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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier program. Congress's decisions on the CVN-78 program could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847638/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program, a program to procure a large number of LCSs and modified LCSs. Congress's decisions on the LCS/Frigate program will affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847609/
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847713/
Supreme Court Vacancies That Arose During One Presidency and Were Filled During a Different Presidency
This report provides data and analysis related to Supreme Court vacancies since 1797 that arose during one presidency and were filled during a different presidency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847673/
Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's programs for procuring 8 National Security Cutters (NSCs), 25 Offshore Patrol Cutters (OPCs), and 58 Fast Response Cutters (FRCs). Congress's decisions on these three programs could substantially affect Coast Guard capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847530/
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet. Congress's decisions on this issue could affect Coast Guard funding requirements, the Coast Guard's ability to perform its polar missions, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847583/
High Frequency Trading: Overview of Recent Developments
This report provides background on various High-frequency trading (HFT) strategies and some associated policy issues, recent regulatory developments and selected enforcement actions by the SEC and Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), on HFT, and congressional action such as proposed legislation and hearings related to HFT. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847719/
Security Assistance and Cooperation: Shared Responsibility of the Departments of State and Defense
This report provides an overview of U.S. assistance to and engagement with foreign military and other security forces, focusing on Department of State and DOD roles. It lays out the historical evolution and current framework of the Department of State-DOD shared responsibility. It concludes with a brief overview of salient issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847538/
Calling Up Business on the Senate Floor
This report outlines processes or customs most often used by the Senate and then discusses some procedures less often used to call up business. The Senate takes up measures and matters under procedures set in Senate rules and by long-standing customs, thereby giving it flexibility in setting its floor agenda. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847527/
EPA Policies Concerning Integrated Planning and Affordability of Water Infrastructure
This report examines recent initiatives by EPA, an integrated planning policy, and a framework policy for assessing a community's financial capability to meet objectives and requirements of the Clean Water Act (CWA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847621/
High Frequency Trading: Overview of Recent Developments
This report provides background on various High-frequency trading (HFT) strategies and some associated policy issues, recent regulatory developments and selected enforcement actions by the SEC and Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), on HFT, and congressional action such as proposed legislation and hearings related to HFT. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847594/
Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on maritime territorial and exclusive economic zone (EEZ) disputes in the East China (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS) involving China, with a focus on how these disputes may affect U.S. strategic and policy interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847639/
Supreme Court Appointment Process: President's Selection of a Nominee
This report discusses the process for appointing Supreme Court Justices. Each appointment to the nine-member Court is of consequence because of the enormous judicial power that the Court exercises, separate from, and independent of, the executive and legislative branches. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847728/
Telemarketing Regulation: National and State Do Not Call Registries
This report will outline the laws underpinning the National Do Not Call List; describe the regulations implementing the list; answer some of the most frequently asked questions related to the list; and discuss the possible penalties for violating the rules. The report will also briefly discuss some of the ways the various states have implemented their own do not call lists. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847508/
Temporarily Filling Presidentially Appointed, Senate-Confirmed Positions
This report examines several authorities by which a vacant presidentially appointed, Senate-confirmed position can be filled temporarily without going through the Senate confirmation process.. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847563/
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities. Decisions that Congress reaches on this issue could affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the U.S. defense industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847569/
Medicare Primer
This report provides a general overview of the Medicare program including descriptions of the program's history, eligibility criteria, covered services, provider payment systems, and program administration and financing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847725/
Congressional Efforts to Amend Title I of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
This report examines selected differences between the House and the Senate legislation that would amend Title I of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA; 15 U.S.C. 2601-2629). Title I of TSCA is the principal federal statute that applies to the regulation of the lifecycle of commercial chemicals from their manufacture (defined to include importation) to disposal if elements of the lifecycle are found to present unreasonable risks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847602/
Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents
This report provides links to cybersecurity-related committee hearings in the 112th, 113th, and 114th Congresses. It also provides a list of executive orders and presidential directives pertaining to information and computer security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847784/
Mexico: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of political and economic conditions in Mexico, followed by assessments of some key issues of congressional interest in Mexico: security and foreign aid, extraditions, human rights, trade, migration, energy, education, and water issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847689/
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense--Issues for Congress
This report briefly describes the shift in the international security environment that some observers believe has occurred, and identifies some defense related issues for Congress that could arise from it. Congress's decisions on these issues could have significant implications for U.S. defense capabilities and funding requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847723/
Additional U.S. Ground Troops to Counter the Islamic State? Five Questions
This report addresses common questions regarding Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR)--the military campaign to counter the Islamic State (IS)--which has three primary components: coordinated air strikes, training and equipping local security forces, and targeted special operations based out of northern Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847558/
The Article V Convention to Propose Constitutional Amendments: Contemporary Issues for Congress
Article V of the U.S. Constitution provides two ways to amend the nation's fundamental charter. Congress, by a two-thirds vote of both houses, may propose amendments to the states for ratification, a procedure that has been used for all 27 current amendments. This report identifies a range of policy questions Congress might face if an Article V Convention seemed imminent. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847598/
European Security and Islamist Terrorism
This report discusses challenges the European Union faces in light of the continuing threat of Terrorism at the hands of the Islamic State and the implications for U.S. policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847779/
Nigeria's Boko Haram: Frequently Asked Questions
This report explores several questions that have been often asked in relation to the Boko Haram, a violent Islamist insurgent group originally based in northeast Nigeria, the impact of its attacks, and the response of the Nigerian government and other international actors, including the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847731/
