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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 14101 - 14150 of 18,524
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Drug Control: International Policy and Approaches
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4108/
Electricity: The Road Toward Restructuring
The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA) and the Federal Power Act (FPA) were enacted to eliminate unfair practices and other abuses by electricity and gas holding companies by requiring federal control and regulation of interstate public utility holding companies. Comprehensive energy legislation has passed the House and Senate. The House passed H.R. 6 on April 11, 2003. On July 31, 2003, the Senate suspended debate on S. 14, inserted the text of H.R. 4 (107th Congress) as a substitute, and passed H.R. 6. A conference agreement was reached November 17, 2003, and passed by the House the next day. H.R. 6 includes an electricity title that would, in part, repeal PUHCA, would prospectively repeal the mandatory purchase requirement under PURPA, and would create an electric reliability organization. On June 15, 2004, H.R. 4503, a comprehensive energy policy bill, passed the House. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4435/
Genetic Information: Legal Issues Relating to Discrimination and Privacy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5153/
Iraq: U.S. Efforts to Change the Regime
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5223/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
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Russia
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4790/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4125/
Abortion: Legislative Response
The primary focus of this issue brief is legislative action in the 107th Congress with respect to abortion. However, discussion of those legislative proposals necessarily involves a brief discussion of the leading U.S. Supreme Court decisions concerning a woman’s right to choose whether to terminate her pregnancy. For a more detailed discussion of the relevant case law, see CRS Report 95-724, Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3686/
AIDS in Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa has been far more severely affected by AIDS than any other part of the world. The United Nations reports that 25.3 million adults and children are infected with the HIV virus in the region, which has about 10% of the world's population but more than 70% of the worldwide total of infected people. This report discusses this issue in detail, including the cause of the African AIDS epidemic, the social and economic consequences, response and treatment, and U.S. policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5143/
Bosnia: U.S. Military Operations
This report outlines U.S. military operations in Bosnia and discusses issues such as U.S. and Allied Participation in Bosnia Peacekeeping (IFOR/SFOR), duration, cost, arms control and military assistance. This report also includes most recent development, background analysis, and legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4240/
Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress
The CWC bans the development, production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons by members signatories. It also requires the destruction of all chemical weapons stockpiles and production facilities. Neither the United States nor Russia will be able to meet the original CWC’s deadlines for destruction of their CW stockpiles, and have been granted extensions to at least 2012. The Convention provides the most extensive and intrusive verification regime of any arms control treaty, extending its coverage to not only governmental but also civilian facilities. The Convention also requires export controls and reporting requirements on chemicals that can be used as warfare agents and their precursors. The CWC establishes the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to oversee the Convention’s implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5666/
Endangered Species: Difficult Choices
This report discusses issues debated in the 107th Congress while is considering various proposals to amend the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). Major issues in recent years have included changing the role of science in decision-making, changing the role of critical habitat, reducing conflicts with Department of Defense activities, incorporating further protection for property owners, and increasing protection of listed species, among others. In addition, many have advocated including significant changes to ESA regulations made during the Clinton Administration in the law itself. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3747/
Health Insurance Continuation Coverage under COBRA
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5011/
Kosovo and Macedonia: U.S. and Allied Military Operations
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MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues
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North Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program
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Partial-Birth Abortion: Recent Developments in the Law
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Peacekeeping: Issues of U.S. Military Involvement
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Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program
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Social Security: Proposed Changes to the Earnings Test
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Soil and Water Conservation Issues
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Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5355/
Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Establishment and Evolution
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Temporary Programs to Extend Unemployment Compensation
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U.S.-Japan Economic Ties: Status and Outlook
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Welfare Reform: An Issue Overview
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Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report provides an overview of U.S. policy concerns and relations with countries in central Asia. The report discusses issues such as Fostering Pro-Western Orientations, Obstacles to Peace and Independence, Democratization and Human Rights, Security and Arms Control, Trade and Investment, and provides an Aid Overview. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4832/
