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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
European Fighters in Syria and Iraq: Assessments, Responses, and Issues for the United States
This report discusses U.S. and European assessments of and responses to the foreign fighter phenomenon. It focuses on government policies primarily in Western European countries and analyzes EU measures to counter the foreign fighter threat given the EU's largely open internal borders and that 23 EU member states belong to the U.S. Visa Waiver Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627136/
Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and the Role of Congress in Trade Policy
This report presents background and analysis on the development of Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), which expired on July 1, 2007. The report also includes a summary of the major provisions under the recently expired authority and a discussion of the issues that have arisen in the debate over TPA renewal, as well as policy options available to Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627002/
Women in Congress, 1917-2015: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress
This report includes biographical information, including the names, committee assignments, dates of service, listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 313 women who have been elected or appointed to Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627155/
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626879/
Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal
This report looks at the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), Yucca Mountain, and the Obama Administration's de-funding of Yucca Mountain. Federal policy is based on the premise that nuclear waste can be disposed of safely, but proposed storage and disposal facilities have frequently been challenged on safety, health, and environmental grounds. Most of the current debate surrounding civilian radioactive waste focuses on highly radioactive spent fuel from nuclear power plants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627148/
FY2016 Military Construction Appropriations: President's Request and House Markup Compared
This report briefly discusses the financing of military construction. Military construction is normally funded through Title I of the Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies appropriations bill and provides funding for the planning, design, construction, alteration, and improvement of facilities used by active and reserve military components worldwide. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627201/
Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive
This report provides information and analysis relevant for Congress on the following: Assessments of U.S.-Turkey relations, Turkish foreign policy, and Turkey's strategic orientation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627098/
Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues regarding U.S.-Japan economic relations, since the economic condition of each nation can affect the world economy and a U.S.-Japan bilateral economic relationship could influence economic conditions in other countries. U.S. and Japanese leaders have several options on how to manage their relationship. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626927/
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions
This report begins with links to contacts for specific ACA questions. The report provides basic consumer sources, including a glossary of health coverage terms. It also provides sources on the ACA's provisions on mental health, public health, workforce, quality, and taxes. Finally, the report lists sources on ACA costs and appropriations, legal issues, the treatment of noncitizens under the ACA, and sources for obtaining the law's full text. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627086/
2014 Farm Bill Provisions and WTO Compliance
This report briefly describes the relevant World Trade Organization (WTO) rules governing domestic support programs under the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM). The report then reviews the current U.S. farm safety net programs in light of their potential for compliance with the AoA and SCM and their potential to affect the success of the current Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626945/
African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA): Background and Reauthorization
This report discusses the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), which is a nonreciprocal trade preference program that provides duty-free treatment to U.S. imports of certain products from eligible sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505522/
An Analysis of the Regulatory Burden on Small Banks
This report explains the concept of regulatory burden and the different ways it can be manifested. It analyzes whether small banks are relatively more burdened by regulation than big banks. To help answer that question, the report looks at the relative treatment of small and large banks in recent major regulatory proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626873/
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet, which performs a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626975/
Commemorations in Congress: Options for Honoring Individuals, Groups, and Events
This report summarizes the evolution of commemorative legislation as well as the laws, rules, and procedures that have been adopted to control the types of commemoratives considered and enacted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626960/
Franking Privilege: Historical Development and Options for Change
This report provides a history of the Congressional franking privilege and discusses the franking privilege that has carried an element of controversy throughout American history. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505480/
Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress
This report considers potential implications for U.S.-China relations. China's actions for asserting and defending its maritime territorial and exclusive economic zone (EEZ) claims in the East China (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS), particularly since late 2013, have heightened concerns among observers that ongoing disputes over these waters and some of the islands within them could lead to a crisis or conflict between China and a neighboring country such as Japan, the Philippines, or Vietnam. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627117/
An Overview of Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas: Resources and Federal Actions
This report focuses on the growth in U.S. oil and natural gas production driven primarily by tight oil formations and shale gas formations. It also reviews selected federal environmental regulatory and research initiatives related to unconventional oil and gas extraction, including the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) hydraulic fracturing rule (finalized in March 2015) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505537/
Social Media in the House of Representatives: Frequently Asked Questions
This report answers several questions about the regulation of social media accounts in the House of Representatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627156/
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran. U.S. sanctions have been a major feature of U.S. Iran policy since Iran's 1979 Islamic revolution, but U.N. and worldwide bilateral sanctions on Iran are a relatively recent (post-2006) development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505433/
Israel After the 2015 Elections: What Does Netanyahu's Victory Mean for U.S. Policy?
