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 Decade: 1980-1989
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Commerical Television Broadcasting: An Economic Analysis of Its Structure and Competitive Alternatives
This report analyzes the economic structure of both the conventional commercial television broadcasting industry as well as the significant commercial competitive alternatives. Federal Communications Commission policies and their effect on the competitive structure and development of the television industry are also discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8145/
Imported Automobiles in the United States: Their Rising Market Share and the Macroeconomic Impact of a Proposed Import Restriction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8147/
Metropolitan School Desegregation
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High Interest Rates: Causes and Effects
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Prayer and Religion in the Public Schools: What Is, and Is Not, Permitted
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U.S./Soviet Military Balance: Statistical Trends, 1970-1980
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Trilateral Commission
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8707/
Grants Work in a Congressional Office
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Flat-Rate Tax Proposals
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Soft Versus Hard Energy Paths: An Analysis of the Debate
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Land Disposal Policies of the Principal Federal Land Management Agencies
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Recruiting, Retention, and Quality in the All-Volunteer Force
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Afghanistan: Soviet Invasion and U.S. Response
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan has raised a number of serious issues and choices for the United States. The train of events seem likely to have an important influence on overall American foreign policy in the 1980s. Reassessment of Soviet motives and of U.S. roles in the world are already in progress. Emerging American attitudes, in turn, will shape more specific policy decisions on several issues, which this issue brief discusses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8151/
An Economic Analysis and Brief Legislative Overview of Usury Ceilings
This report gives an economic analysis of usury ceilings, laws which set the maximum legal rate of interest to be charged on particular types of loans. It provides a brief overview of recent Federal l e g i s l a t i o n dealing with usury, with special emphasis on the Federal authorities mandated by P.L. 96-221, and the effectiveness of Federal preemption of State usury laws. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8157/
Soviet Policy Toward the Third World
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Assessing the Options for Preserving ICBM Survivability
The decision on how to redress the perceived vulnerability of U.S. intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMS) is the most controversial strategic nuclear weapon decision now facing the 97th Congress. A full-scale debate on this issue, especially as regards MX missile basing, seems certain. To assist Members of Congress in the debate, this paper discusses nine proposals for treating ICBM survivability: Recognize that ICBMs are invulnerable, rely only on bombers and submarines for deterrence, deploy a large or scaled-down shell-game multiple shelter system, defend MX with anti ballistic missiles, launch ICBMs on warning of attack, deploy MX on aircraft or small submarines, and diversify strategic forces, perhaps using small ICBMs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8158/
Increased U.S. Military Sales to China: Arguments and Alternatives
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Congressional Staffing: A Selected Annotated Bibliography
This bibliography provides the reader an overview of the growth, development, responsibilities, and duties of personal staffs of Senators and Representatives and the staffs of congressional committees, as seen and studied by academicians, journalists, former Members of the House and Senate, and former staff members. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8159/
Prohibiting Discrimination Against Handicapped Individuals in Federally Aided Programs: Section 504 of The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, As Amended
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8156/
A Functional Analysis of Congressional Member Office Operations
This report presents a general analysis of personal staff functions in a congressional office. Because there is little specific information from Congress and other sources regarding staff job descriptions and because congressional office organization patterns very significantly, this report focuses on the staff functions that are common to all offices regardless of organizational structure or job title: office management; mail; projects; casework; legislation; schedulng and personal services; press and public relations; and political functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8153/
Proposal to Map and Sequence the Human Genome
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Eighteen Questions and Answers About the World Bank
This paper provides background information about World Bank borrowing and lending activities and about U.S. participation in the Bank. Among other matters, it discusses where the World Bank borrows its funds, the amounts contributed by the United States and other countries, and changes i n World Bank priorities and loan policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8415/
Equal Rights Amendment (Proposed)
The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first introduced in 1923, and was passed by the Congress in 1972. In 1978, Congress extended the original deadline for ratification of the ERA. Thus, if it receives approval in the form of ratification by 38 States before June 30, 1982, the measure will become the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and will require equal treatment under Federal and State laws and practices for all persons, regardless of sex. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8412/
The Child Support Enforcement Program
This report provides summary information on the child support enforcement program, established under title IV-D of the Social Security Act. It includes basic program statistics and a description of the administrative structure and major characteristics of the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8411/
Major Trends in U.S. Foreign Assistance to Central America: 1978-1986
