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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Year: 1997
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

Date: March 20, 1997
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: One of the most persistent political issues facing Congress in recent years is whether to require that the budget of the United States be in balance. Although a balanced federal budget has long been held as a political ideal, the accumulation of large deficits in recent years has heightened concern that some action to require a balance between revenues and expenditures may be necessary. The debate over a balanced budget measure actually consists of several interrelated debates, which this report addresses.
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Environmental Protection Agency: FY1998 Budget

Environmental Protection Agency: FY1998 Budget

Date: October 14, 1997
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: EPA appropriations are included in the annual VA-HUD-Independent Agencies Appropriation Bill. Two major issues were whether Superfund cleanups should be accelerated in the absence of statutory reforms and whether the requested state assistance funds are adequate. Because the House and Senate were in agreement on not granting the requested 50% increase in Superfund and in passing increased state funds, the chief conference issue was expected to focus on the roughly $225 million difference between the House and Senate versions. However, a veto threat over Superfund program funding made this a key conference issue.
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Research and Development Funding: Fiscal Year 1998

Research and Development Funding: Fiscal Year 1998

Date: December 17, 1997
Creator: Davey, Michael E
Description: None
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Budget Reconciliation in the 105th Congress: Achieving a Balanced Budget by 2002

Budget Reconciliation in the 105th Congress: Achieving a Balanced Budget by 2002

Date: September 11, 1997
Creator: Koitz, David Stuart & Nuschler, Dawn
Description: Achievement of a balanced federal budget by 2002 was a high priority for the 105th Congress and the President. After months of negotiations and debate, starting in February 1997 and ending in July 1997, congressional leaders and the White House forged a consensus on legislation to accomplish this goal. The legislation, signed into law by President Clinton on August 5, 1997, sets “caps” on discretionary spending, constrains entitlement programs, and on balance reduces federal taxes.
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Congressional Budget Actions in 1997

Congressional Budget Actions in 1997

Date: January 8, 1997
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: In 1997, during the first session of the 105th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most of these measures will pertain to FY1998 and beyond, but some measures will make adjustments in the budget for the current fiscal year, FY1997. This issue brief describes House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements.
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A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Date: October 20, 1997
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources “for additional reading” are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth.
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The Department of Energy's FY1998 Budget

The Department of Energy's FY1998 Budget

Date: November 7, 1997
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: This issue brief describes the FY1998 request for DOE's major programs, its implications, and congressional action on the DOE budget. Table 1 at the end of the issue brief highlights the FY1998 DOE budget request. House and Senate marks and the final budget enacted will be included in revised versions as the appropriations bills move through the Congress.
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Amtrak: Federal Financial Assistance

Amtrak: Federal Financial Assistance

Date: January 10, 1997
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: This report discusses federal financial assistance to Amtrak, an intercity rail service created by Congress in 1971. It discusses the possibility of significantly reducing, or even eliminating, federal financial assistance to Amtrak, in an effort to reduce the federal budget deficit.
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Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices

Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices

Date: September 26, 1997
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: This report provides information on the history of continuing resolutions; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 30 years; the various types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when budget authority has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted.
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The Budget Enforcement Act of 1997

The Budget Enforcement Act of 1997

Date: October 8, 1997
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: President Clinton signed two reconciliation acts into law in August 1997 as part of a plan to balance the budget by FY2002. To ensure compliance with this goal, enforcement procedures were included in one of the acts in a title referred to separately as the Budget Enforcement Act (BEA) of 1997. The BEA of 1997 extends procedures under the Budget Enforcement Act (BEA) of 1990 through FY2002
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Conservation Reserve Program - Preliminary Results from the 15th Signup

Conservation Reserve Program - Preliminary Results from the 15th Signup

Date: April 18, 1997
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: This report includes a table listing, by state, the: Number of bids, or offers, received; Total acres offered for enrollment; Acres offered that are currently enrolled in the CRP; Acres offered are not currently enrolled in the CRP; Acres on which contracts expire on September 30, 1997; Percentage of acres currently in the program that were offered for reenrollment; and Percentage of acres offered that are not currently enrolled in the CRP.
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Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Policy Issues

Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Policy Issues

Date: February 24, 1997
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985, enables producers to bid to retire highly erodible or environmentally sensitive cropland, usually for 10 years. Participants receive annual rental and cost-sharing payments, and technical assistance to install approved plantings. Up to 36.4 million acres have been enrolled; current enrollment is estimated to be 32.9 million acres.
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Fiscal Year 1998 Continuing Resolutions

Fiscal Year 1998 Continuing Resolutions

Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: Congress annually considers 13 regular appropriations bills providing funding for agency operations. If any of these bills are not enacted by the start of the fiscal year (October 1), the nonessential activities of the agencies funded in the outstanding bills must cease. In those years in which all 13 bills are not enacted by the deadline, Congress adopts measures continuing funding until the regular bills are enacted. This report discusses these measures, which are referred to as continuing resolutions.
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Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund

Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund

Date: May 2, 1997
Creator: Talley, Louis Alan
Description: Since 1937, a cooperative program between the federal and state governments has existed for wildlife restoration. This program provides federal grants-in-aid to state agencies for conservation through land and water management for wild birds and mammals. While up to 8% of the collected revenues from excise taxes dedicated to the program may be retained by the federal government for administration, all remaining funds are apportioned to the states and territories for use either in wildlife restoration or hunter safety and education programs. Wildlife restoration programs receive all funds generated from the excise tax on firearms other than pistols and revolvers and all funds collected from shells and cartridges. Additionally, one-half of the excise taxes collected from pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment goes for wildlife restoration purposes. Hunter safety and education programs are funded from the remaining half of excise taxes collected on pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment. The states have been authorized by law to use hunter safety and education funds for wildlife restoration projects.
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The Department of Energy FY1998 Research and Development Budget and Issues

The Department of Energy FY1998 Research and Development Budget and Issues

Date: December 3, 1997
Creator: Rowberg, Richard E
Description: This report focuses on the R&D programs. DOE has divided its activities into four major business categories: Resource, Science and Technology, National Security, and Environmental Quality. Each has an R&D component, although the R&D funding is concentrated in the first three. Table 1 (on the next page) shows FY1997 R&D funding, the FY1998 request, and the FY1998 appropriation actions by those categories
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New Welfare Law: Comparison of the New Block Grant Program with Aid to Families with Dependent Children

New Welfare Law: Comparison of the New Block Grant Program with Aid to Families with Dependent Children

Date: October 6, 1997
Creator: Burke, Vee
Description: None
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Appropriations for FY1998: Interior and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY1998: Interior and Related Agencies

Date: December 24, 1997
Creator: Greenwood, Alfred R
Description: The annual Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations bill includes funding for agencies and programs in four separate federal departments, as well as numerous smaller agencies and diverse programs. This report discusses the FY1998 appropriations authorized under this bill.
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State Department and Related Agencies FY1998 Appropriations

State Department and Related Agencies FY1998 Appropriations

Date: December 10, 1997
Creator: Epstein, Susan B
Description: None
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DOD's Dual-Use Strategy

DOD's Dual-Use Strategy

Date: July 3, 1997
Creator: Moteff, John D.
Description: In an effort to reduce the costs of its military systems and gain greater access to state-of-the-art technologies, the Department of Defense is pursuing what is being called a "dual-use" strategy. This strategy seeks to make greater use of the commercial sector in developing and manufacturing military goods. This report discusses issues raised over the implementation of this strategy.
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FY1998 USDA Budget and Appropriations: Domestic Food Programs

FY1998 USDA Budget and Appropriations: Domestic Food Programs

Date: November 18, 1997
Creator: Jones, Jean Yavis
Description: None
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization Legislation: An Overview

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization Legislation: An Overview

Date: June 4, 1997
Creator: Aleman, Steven R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues

The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues

Date: March 26, 1997
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Description: The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA, P.L. 95-87), enacted in 1977, established reclamation standards for all coal surface mining operations, and for the surface effects of underground mining. It also established the Abandoned Mine Land (AML) program to promote the reclamation of sites mined and abandoned prior to the enactment of SMCRA. To finance reclamation of abandoned mine sites, the legislation established fees on coal production. These collections are divided into federal and state shares; subject to annual appropriation, AML funds are distributed annually to states with approved reclamation programs. This report describes the distribution of these funds and the various issues that arise from said distribution.
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