This report discusses the U.S. policy towards Israel after prime minister Binyamin Netanyahu's victory in 2015 elections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505523/
Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Comparison of H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731
This report compares provisions in two bills in the House of Representatives that address information sharing and related activities in cybersecurity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505493/
Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses a number of frequently asked questions regarding the reauthorization of the Trade Promotion Authority and pending legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505455/
U.S.-China Nuclear Cooperation Agreement
This CRS Report discusses renewal of the peaceful nuclear cooperation agreement between the United States and the People's Republic of China (PRC). The current agreement was signed in 1985 and implemented in 1998. The agreement is set to expire on December 30, 2015, and a new agreement is expected to be submitted for congressional review in spring 2015. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505377/
U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications
This report provides an overview of U.S.-Mexico trade and economic trends, the Mexican economy, the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and major trade issues between the United States and Mexico. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505406/
U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications
This report provides an overview of U.S.-Mexico economic relations, trade trends, the Mexican economy, NAFTA, and trade issues between the United States and Mexico. It will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626966/
Attribution in Cyberspace: Challenges for U.S. Law Enforcement
This report discusses criminal attribution in the cyber security realm. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505591/
Cuba: Issues for the 114th Congress
This report is divided into three major sections analyzing Cuba's political and economic environment, U.S. policy toward Cuba, and selected issues in U.S.-Cuban relations. While legislative initiatives are noted throughout the report where appropriate, a final section of the report provides a listing of bills and resolutions introduced in the 114th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505506/
Access to Broadband Networks: The Net Neutrality Debate
This report discusses the current debate over "net neutrality." While there is no single accepted definition of "net neutrality," most agree that any such definition should include the general principles that owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet should not control how consumers lawfully use that network, and they should not be able to discriminate against content provider access to that network. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505574/
ARPA-E and the FY2016 Budget Request
This budget and appropriations tracking report describes selected major items from the Administration's FY2016 budget request for ARPA-E and tracks legislative action on FY2016 appropriations to the agency. It also provides selected historical funding data. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505361/
Domestic Human Trafficking Legislation in the 114th Congress
This report discusses domestic human trafficking-related issues that have received legislative action or are of significant interest in the 114th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505478/
FEMA's Public Assistance Grant Program: Background and Considerations for Congress
This report provides background on key elements of the FEMA's Public Assistance Program, such as the eligibility of applicants, the types of assistance available, and the methods FEMA uses for awarding grant assistance. The PA Program provides financial grant assistance to states, tribes, and local communities both in the response to and recovery from significant disasters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505556/
Iraq: Politics, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505550/
The Mental Health Workforce: A Primer
This report begins with a working definition of the mental health workforce and a brief discussion of alternative definitions. It then describes three dimensions of the mental health workforce that may influence quality of care, access to care, and costs of care. The report then briefly discusses how these dimensions of the mental health workforce might inform certain policy discussions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505349/
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before NAFTA, an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505413/
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before NAFTA, an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626952/
State Sponsors of Acts of International Terrorism--Legislative Parameters: In Brief
This report provides information on legislation that authorizes the designation of any foreign government as a state sponsor of acts of international terrorism. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505544/
2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force: Issues Concerning Its Continued Application
This report discusses the Congress-enacted legislation (2001 AUMF; P.L. 107-40; 50 U.S.C. ยง1541) to authorize the use of military force against those who perpetrated or provided support for the attacks on September 11, 2001. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505530/
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses
This report discusses the reasons that Iran is considered a threat to U.S. security, including Iran's nuclear program, involvement with terrorist organizations, and involvement with neighboring countries' local governments. It also discusses ways in which the U.S. hopes to modify Iran's behavior with sanctions, and the effectiveness of these sanctions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505398/
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
This report examines developments in U.S. policy restricting travel and remittances to Cuba, including significant changes that have occurred, current permissible travel and remittances, enforcement of the travel restrictions, and debate on lifting the travel restrictions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505602/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505596/
Islamic State Financing and U.S. Policy Approaches
This report discusses the U.S. policy approaches for countering the financial resources of the Islamic State, which has seized significant territory in Iraq and Syria and threatened to conduct attacks against the United States and its citizens. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505417/
IMF Reforms: Issues for Congress
This report provides information about the reforms made by the Board of Governors of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in December 2010, Congress's role in the reform process, and how the reforms could affect U.S. interests at the IMF. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505420/
Iran: Efforts to Achieve a Nuclear Accord
This report discusses Iran's nuclear program and diplomatic efforts to forge a comprehensive agreement to keep that program peaceful. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505499/
El Salvador: Background and U.S. Relations
This report examines current conditions in El Salvador, as well as issues in U.S.-Salvadoran relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505582/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2016 Budget and Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the FY2016 State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (SFOPS) request, a discussion of key issues and historic context, and account-by-account funding comparisons with FY2014 actuals and FY2015 estimates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626924/
U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress
This report covers Special Operations Forces (SOF) budgets for FY2014 and expected uses of the budgeted money. SOF actions play a significant role in U.S. military operations, and the Administration has given U.S. SOF greater responsibility for planning and conducting worldwide counterterrorism operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505646/
U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress
This report covers Special Operations Forces (SOF) budgets for FY2014 and expected uses of the budgeted money. SOF actions play a significant role in U.S. military operations, and the Administration has given U.S. SOF greater responsibility for planning and conducting worldwide counterterrorism operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627228/
Barriers Along the U.S. Borders: Key Authorities and Requirements
This report discusses key statutory authorities and requirements governing the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) construction of barriers along the U.S. borders. It also includes appendixes listing federal laws that have been waived by DHS in furtherance of border construction projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505491/
Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Program Overview and Issues
This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program. The program was intended to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects that were needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to meet the Act's health objectives. It includes an overview of funding, allotments and set-asides, drinking water infrastructure needs, program issues, and legislative activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505644/
Marijuana: Medical and Retail-- Selected Legal Issues
This report discusses the federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA) as it pertains to marijuana. The CSA outlaws the possession, cultivation, and distribution of marijuana except for authorized research. More than 20 states have regulatory schemes that allow possession, cultivation, and distribution of marijuana for medicinal purposes. The U.S. Constitution's Supremacy Clause preempts any state law that conflicts with federal law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505580/