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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
El Salvador: Background and U.S. Relations
This report examines current conditions in El Salvador as well as issues in U.S.-Salvadoran relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332866/
Social Security: Minimum Benefits
This report explains how the Special Minimum Primary Insurance Amount (PIA) functions under current law and presents arguments for and against expanding it. It then discusses criteria for evaluating proposals for change and describes some specific options for increasing benefits paid to people with low earnings or low income digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332973/
The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress
This report includes updated material that emphasizes the issues most prominently before the 113th Congress. It also discusses foundational information about major elements of campaign finance policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332864/
Unaccompanied Alien Children: An Overview
This report discusses the immigration problem regarding the number of unaccompanied alien children (UAC) arriving in the United States borders. The report discusses the scope of the problem, current policy challenges, and the processing and treatment of the UAC apprehended. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332897/
Wartime Detention Provisions in Recent Defense Authorization Legislation
This report offers a brief background of the salient issues raised by the detainee provisions of the FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), provides a section-by-section analysis, and discusses executive interpretation and implementation of the act's mandatory military detention provision. It also addresses detainee provisions in the 2013 NDAA and 2014 NDAA, as well as those found in the competing House and Senate defense authorization bills for FY2015. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332917/
Aliens' Right to Counsel in Removal Proceedings: In Brief
This report provides an overview of the various legal authorities governing aliens' right to counsel--as that term is broadly understood--in removal proceedings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332876/
Iraq Crisis and U.S. Policy
This report analyzes the offensive in northern and central Iraq led by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, aka ISIS) -- a Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group -- with a discussion of the offensive's implications, the U.S. response, and related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332984/
Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, and gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332907/
The Defense Production Act of 1950: History, Authorities, and Reauthorization
This report examines some of the history of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (DPA), focusing primarily on its creation and most recent legislative reauthorization. It also discusses the foremost active authorities of the DPA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332993/
High-Frequency Trading: Background, Concerns, and Regulatory Developments
This report provides an overview of high-frequency trading (HFT) in the equities and derivatives markets regulated by the SEC and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). It also examines the Flash Crash of 2010 and the role that HFT may have played, as well as recent regulatory developments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332977/
Legislation to Approve the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Hydrocarbons Agreement
This report discusses the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Hydrocarbons Agreement and analyzes relevant legislative initiatives (S. 812 and H.R. 1613) and other legislative action surrounding Congress's approval of the Agreement (P.L. 113-67). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332934/
Membership in the United Nations and Its Specialized Agencies
This report highlights key steps in the process for attaining membership in the United Nations and its specialized agencies. It discusses the capacities associated with U.N. membership and observer status, as well as criteria for and implications of membership. It also examines related U.S. legislation and recent congressional and Obama Administration actions digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332878/
Thailand: Background and U.S. Relations
This report looks at the relationship between the U.S. and Thailand, in particular, recent rivalries between populist political forces, nepotism in government, and Thai relationships with neighboring countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332882/
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report focuses on the Ohio replacement program as a Navy shipbuilding program. This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc333014/
The Project BioShield Act: Issues for the 113th Congress
This report provides a brief overview of the Project BioShield authorities and appropriations, identifies the medical countermeasures obtained through Project BioShield, reviews the relationship between Project BioShield and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), and discusses policy issues for congressional policy makers and related legislation in the 113th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332920/
Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the President's veto power, including regular vetoes and pocket vetoes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332861/
The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions
This report discusses potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service through an examination of the Service's history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332961/
Federal Building and Facility Security: Frequently Asked Questions
This report discusses the security of federal government buildings and facilities that affect not only the daily operations of the federal government but also the health, well-being, and safety of federal employees and the public. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332901/
Physical Security of the U.S. Power Grid: High-Voltage Transformer Substations
This report discusses the electric power industry which consists of electric power grid of over 200,000 miles of high-voltage transmission lines. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332888/
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables
The report contains information on congressional pay procedure and recent adjustments. It includes historical information on pay rates since 1789; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared to actual adjustments in Member pay; details on past legislation enacted with language prohibiting the annual pay adjustment; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332922/
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt
This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332921/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses the state of Iraqi politics, governance, and human rights, including the worsening relations between local Sunni and Shiite populations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc333000/
Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers
This report provides insight to reserve component personnel issues through a series of questions and answers. This report is designed to provide an overview of key reserve component personnel issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332935/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332929/
Unaccompanied Alien Children: An Overview
This report discusses the immigration problem regarding the number of unaccompanied alien children (UAC) arriving in the United States borders. The report discusses the scope of the problem, current policy challenges, and the processing and treatment of the UAC apprehended. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332874/
Offender Reentry: Correctional Statistics, Reintegration into the Community, and Recidivism
This report provides background information regarding the prison population in the United States that has been growing steadily for more than 30 years. The report presents correctional system statistics and discusses the federal government's involvement in offender reentry programs and the Second Chance Act (P.L. 110-199) that was enacted on April 9, 2008. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332951/
U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress
This report discusses policy issues regarding military-to-military contacts with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and provides a record of major contacts and crises since 1993. The first part of this report discusses policy issues regarding such contacts. The second part provides a record of such contacts since 1993, when the United States resumed exchanges after suspending them in response to the Tiananmen Crackdown in 1989. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc333008/
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act: History, Impact, and Issues
This report examines debates regarding what constitutes an "unfunded federal mandate" and the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995's (UMRA) implementation, requirements, and costs. It also assesses UMRA's impact on federal mandates and arguments concerning UMRA's future. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332913/
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current state of Bahrain, which has undergone substantial political reforms since the late 1990s, but which still suffers from tension between the Shiite majority and the Sunni-led government. It focuses particularly on Bahrain's relationship with Iran and with the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332863/
Federal Funding for Health Insurance Exchanges
This report provides a state-by-state breakdown of the health insurance exchange grants awarded to date. It then briefly describes the requirement for exchanges to be selfsustaining, and concludes with a discussion of the sources and amounts of funding that Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has used and plans to use to support federally-facilitated exchange (FFE) operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332933/
Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the revolution and post-conflict transition in Libya, triggered in mid-February 2011 by a chain of events resulting in the death of the Prime Minister (Qadhafi); a new government was elected in July. The report also looks at the military and economic state of the country, including human rights, Islam and politics, and Libya's oil assets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332964/
Proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP): In Brief
This report provides a brief overview of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP), and discusses the congressional interest, market access, regulatory issues, and trade-related rules. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332857/
Receipt of Unemployment Insurance by Higher-Income Unemployed Workers ("Millionaires")
This report addresses many of the questions that have arisen regarding proposals to restrict unemployment benefits for the wealthy, including the potential number of people who would be affected and the potential savings to federal and state governments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332890/
EPA's Proposed Greenhouse Gas Regulations for Existing Power Plants: Frequently Asked Questions
This report summarizes the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) proposal regarding greenhouse gas regulations. In addition to discussing details of the proposed rule, the report addresses a number of questions regarding the reasons for the proposal; the EPA's authority under Section 111 of the CAA; the EPA's previous experience using that authority; the steps the agency must take to finalize the proposed rule; and various other background questions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332959/
Immigration: Visa Security Policies
The report includes an overview of visa issuance policy and explains the key provisions that guide the documentary requirements and approval/disapproval process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc333005/
Dynamic Scoring for Tax Legislation: A Review of Models
This report first explains dynamic scoring, including the types of effects incorporated and the types of models used, as well as what groups conduct or have conducted macroeconomic analysis of tax changes. The following section discusses the specific issues associated with tax reform. The final section discusses general issues surrounding the use of various models and reviews the empirical evidence on supply side responses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332891/
Hatch Act: Candidacy for Office by Federal Employees in the Executive Branch
This report provides information on the permissibility, under federal law, of a federal employee in an agency or department of the executive branch of government being a candidate for elective office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc333012/
Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy
This report offers background information on Ukraine's current political and economic situation, and foreign policy towards NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization), the European Union, and Russia. It also discusses U.S. policy, U.S. aid to Ukraine, the congressional response, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332900/
Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress
This report presents policy and oversight issues for Congress arising from maritime territorial disputes involving China in the South China Sea (SCS), East China Sea (ECS), and an additional dispute over whether China has a right under international law to regulate U.S. and other foreign military activities in its maritime Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332969/
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific relevant topics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332908/
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress
This report focuses on the potential implications of China's naval modernization for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. The report particularly discusses how potential United States responses to China's military modernization effort -- including its naval modernization effort -- have emerged as a key issue in U.S. defense planning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306552/
Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's programs for procuring 8 National Security Cutters (NSCs), 25 Offshore Patrol Cutters (OPCs), and 58 Fast Response Cutters (FRCs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332937/
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet, which performs a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. The report is written in response to the Coast Guard's budget request for a new polar ice breaker (none are currently in operation). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332999/
Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of the key issues for Congress related to Egypt and information on U.S. foreign aid to Egypt. It briefly provides a political history of modern Egypt, an overview of its political institutions, and a discussion of the prospects for democratization in Egypt, as well as addressing the following current topics: the Arab-Israeli peace process, Iraq, terrorism, democratization and reform, human rights, trade, and military cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306543/
The National Science Foundation: Background and Selected Policy Issues
This report includes background information about the National Science Foundation (NSF), providing an introduction to the foundation and its work as institutional context for ongoing congressional consideration of NSF policy and fiscal issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc333011/
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including the definition of Navy IW activities and how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306483/
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306438/
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Is It a Health Emergency?
This report describes key Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) response activities and the emergency authorities available to health officials when routine activities are insufficient to address a public health threat. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332902/
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. Congressional decisions concerning these programs could substantially affect Navy capabilities, and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306477/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and presents potential issues for Congress concerning the Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans, including the planned size of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and prospective affordability. Congressional decisions on Navy shipbuilding programs can substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306491/