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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 14101 - 14150 of 15,578
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Jerusalem: The U.S. Embassy and P.L. 104-45
Report discussing the legislation proposal to move the U.S. embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.
Federal Regulatory Structure for Egg Safety: Fact Sheet
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Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments
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Department of Energy: Programs and Reorganization Proposals
This report, a revision of an earlier CRS review of DOE programs, consists of an introductory discussion of the agency and its mission as a whole, and a description of its major programs as independent entities. Many of DOE's original energy-related missions have disappeared or changed radically. In addition, with the end of the Cold War, DOE's nuclear weapons-related programs, almost two-thirds of the total budget, are undergoing modification. However, regardless of the outcome of the debate on DOE's future, many of its present functions will continue in one location or another.
Immigration Fundamentals
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Intellectual Property Protection for Noncreative Databases
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The Mining Law Millsite Debate
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Air Quality and Motor Vehicles: An Analysis of Current and Proposed Emission Standards
The extent to which emissions from motor vehicles and the amount of sulfur in commercial gasoline should be regulated has become a controversial issue. The EPA is proposing national limits on gasoline sulfur levels which would become effective in 2004. This report provides background information on the regulation of vehicle emissions in the United States, analyzes key elements of the National Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) program and the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Tier 2 proposal, summarizes major views on the proposal that have been expressed by the automobile industry, the oil refining industry, and some environmental organizations, and discusses relevant legislative activity in the 106th Congress.
Animal Agriculture: Issues for the 106th Congress
This report discusses a variety of animal agriculture issues that generated debate during the 106th Congress, including low livestock prices, especially for hogs. Economic difficulties have revived questions such as the impacts of consolidation in the livestock industry, and the price effects of animal imports from Canada and Mexico. This report also discusses a number of legislative proposals to assist livestock producers and enforce sanitary and phytosanitary standards, as well as continuing trade disputes and negotiations with China, the European Union, New Zealand, and Australia.
Kosovo: Refugee Assistance and Temporary Resettlement
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The National Institutes of Health: An Overview
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Superfund Reauthorization: A Summary of H.R. 1300, as Reported
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Capital Gains Taxes: An Overview
The capital gains tax has been a tax cut target since the 1986 Tax Reform Act treated capital gains as ordinary income. An argument for lower capital gains taxes is reduction of the lock-in effect. Some also believe that lower capital gains taxes will cost little compared to the benefits they bring and that lower taxes induce additional economic growth, although the magnitude of these potential effects is in some dispute. Others criticize lower capital gains taxes as benefitting higher income individuals and express concerns about the budget effects, particularly in future years. Another criticism of lower rates is the possible role of a larger capital gains tax differential in encouraging tax sheltering activities and adding complexity to the tax law.
Science Behind the Regulation of Food Safety: Risk Assessment and the Precautionary Principle
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H.R. 853, The Comprehensive Budget Process Reform Act: Summary of Provisions
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Appropriations for FY2000: Military Construction
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Military Construction Appropriations.
Immigration and Naturalization Services's FY2000 Budget
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Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election
The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that candidates for President and Vice President receive a majority of electoral votes (currently 270 or more of a total of 538) to be elected. If no candidate receives a majority, the President is elected by the House of Representatives, and the Vice President is elected by the Senate. This process is referred to as contingent election and is the topic of discussion in this report.
Defense Research: DOD's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Program
The Administration has requested $34.4 billion for the Department of Defense (DOD) Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) program for FY2000. This is almost $3 billion below what was available for RDT&E in FY1999. In addition, the 6-year budget would maintain RDT&E between $34 billion and $35 billion over the next 6 years. In constant dollars, RDT&E spending will decline.
Spinning the Web: The History and Infrastructure of the Internet
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The Advanced Technology Program
The Advanced Technology Program (ATP) was created by P.L. 100-418, the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, to encourage public-private cooperation in the development of pre-competitive technologies with broad application across industries. This activity has been targeted for elimination as a means to cut federal spending. This report discusses the ATP and related issues of federal appropriations (or the lack thereof).
Electric Power and the Year 2000 Computer Problem
The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) at the request of the Department of Energy is coordinating an effort to minimize the vulnerability of the nation's electric utility system to disruption resulting from computer failures as the date changes to January 1, 2000, the so-called Y2K computer problem. NERC now believes that the electric power industry would be able to reliably meet demand during the transition from 1999 to 2000 with the systems that are now Y2K ready. Nevertheless, at least 30% of the nation's utilities and 35% of the nation's nuclear power plants are not now expected to be Y2K ready until the last half of 1999.
Congressional Gold Medals 1776-1999
Since the American Revolution, Congress has commissioned gold medals as its highest expression of national appreciation for distinguished achievements and contributions. These medals should not be confused with the Medal of Honor, which is presented “in the name of the Congress of the United States,” and is often referred to as the Congressional Medal of Honor. Regulations for the Medal of Honor are established by the armed services. Congressional Gold Medals, conversely, can only be approved by Congress. This report provides a response to such inquiries and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards intended to assist Members of Congress in their consideration of future proposals to award Congressional Gold Medals. It will be updated annually.
