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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 201 - 250 of 38,232
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U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: The Mérida Initiative and Beyond
This report begins with a brief discussion of security challenges in Mexico and Mexico's security strategy. It then provides information on congressional funding and oversight of the Mérida Initiative, with details about each of the program's four pillars. The report concludes by raising policy issues that Congress may wish to consider. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824428/
Use of the Annual Appropriations Process to Block Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (FY2011-FY2016)
This report summarizes the language related to the Affordable Care (ACA) that was added to annual appropriations legislation by congressional appropriators since the ACA was signed into law. The information is presented in a table. While a detailed examination of the ACA itself is beyond the scope of this report, a brief overview of the ACA's core provisions and its impact on federal spending is provided as context for the material in the table. Congress remains deeply divided over implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which President Obama signed into law in March 2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824565/
Using Data to Improve Defense Acquisitions: Background, Analysis, and Questions for Congress
This report examines (1) the extent to which the Department of Defense (DOD) effectively uses data to inform decisionmaking, (2) some of the critical elements needed for DOD to use data more effectively, (3) recent efforts to improve DOD's use of data, and (4) potential questions for Congress. This report focuses primarily (but not exclusively) on defense acquisitions as a case study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824544/
Water Quality Issues in the 114th Congress: An Overview
This report discusses the legislative and oversight issues regarding water quality, as well as wastewater treatment funding issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824610/
Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding
This report discusses the federal funding of firefighters, though most funding for firefighters is provided by state and local governments. During the 1990s, shortfalls in state and local budgets, coupled with increased responsibilities of local fire departments, led many in the fire community to call for additional financial support from the federal government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824604/
EPA and the Army Corps' Rule to Define "Waters of the United States"
This report describes the revised rule of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) which defines the scope of waters protected under the Clean Water Act (CWA). Agencies refer to this final rule as the Clean Water Rule. This report includes a table comparing the existing regulatory language that defines "waters of the United States" with the revisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824769/
Federal Reserve: Oversight and Disclosure Issues
This report provides an overview of existing Fed oversight and disclosure practices. It also considers the potential impact of greater oversight and disclosure on the Fed's independence and its ability to achieve its macroeconomic and financial stability goals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795914/
Federal Reserve: Oversight and Disclosure Issues
This report provides an overview of existing Federal Reserve (Fed) oversight and disclosure practices. It also considers the potential impact of greater oversight and disclosure on the Fed's independence and its ability to achieve its macroeconomic and financial stability goals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824711/
The WTO Nairobi Ministerial
This report briefly discusses a limited set of deliverables agreed upon by trade ministers and their senior representatives in Nairobi at the 10th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795927/
Criminal Justice Reform: One Judge's View
This report briefly provides highlights from an article written by Judge Alex Kozinski of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, in which he recommended 26 changes in the U.S. criminal justice system, federal and state. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824682/
Free-Riders or Compelled Riders? Key Takeaways as Court Considers Major Union Dues Case
This report briefly outlines the ongoing debate regarding Union dues. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of 2015, 7.2 million employees in the public sector belong to a union, with more than 700,000 additional government employees being represented by a union without belonging to the union. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824656/
Iraq: Politics and Governance
This report provides background and analysis on the politics of Iraq, including its communities, its governing personalities and factions, security forces and militias, and the government's human rights record. The report does not provide a detailed analysis of the U.S.-led campaign to defeat Islamic State forces in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824437/
The Purple Heart: Background and Issues for Congress
This report explores the history of the Purple Heart and changes in eligibility over time as well as several current issues facing Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795773/
Analysis of the Tax Exclusion for Canceled Mortgage Debt Income
This report begins with an overview and analysis of the historical tax treatment of canceled debt income. Next, the changes enacted by recent legislation are reviewed. A discussion of policy options concludes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795924/
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current state of reform and foreign policy in Bahrain. The Bahrain government's use of repression against the unrest has presented a policy dilemma for the Obama Administration because Bahrain is a longtime ally that is pivotal to maintaining Persian Gulf security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824554/
Need-Tested Benefits: Estimated Eligibility and Benefit Receipt by Families and Individuals
This report examines estimated benefit receipt by families from nine major need-tested benefit programs in 2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795897/
The Presidential Nominating Process and the National Party Conventions, 2016: Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides answers to frequently asked questions about the presidential nominating process, including how the delegates to the national conventions are chosen, the differences between a caucus and a primary, national party rules changes for 2016, and the national conventions themselves. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795906/
The Presidential Nominating Process and the National Party Conventions, 2016: Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides answers to frequently asked questions about the presidential nominating process, including how the delegates to the national conventions are chosen, the differences between a caucus and a primary, national party rules changes for 2016, and the national conventions themselves. It is not a comprehensive report on all aspects of the presidential nominating process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824648/
Sex Discrimination and the United States Supreme Court: Developments in the Law
This report focuses on sex discrimination challenges based on: the equal protection guarantees of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments; the prohibition against employment discrimination contained in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; and the prohibition against sex discrimination in education contained in Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795892/
Sex Discrimination and the United States Supreme Court: Developments in the Law
This report focuses on sex discrimination challenges based on: the equal protection guarantees of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments; the prohibition against employment discrimination contained in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; and the prohibition against sex discrimination in education contained in Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Although this report focuses on recent legal developments in each of these areas, it also provides historical context by discussing selected landmark sex discrimination cases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824553/
The Budget Control Act of 2011 as Amended: Budgetary Effects
This report discusses the effects of the Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA; P.L. 112-25) on spending and the deficit, assuming that the automatic spending reductions proceed as scheduled from FY2016 to FY2021 and the discretionary spending caps remain in place. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795861/
Former U.S. Hostages of Iran to be Eligible for Compensation