The Pacific Alliance: A Trade Integration Initiative in Latin America
This report provides an overview of the structure of the Pacific Alliance, events leading up to its creation, and the economic significance of the Member countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847590/
Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy
This report provides an overview of the situation in Ukraine. Following the February 2014 collapse of the Kremlin-supported government of President Viktor Yanukovych, there was an emergence of a pro-Western, pro-reform government and an energized public generally anxious to lessen Moscow's influence, committed to addressing the need for serious reform and determined to draw closer to Europe and the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847579/
Abortion and Whole Woman's Health v. Hellerstedt
This report examines Whole Woman's Health v. Cole, the Fifth Circuit's decision, as well as the undue burden standard, and the contrasting approaches used by the federal appellate courts to determine whether an abortion regulation imposes an undue burden on a woman's ability to have an abortion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847742/
Burma's 2015 Parliamentary Elections: Issues for Congress
This report discusses Burma's nationwide parliamentary elections held on November 8, 2015. The victory of Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy (NLD) against President Thein Sein's Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) may alter the path of the country's political development. As a consequence, the Obama Administration and/or Congress may seek to adjust U.S. policies and the current approach to U.S. relations with Burma. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847678/
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt
This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847528/
Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, and gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847660/
Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): History and Overview
This report provides an overview of the history of science and technology (S&T) advice to the President and discusses selected recurrent issues for Congress regarding OSTP's Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847688/
Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas and Crude Oil: Federal and State Regulatory Authority
This report discusses the relationship between federal and state authority over siting and safety of crude oil and natural gas transmission and gathering pipelines and related facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847567/
U.S.-South Korea Relations
This report contains two main parts: a section describing recent events and a longer background section on key elements of the U.S.-South Korea relationship. The end of the report provides a list of CRS products on South Korea and North Korea. The report identifies South Korean individuals by using their last name first. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847744/
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues. The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities in the Arctic, and has heightened interest in, and concerns about, the region's future. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847749/
Commemorative Days, Weeks, and Months: Background and Current Practice
This report summarizes the different types of commemorative time periods--federal holidays; patriotic and national observances; and commemorative days, weeks, and months. Second, it discusses the current rules in the House and Senate that govern this type of legislation. Finally, the report discusses options for Congress, including introducing legislation in the House and Senate, and asking the president to issue a proclamation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847697/
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. Congress's decisions regarding Navy IW and CT operations can affect Navy operations and funding requirements, and the implementation of the nation's overall IW and CT strategies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847549/
President Obama's Historic Visit to Cuba
This report briefly discusses the details of President Obama's visit to Cuba. Before the trip, the White House set forth the goals of the visit, stating that the President would build on progress toward normalizing relations, including advancing commercial and people-to-people ties and expressing support for human rights. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847674/
U.S. Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy: Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides information and context for trade topics. It is intended to assist Members and staff who may be new to trade issues. The report is divided into four sections in a question-and-answer format: trade concepts; U.S. trade performance; formulation of U.S. trade policy; and trade and investment issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847631/
The Chinese Military: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides a brief overview of the Chinese military. In order to cover a wide range of issues in a concise format, the report does not go into great depth on many topics and omits other topics that might be considered germane. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847539/
Excise Tax on High-Cost Employer-Sponsored Health Coverage: In Brief
This report provides an overview of the excise tax. The report includes cost estimates for the excise tax and explores the excise tax's relationship with the tax advantages for employer-sponsored health coverage. The information in this report is based on statute and two notices issued by the Department of the Treasury (Treasury) and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847499/
The Federal Budget: Overview and Issues for FY2017 and Beyond
This report summarizes issues surrounding the federal budget and discusses policy changes relevant to the budget framework for FY2017. It also discusses the major policy proposals included in the President's FY2017 budget and, when available, the House and Senate budget resolutions. Finally, this report addresses major short- and long-term fiscal challenges facing the federal government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847580/
What's the Difference?--Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data
This report discusses the size of the U.S. bilateral trade deficit with China, which continues to be an important issue in bilateral trade relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847581/
Eligibility and Determination of Health Insurance Premium Tax Credits and Cost-Sharing Subsidies: In Brief
Certain individuals without access to subsidized health insurance coverage may be eligible for premium tax credits, as established under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended). This report examines these tax credits and their eligibility requirements, as well as cost-sharing subsidies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847648/
Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress
This report provides a definition regarding Internet governance and how the Internet is currently governed, and discusses the role of United States government and future model of Internet governance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847658/
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides some examples, based on open sources, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847716/
Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC), which are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847628/
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy. Rules for giving certain types of names to certain types of Navy ships have evolved over time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847510/
Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons
This report provides basic information about U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons. The report reviews the issues that have been raised with regard to U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons, and summarizes a number of policy options that might be explored by Congress, the United States, Russia, and other nations to address these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847523/
Argentina: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides information and analysis relevant for Congress on the following: Assessments of U.S.-Turkey relations, Turkish foreign policy, and Turkey's strategic orientation, Turkish efforts to cooperate with the United States against the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq, and key issues regarding Turkey's domestic politics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847669/