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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Country: Iraq
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Islam: Sunnis and Shiites

Islam: Sunnis and Shiites

Date: November 9, 2010
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Description: The majority of the world's Muslim population follows the Sunni branch of Islam, and approximately 10%-15% of all Muslims follow the Shiite (Shi'ite, Shi'a, Shia) branch. Shiite populations constitute a majority in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, and Azerbaijan. Sunnis and Shiites share most basic religious tenets. However, their differences sometimes have been the basis for religious intolerance, political infighting, and sectarian violence. This report includes a historical background of the Sunni-Shiite split and discusses the differences in religious beliefs and practices between and within each Islamic sect as well as their similarities. The report also relates Sunni and Shiite religious beliefs to discussions of terrorism and sectarian violence that may be of interest to Congress.
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Veterans and Homelessness

Veterans and Homelessness

Date: November 4, 2010
Creator: Perl, Libby
Description: This report discusses several issues relating to homelessness among veterans, which has become more prominent since the beginning of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.
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Intelligence Issues for Congress

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Date: October 14, 2010
Creator: Best, Jr., Richard A.
Description: To address the challenges facing the U.S. intelligence community in the 21st century, congressional and executive branch initiatives have sought to improve coordination among the different agencies and to encourage better analysis. This report discusses these challenges and efforts the current and previous Administrations and Congresses have taken and are taking to address them. The report includes criticism of the intelligence community's efforts regarding Iraq, Iran, and other areas. Improved analysis remains a key goal in these discussions.
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Iraq Casualties: U.S. Military Forces and Iraqi Civilians, Police, and Security Forces

Iraq Casualties: U.S. Military Forces and Iraqi Civilians, Police, and Security Forces

Date: October 7, 2010
Creator: Fischer, Hannah
Description: This report presents U.S. military casualties as well as governmental and nongovernmental estimates of Iraqi civilian, police, and security forces casualties.
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Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Date: October 4, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, has been increasingly characterized by peaceful competition, as well as by attempts to form cross-sectarian alliances. However, ethnic and factional infighting continues, sometimes involving the questionable use of key levers of power and legal institutions. This report discusses the current political climate of Iraq and also explores speculations as to what will happen after U.S. troops completely withdraw from the region at the end of 2011.
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The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
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Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: September 28, 2010
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy for several years has carried out a variety of irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) activities, and has taken some steps in recent years to strengthen its ability to conduct such activities. Among the most readily visible of the Navy's current IW operations are those being carried out by Navy sailors serving ashore in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including the definition of Navy IW activities, specific Navy IW budget priorities, and how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets.
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U.S. Military Casualty Statistics: Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom

U.S. Military Casualty Statistics: Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom

Date: September 28, 2010
Creator: Fischer, Hannah
Description: This report presents difficult-to-find statistics regarding U.S. military casualties in Operation New Dawn (OND), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF, Afghanistan), including those concerning post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), amputations, evacuations, and the demographics of casualties. Some of these statistics are publicly available at the Department of Defense's (DOD's) website, while others have been obtained through contact with experts at DOD. Daily updates of total U.S. military casualties in OND, OIF, and OEF can be found at the DOD's website, at http://www.defenselink.mil/news/casualty.pdf.
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Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Date: September 22, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Much of the debate over U.S. policy toward Iran has centered on the nature of the current regime; some believe that Iran, a country of about 70 million people, is a threat to U.S. interests because hardliners in Iran's regime dominate and set a policy direction intended to challenge U.S. influence and allies in the region. President George W. Bush, in his January 29, 2002, State of the Union message, labeled Iran part of an "axis of evil" along with Iraq and North Korea.
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Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress

Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress

Date: September 20, 2010
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey
Description: This report will examine logistical support contracts for troop support services (also known as service contracts) in Iraq and Afghanistan, primarily administered through a smaller program, the United States Air Force Contract Augmentation Program (AFCAP) and a larger program, the United States Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). This report will focus primarily on contracts involving Department of Defense (DOD) appropriated funds, although some projects involve a blending of funds from other agencies.
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