This legal sidebar briefly discusses the U.S. victims of the 1979-1981 Iran Hostage Crisis, who will become eligible to receive up to $4.4 million each in compensation, thanks to the Justice for United States Victims of State Sponsored Terrorism Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824433/
Iran, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses issues regarding Iran's political history and structure. It also takes a look at economic and defense policy responses for Congress, specifically focusing on Iran's nuclear capabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824684/
Data Security and Breach Notification Legislation: Selected Legal Issues
This report describes the common elements of several data security and breach notification bills that have been introduced in the 114th Congress, which broadly would impose security and notification requirements on businesses regardless of industry sector. It also discusses state laws that may apply in the event of a data breach and addresses two legal issues that may arise in consideration of new legislation about data security and breach notification. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824549/
Federal Public Transportation Program: In Brief
This report provides an introduction to the public transportation program administered by the Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration (FTA). This program was authorized in FY2016 through FY2020 by the Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act (P.L. 114-94). The focus of the federal program is still on the capital side, but the program has evolved to support operational expenses in some circumstances, as well as safety oversight, planning, and research. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824560/
Transportation Security: Issues for the 114th Congress
This report examines aviation, transit and passenger rail security, as well as port and maritime security. The difficulty and cost of protecting the transportation sector from attack raises a core question for policymakers: how much effort and resources to put toward protecting potential targets versus pursuing and fighting terrorists. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795871/
School Locker Rooms Become the New Battleground in the Gender (Identity) Wars
This legal sidebar discusses the decision of the Department of Education (ED) to side with a transgender female student in Illinois who alleged that her public high school had discriminated against her when it denied her access to the girls' locker rooms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795411/
Small Business Administration (SBA) Funding: Overview and Recent Trends
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc811565/
2013 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Designating Nonattainment Areas
This report focuses primarily on the NAAQS implementation process for designating geographical nonattainment areas with respect to the tightening of the PM2.5 annual standard under the 2013 particulates NAAQS. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795913/
Air Quality: EPA's 2013 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard
This report summarizes the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed changes to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and includes comparisons with previous (1997 and 2006) promulgated and proposed standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795876/
Diversity, Inclusion, and Equal Opportunity in the Armed Services: Background and Issues for Congress
This report starts by giving an overview of recent research on diversity and organizational management. The next sections outline DOD's military personnel policies, processes and organizational structure for managing diversity, inclusion, and equal opportunity. Finally, the report examines how the concept of diversity and inclusion has evolved over the history of the Armed Forces and addresses some of the current legislative and policy issues related to diversity in the Armed Forces. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795881/
Haiti Under President Martelly: Current Conditions and Congressional Concerns
This report discusses the current political issues in Haiti and resulting U.S. policy objectives. The main priorities for U.S. policy regarding Haiti are to strengthen fragile democratic processes, continue to improve security, and promote economic development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795880/
Nuclear Energy: Overview of Congressional Issues
This report discusses issues regarding the use of nuclear energy in light of the Fukushima Dai-ichi disaster. The report provides basic facts and statistics and then focuses specifically on major issues including safety, radioactive waste, policy, emergency response, and the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795907/
Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2015
This report discusses the process through which members of Congress are compensated. Members of Congress only receive salaries during the terms for which they are elected. Former Members may be eligible for retirement benefits. This report contains information on actions taken affecting each pay year since the establishment of the Ethics Reform Act adjustment procedure, as well as information on other relevant floor action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795410/
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables
This report provides historical tables on the rate of pay for Members of Congress since 1789; details on enacted legislation with language prohibiting the automatic annual pay adjustment since the most recent adjustment; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared with actual adjustments in Member pay; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795813/
Western Water and Drought: Legislative Analysis of H.R. 2898 and S. 1894
This report summarizes and analyzes several key provisions in H.R. 2898 and S. 1894. It includes analysis of provisions specific to California, such as the management of threatened and endangered fish populations in relation to pumping operations of the Central Valley Project (CVP) and the State Water Project (SWP) as well as provisions that are broader in scope and might have nationwide implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795867/
The Federal Election Commission: Enforcement Process and Selected Issues for Congress
This report provides Congress with a resource for understanding the Federal Election Commission's (FEC) enforcement process and context for why enforcement is consequential. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795896/
The Federal Election Commission: Overview and Selected Issues for Congress
The report provides background information about key areas of controversy and context that might be relevant for Congress as the House and Senate approach their oversight duties, appropriate funds, consider nominations, and explore options for restructuring the FEC or maintaining the status quo. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795891/
Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2007-2014
This report provides Congress with official, unclassified, quantitative data on conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the United States and foreign countries for the preceding eight calendar years for use in its policy oversight functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795879/
The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program: Overview and Impact of the Affordable Care Act
This report discusses the impact of the Affordable Care Act on the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, which makes federal funds available to metropolitan areas and states to that provide a number of health care services for HIV/AIDS patients. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795903/
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense--Issues for Congress
This report briefly describes the shift in the international security environment that some observers believe has occurred, and identifies some defense related issues for Congress that could arise from it. Congress's decisions on these issues could have significant implications for U.S. defense capabilities and funding requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795926/
What Is “Building Partner Capacity?” Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821713/
The Air Force Aviation Investment Challenge
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822325/
Employer Wellness Programs and Genetic Information: Frequently Asked Questions
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Federal Reserve: Legislation in the 114th Congress
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The H-2B Visa and the Statutory Cap: In Brief
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc812210/
Crime Victims’ Rights Act: A Sketch of 18 U.S.C. §3771
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc806085/
Potential Policy Implications of the House Reconciliation Bill (H.R. 3762)
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Provisions of the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3762
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc813592/
Chronic Homelessness: Background, Research, and Outcomes
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc811952/