China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4352/
Computer Services Personnel: Overtime Pay Under the Fair Labor Standards Act
The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA), as amended, is the primary federal statute in the area of minimum wages and overtime pay. Through administrative rulemaking, the Secretary of Labor has established two tests through which to define eligibility under the Section 13(a)(1) exemption: a duties test and an earnings test. In the 106th Congress, legislation was introduced by Representatives Andrews and Lazio that would have increased the scope of the exemption: first, by expanding the range of exempt job titles, and then, through a relative reduction in the value of the earnings threshold or test. For example, were the minimum wage increased to $6.15 per hour, as pending proposals would do, the value of the computer services exemption threshold would be 4.5 times the federal minimum wage. Ultimately, neither bill was enacted, but the issue has re-emerged as H.R. 1545 (Andrews) and H.R. 546 (Quinn). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5102/
Congressional Review of Agency Rulemaking: An Update and Assessment After Nullification of OSHA's Ergonomics Standard
This report will provide a brief explanation of how the review scheme was expected to operate and describe how it has in fact been utilized. The possible reasons for the limited use of the review scheme thus far are assessed and congressional remedial proposals and other options are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4362/
Cuba: Issues for Congress
This report examines the economic and political situation in Cuba, including the human rights situation, and U.S. policy toward Cuba. The report also analyzes a number of issues facing Congress in U.S. policy toward Cuba, including: the overall direction of U.S. policy; challenges to U.S. policy in the World Trade Organization; restrictions on commercial food and medical exports; restrictions on travel; bilateral drug trafficking cooperation; Cuba and terrorism; funding for U.S.-government sponsored radio and television broadcasting to Cuba; the Russian signals intelligence facility in Cuba; migration issues; and compensation to the families of those Americans killed in 1996 when Cuba shot down two U.S. civilian planes. The report cites legislation that was passed in the 106th Congress, and also tracks legislative action on these various issues in U.S. policy toward Cuba in the 107th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4924/
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives
Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate the communist government of Fidel Castro for much of the past 40 years. Over time, there have been numerous changes to the restrictions, and for 5 years, from 1977 until 1982, there were no restrictions on travel to Cuba. In March 2003, the Administration eased restrictions on those visiting close family members in Cuba, while at the same time it eliminated travel for people-to-people educational exchanges unrelated to academic coursework. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4926/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5124/
Homeland Security: Human Resources Management
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Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues
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Nuclear Nonproliferation Issues
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Postal Reform
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Terrorism Preparedness: Catalog of Selected Federal Assistance Programs
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Pakistan's Domestic Political Developments: Issues for Congress
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Appropriations for FY2003: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Treasury, Postal Service, and General Government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4584/
Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF
The 107th Congress did not pass tax incentives for private giving or legislation intended to assure equal treatment of religious organizations as providers of social services (provisions in S. 1924, the original CARE bill). The House voted to extend charitable choice rules to numerous new programs (H.R. 7), as the President urged, but the Senate refused. However, in an Executive Order, President Bush on December 12, 2002, directed six cabinet-level departments and the Agency for International Development (AID) to bring policies concerning social service programs into line with charitable choice principles set forth in the Order. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5456/
China-U.S. Trade Issues
U.S.-China economic ties have expanded substantially over the past several years. China is now the third largest U.S. trading partner, its second largest source of imports, and its fourth largest export market. However, U.S.-China commercial ties have been strained by a number of issues, including a surging U.S. trade deficit with China, China's refusal to float its currency, and failure to fully comply with its World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments, especially its failure to provide protection for U.S. intellectual property rights (IPR). This report explores these issues in detail, especially concerning the lack of protection for U.S. IPR. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4763/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 107th Congress
In the 107th Congress, the most prominent air quality issue has been whether state and federal regulations designed to protect air quality are having a negative impact on energy production, and, if so, whether legislation should be enacted to reform such regulations. The early discussion focused primarily on California, but with the release of the Administration’s energy policy recommendations in May 2001 and subsequent congressional action, attention shifted to issues more national in scope. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4513/
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade: Key Issues for the 108th Congress
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Global Climate Change
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Iran: Arms and Weapons of Mass Destruction Suppliers
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Kosovo and U.S. Policy
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Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3928/
Trade and the Americas
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United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8185/