research: DOD's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Program
The Administration has requested $34.4 billion for the Department of Defense (DOD) Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) program for FY2000. This is almost $3 billion below what was available for RDT&E in FY1999. In addition, the 6-year budget would maintain RDT&E between $34 billion and $35 billion over the next 6 years. In constant dollars, RDT&E spending will decline. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs939/
Nuclear Arms Control and Nuclear Threat Reduction: Issues and Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs311/
The Convention on Nuclear Safety - A Fact Sheet
Until the catastrophic accident with the former Soviet Union's Chernobyl nuclear power plant showed that radioactivity from a major nuclear accident could reach neighboring nations, nuclear safety was held to be an exclusively sovereign responsibility of each nation. Now it is recognized that a nuclear accident in one state can release radioactivity dangerous to another. As a result, many now view international cooperation as one way to help to assure safe operation of each nation's civil nuclear power stations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs306/
Defense Research: A Primer on the Department of Defense's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT and E) Program
This report describes the basic elements and issues of the Department of Defense's (DOD) Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Program. It defines basic activities supported by the program, presents budget trends, discusses the management of program, and describes the infrastructure in which the program is implemented. This report is for staff new to the area of defense research and for senior staff interested in historical trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs605/
Defense Research: A Primer on the Department of Defense's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT and E) Program
This report describes the basic elements and issues of the Department of Defense's (DOD) Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Program. It defines basic activities supported by the program, presents budget trends, discusses the management of program, and describes the infrastructure in which the program is implemented. This report is for staff new to the area of defense research and for senior staff interested in historical trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs938/
NATO Enlargement and Russia
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs610/
Japanese Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs24/
South Korea: U.S. Defense Obligations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs103/
The United States and the Use of Force in the Post-Cold War World: Toward Self-Deterrence?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs105/
Women in the Armed Forces
Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8522/
Women in the Armed Forces
Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8521/
Defense Research: A Primer on the Department of Defense’s Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Program
This report describes the basic elements and issues of the Department of Defense's (DOD) Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Program. It defines basic activities supported by the program, presents budget trends, discusses the management of program, and describes the infrastructure in which the program is implemented. This report is for staff new to the area of defense research and for senior staff interested in historical trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821451/
Intelligence Implications of the Military Technical Revolution
The availability of precise, real-time intelligence has been an integral part of a military technical revolution being implemented by the Department of Defense for post-Cold War conflicts and peacekeeping operations. Providing this intelligence requires new types of equipment, analysis and organizational relationships within the U.S. intelligence community. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26098/
Bosnian Muslim-Croat Federation: Key to Peace in Bosnia?
The Federation of Bosnia and Hercegovina was established in March 1994, with U.S. mediation. It aims to unite areas held by the largely Bosniak (Muslim) pre-war republic government with areas held by Croats. The Bosnian peace agreement, signed in Dayton in November 1995, recognized the Federation and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska as two largely autonomous entities within a weak, but sovereign Bosnia and Hercegovina union. Real political, economic and military integration of Bosniak and Croat-held areas has been slow to materialize. The United States has played a key role in setting up the Federation and in efforts to make it viable. The long term viability of the Federation is open to question, however, due to continued mistrust between the two sides and significant differences in their perceived interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs756/
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