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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Crime and Forfeiture: The Innocent Third Party

Crime and Forfeiture: The Innocent Third Party

Date: June 29, 1999
Creator: Wallace, Paul S., Jr.
Description: Forfeiture has survived through time in American law, and since 1984, the use of forfeiture statutes to divest felons of their spoils has increased substantially. This report reviews the case law which raises the issue concerning many relative to whether some civil forfeiture proceedings constitute punishment which may violate the Eighth Amendment's excessive fines clause.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Prison Litigation Reform Act: Survey of Post-Reform Act Prisoners' Civil Rights Cases

Prison Litigation Reform Act: Survey of Post-Reform Act Prisoners' Civil Rights Cases

Date: November 4, 1997
Creator: Schrader, Dorothy
Description: This report summarizes the Prison Litigation Reform Act and surveys post- Reform Act court decisions interpreting the Act and other cases concerning prisoners' civil rights.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gun Industry Liability: Lawsuits and Legislation

Gun Industry Liability: Lawsuits and Legislation

Date: March 30, 1999
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: This report discusses gun industry liability issues after the Maryland Court of Appeals announced that it was changing the common law "to hold the manufacturers and marketers of Saturday Night Special handguns strictly liable to innocent persons who suffer gunshot injuries from the criminal use of their products." Kelley v. R.G. Industries, Inc., 497 A.2d 1143, 1159 (Md. 1985).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Independent Counsel Provisions: An Overview of the Operation of the Law

Independent Counsel Provisions: An Overview of the Operation of the Law

Date: March 20, 1998
Creator: Maskell, Jack
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Violent and Abusive Behavior in Youth: A Public Health Problem

Violent and Abusive Behavior in Youth: A Public Health Problem

Date: April 3, 1998
Creator: Cooper, Edith Fairman
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Criminal Court Treaty: Description, Policy Issues, and Congressional Concerns

The International Criminal Court Treaty: Description, Policy Issues, and Congressional Concerns

Date: January 6, 1999
Creator: Grigorian, Ellen
Description: This report discusses the events leading to the creation of a permanent international criminal tribunal and U.S. perspectives on the Court including: problematic provisions in the ICC Treaty, congressional considerations, and potential implications for U.S. foreign policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Gun Control Laws: The Second Amendment and Other Constitutional Issues

Federal Gun Control Laws: The Second Amendment and Other Constitutional Issues

Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Schrader, Dorothy
Description: This report examines the historical, legal, and constitutional arguments for and against an individual right to bear firearms under the Second Amendment of the Constitution. Those who favor federal gun control laws tend to assert that the Second Amendment has been correctly interpreted by the courts to confer only a collective right, which may be exercised through state militias. Those who oppose gun control laws tend to assert that the Second Amendment should be interpreted to grant an individual right to bear arms for lawful purposes, subject to appropriately minimal restrictions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

Date: March 3, 1999
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V.
Description: This report gives an overview of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, which was intended to prohibit bribery of foreign officials by American corporations. It includes information about the original legislation, amendments in 1988, and amendments in 1998 that brought the legislation into conformance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's agreement on bribery.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Crime Control Assistance Through the Byrne Programs

Crime Control Assistance Through the Byrne Programs

Date: May 20, 1998
Creator: Laney, Garrine P
Description: The statute provides that states receive and distribute block grant funds and that the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) of the U.S. Department of Justice awards discretionary grants for specified activities. Allocated largely on the basis of population, block grant funds are used for personnel, equipment, training, technical assistance, and information systems to improve criminal justice systems.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drug Control: International Policy and Options

Drug Control: International Policy and Options

Date: January 7, 1997
Creator: Perl, Raphael F
Description: Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorism, the Media, and the Government: Perspectives, Trends, and Options for Policymakers

Terrorism, the Media, and the Government: Perspectives, Trends, and Options for Policymakers

Date: October 22, 1997
Creator: Perl, Raphael F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Juveniles in the Adult Criminal Justice System: An Overview

Juveniles in the Adult Criminal Justice System: An Overview

Date: May 8, 1998
Creator: Cavanagh, M. Suzanne & Teasley, David
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fifth Amendment Privilege Against SelfIncrimination May Not Be Extended in Cases Where Only a Foreign Prosecution Is Possible