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8417/
The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 As Amended by P.L. 97-35, The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981
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Legal Right of Minors to Obtain Contraceptives
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Federal Laws Relating to the Control of Narcotics and Other Dangerous Drugs, Enacted 1961-1985: Brief Summaries
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Tax Reform Act of 1986: Public Law 99-514
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8419/
The Strategic Defense Initiative: Program Description and Major Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8416/
Sex Discrimination in Education: Title IX
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Human Rights in U.S. Foreign Relations: Six Key Questions in the Continuing Policy Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8397/
Corporate Mergers Through Tender Offers: Measurement and Public Policy Considerations
This report provides a perspective on the role of tender offers in corporate mergers and acquisitions and on the nature of financing used to carry them out. Analyzing SEC data on corporate takeovers, it classifies by industry those firms for which tender offers were made in 1979 and 1980 and examines the sources of funds used in these acquisition bids. Comparing SEC data with information compiled by FTC and others, it assesses the importance of tender offers in overall merger and acquisition activity. The report focuses mainly on domestic mergers, but foreign takeovers of U.S. companies also are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8398/
The Unfolding of the Reagan Energy Program: The First Year
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8399/
Social Security: The Cost-of-Living Adjustment (COLA) in January 1988
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Superconductivity Research and Technology in the Federal Government
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8882/
Superconducting Super Collider: Issues
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South Africa: U.S. Policy After Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8887/
Superconducting Super Collider
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Abortion: Legislative Control
In 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Constitution protects a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy (Roe v. Wade), and that a State may not unduly burden the exercise of that fundamental right by regulations that prohibit or substantially limit access to the means of effectuating that decision (Doe v. Bolton). However, the issue of a woman's right to an abortion is far from settled. This report discusses the various legislative actions undertaken since 1973 to either nullify these rulings or hinder their effectuation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8888/
Speed Limits for Motor Vehicles
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Abortion: Judicial Control
In 1973 the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Constitution protects a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy, Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, and that a State may not unduly burden the exercise of that fundamental right by regulations that prohibit or substantially limit access to the means of effectuating that decision, Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179. But rather than settling the issue, the Court's rulings have kindled heated debate and precipitated a variety of governmental actions at the national, State and local levels designed either to nullify the rulings or hinder their effectuation. This brief discusses this ongoing issue, highlighting judicial history and decisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8889/
Medicare: Physician Payments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8886/
Superconductivity: An Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8883/
Caribbean Basin Initiative
On August 5, 1983, President Reagan signed Public Law 98-67, which provides duty-free entry into the United States for certain Caribbean exports and allows U.S. business people to take tax deductions for the expense of attending conventions in the Caribbean region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8605/
School Prayer
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Busing for School Desegregation
The mandatory transportation of school children to desegregate public elementary and secondary schools is an issue of deep contention throughout our society. The House of Representatives has approved language for the Department of Justice FY82 authorization bill (H.R. 3462) restricting the Department's involvement in actions requiring school busing. On Mar. 2, 1962, t h e Senate approved the version of the Department of Justice F Y 8 2 authorization Bill (S. 951) with language restricting the Justice Department's involvement in busing actions as well as imposing limits on the busing plans Federal courts can impose. S. 551 was then sent to the House for consideration. Hearings on S. 951 before a house Judiciary subcommittee began on June 1'7, 1982. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8601/
Agent Orange: Veterans' Complaints Concerning Exposure to Herbicides in South Vietnam
From 1962 to 1971, the United States Air Force (USAF) sprayed various herbicide mixtures (chemicals that kill plants) in South Vietnam. The purpose of the spraying was to defoliate jungle growth to deprive the Communist forces of ground cover, and to destroy enemy crops to restrict food supplies. The most extensively used of these herbicide mixtures was known as Agent Orange, a 50:50 mix of two common herbicides called 1,4,5-T and 2,4-D (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). The third chemical present in the mixture in small amounts was TCDD, an inevitable by-product of the manufacture of 2,4,5-T. This chemical, called tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin or simply "dioxin," is highly toxic to laboratory animals when administered in its pure form. CRS has been unable to locate any report of a human death from exposure to pure TCDD. This report discusses the human health effects that have occurred from exposure to TCDD, as well as related Congressional concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8607/
Electoral Votes by State: Changes Resulting from the 1980 Census
This report presents a chart and a U.S. map describing the electoral votes by state and the changes resulted from the 1980 census. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8600/
Health Insurance: The Pro-Competition Proposals
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