Terrorism: Middle Eastern Groups and State Sponsors, 1999
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The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction
This report describes the annual appropriations cycle from the President’s submission of his annual budget through enactment of the appropriations measures. It describes the three types of appropriations measures—regular appropriations bills, continuing resolutions, and supplemental bills. It explains the spending ceilings for appropriations bills that are associated with the budget resolution and the sequestration process, including a description of the mechanisms used to enforce the ceilings. It also explains the authorization appropriations process, which prohibits certain provisions in some of the appropriations bills.
Introducing a House Bill or Resolution
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Pesticide Residue Regulation: Analysis of Food Quality Protection Act Implementation
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Preemption Language in Federal Environmental Statutes
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Budget FY2000: A Chronology with Internet Access
This report provides a select chronology of congressional and presidential actions and documents related to major budget events in calendar year 1999, covering the FY2000 budget. While the paper copy provides numerous Internet addresses, congressional offices can also use the Internet version of this report to access active links to appropriations and budget legislation, budget and economic data tables, pie charts, glossaries, selected testimony, publications, the President’s budget documents, and CRS products.
DOE Security: Protecting Nuclear Material and Information
Congress is focusing on problems with security at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) national security facilities, especially the nuclear weapon laboratories. Problems include espionage from within the labs and protection of nuclear material and facilities from outside attack. This report describes the main components of DOE’s security system and reviews current efforts to address shortcomings.
Global Climate Change Policy: Domestic Early Action Credits
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The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections
The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes.
Renewable Energy and Electricity Restructuring
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Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, 1988-June 1999
Between 1988 and June 1999, thirteen emergency supplemental or farm disaster acts provided a total of $17 billion in emergency funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The vast majority of this amount has gone directly to farmers, primarily in the form of disaster payments ($12.2 billion) to any farmer suffering a significant crop loss caused by a natural disaster, and "market loss" payments ($3.1 billion) to help grain, cotton, and dairy farmers recover from low farm commodity prices. The remaining $1.7 billion has gone to a wide array of other USDA programs, including those for other forms of farm disaster assistance, farm loans, and overseas food aid. Congress is expected to consider a multi-billion financial assistance package for farmers sometime this year.
The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act
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Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 106th Congress, First Session
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Defense Research: A Primer on the Department of Defense's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT and E) Program
This report describes the basic elements and issues of the Department of Defense's (DOD) Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Program. It defines basic activities supported by the program, presents budget trends, discusses the management of program, and describes the infrastructure in which the program is implemented. This report is for staff new to the area of defense research and for senior staff interested in historical trends.
Country Applicability of the U.S. Most-Favored-Nation Status
The United States accords permanent most-favored-nation (MFN) treatment to all its trading partners except six countries to which it is denied by law and 14 countries whose MFN status is temporary and subject to the conditions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974.
Monopoly and Monopolization - Fundamental But Separate Concepts in U.S. Antitrust Law
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EPA's Tier 2 Proposal for Stricter Vehicle Emission Standards: A Fact Sheet
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established "Tier 1" standards to limit tailpipe emissions from new motor vehicles, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to determine if more stringent requirements are needed to attain or maintain National Ambient Air Quality Standards. EPA also must assess the availability and cost-effectiveness of technologies necessary to control emissions. In a report submitted to Congress in August 1998, EPA concluded that tougher standards are necessary and that essential technologies are available and cost-effective
Alcohol Fuels Tax Incentive
This report discusses federal tax subsidies for alcohol transportation fuels, as well as legislative actions underway to repeal, extend, or reduce them.
Farm and Food Support Under USDA's Section 32 Program
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Military Changes to the Unified Command Plan: Background and Issues for Congress
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Natural Resources: Assessing Nonmarket Values through Contingent Valuation
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Year 2000 Computer Problem: Selected Internet Addresses
The Year 2000 computer problem, also called "Y2K" or the "millennium bug," describes a situation created over the last 30 years in the computer industry. Generally speaking, it means that some computers will not recognize the year 2000 as a valid date. This report is an annotated list of government (local, state, federal, and international), industry, small business, media, and grass-roots Internet sites which address various aspects of the Year 2000 computer problem.
Global Climate Change: Coal Use in China and Other Asian Developing Countries
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Interstate Waste Transport: Legislative Issues
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Air Quality: EPA's Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments provided the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states with new tool to address the problem of interstate transport of air pollutants. This report discusses the actions undertaken as a direct result of this act, additional pollution reduction enforcement measures pursued by the EPA, and actions undertaken by states to reduce offending emissions not in compliance with these measures.
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law
Current law governing financial activity of campaigns for federal office is based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, and 1979, and the Revenue Act of 1971. These laws were enacted to remedy widely perceived shortcomings of existing law, the Corrupt Practices Act of 1925, and in response to reports of campaign finance abuses over the years, culminating in the 1972-1974 Watergate scandal. This report provides a summary of major provisions of federal law and a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions.
The Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Program: Status and Legislative Issues
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