Fifth Amendment Privilege Against SelfIncrimination May Not Be Extended in Cases Where Only a Foreign Prosecution Is Possible

Date: July 16, 1998
Creator: Wallace, Paul S., Jr.
Description: Several courts in the various circuits have considered whether the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination applies to fear of incrimination in foreign countries, and they have come to divergent conclusions. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari in United States v. Balsys, and on June 25, 1998, decided that a witness may not invoke the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination in which only a foreign prosecution is possible. This report provides background on United States v. Balsys and examines the court's opinion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Brady Handgun Control Act: Constitutional Issues

The Brady Handgun Control Act: Constitutional Issues

Date: October 25, 1995
Creator: Schrader, Dorothy
Description: The Brady Handgun Control Act established a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases, during which local law enforcement can make reasonable efforts to conduct background checks in available records and block and sales to convicted felons and other disqualified persons. This report reviews the background of federal gun control legislation, analyzes the conflict in the courts over the constitutionality under the Tenth Amendment of the duties placed on local law enforcement, and considers the implications of the decisions for Brady Act enforcement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Weapons of Mass Destruction - the Terrorist Threat

Weapons of Mass Destruction - the Terrorist Threat

Date: December 8, 1999
Creator: Bowman, Steven R & Barel, Helit
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996: A Summary

Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996: A Summary

Date: June 3, 1996
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 is the product of legislative efforts stretching back well over a decade and stimulated to passage in part by the tragedies in Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. This report summarizes the six titles of the Act, its sources, and related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA's Proposed Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Air Quality: EPA's Proposed Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Date: May 14, 1998
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently engaged in a series of regulatory actions to address the transport of ozone pollution in the eastern United States. This report reviews this situation with respect to an EPA-proposed Ozone Transport Rule and other activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA's Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Air Quality: EPA's Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Date: June 15, 1999
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments provided the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states with new tool to address the problem of interstate transport of air pollutants. This report discusses the actions undertaken as a direct result of this act, additional pollution reduction enforcement measures pursued by the EPA, and actions undertaken by states to reduce offending emissions not in compliance with these measures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2000

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2000

Date: December 13, 1999
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: Although Congress authorizes most federal programs for multiple years, it annually authorizes programs for national defense as well as appropriating funding for them each fiscal year. Of the activities traditionally authorized and funded, the Department of Defense (DOD) administers the following six environmental programs: environmental restoration, compliance, cleanup at base closure sites, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and natural resource conservation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Highway Fund Sanctions for Clean Air Act Violations

Highway Fund Sanctions for Clean Air Act Violations

Date: October 22, 1997
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorism: U.S. Response to Bombings in Kenya and Tanzania: A New Policy Direction?

Terrorism: U.S. Response to Bombings in Kenya and Tanzania: A New Policy Direction?

Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Perl, Raphael F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The D.C. Circuit Remands the Ozone and Particulate Matter Clean-Air Standards:

The D.C. Circuit Remands the Ozone and Particulate Matter Clean-Air Standards:

Date: June 10, 1999
Creator: Meltz, Robert & McCarthy, James E
Description: On May 14, 1999, in American Trucking Ass'ns v. EPA, a U.S. court of Appeals ruled that deficiencies in EPA's promulgation of new primary and secondary air quality standards required that they be remanded to the agency for further consideration. The decision is controversial, in part because the two-judge majority opinion relied principally on a long-moribund legal doctrine known as the nondelegation doctrine. The decision, if it survives appeal, will thus have implications for all delegations of congressional authority to agencies. In addition, its holding that the revised ozone ambient standard cannot be enforced has sparkled debate. By itself, however, the decision is unlikely to have major short-term effects on the ozone and particulate matter control programs
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Highway Fund Sanctions and Conformity Under the Clean Air Act

Highway Fund Sanctions and Conformity Under the Clean Air Act

Date: October 15, 1999
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia

Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia

Date: December 7, 1999
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: After several years of relative peace in Central Asia and southern Russia, Islamic extremist movements have become more active in Russia and in Central and South Asia, threatening stability in the region. Although numerous factors might account for the upsurge in activity, several of these movements appear to have connections to the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban regime in Afghanistan. These linkages raise questions about whether the United States, as part of a broader effort to promote peace and stability in the region, should continue to engage the Taliban regime, or strongly confront it. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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