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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 109th Congress
Federal research and development (R&D) funding priorities reflect presidential policies and national needs. For FY2007, R&D is requested at almost $137 billion of budget authority, about 1.8% more than enacted in FY2006. The FY2007 budget would fund three interagency R&D initiatives: networking and information technology; climate change science; and nanotechnology. The Administration is using performance measures for R&D budgeting, including the Government Performance and Results Act and the Program Assessment Rating Tool. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10516/
Cooperative R
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9714/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such agreements. Collaborative ventures are intended to accommodate the strengths and responsibilities of all sectors involved innovation and technology development. Given the increased popularity of cooperative programs, questions might be raised as to whether they are meeting expectations. These include questions about the emphasis on collaborative ventures in research rather than in technology development; cooperative manufacturing; defense vs. civilian support; and access by foreign companies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10511/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9715/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
The government spends approximately one third of the $83 billion federal R&D budget for intramural research and development to meet mission requirements in over 700 government laboratories. Congress has established a system to facilitate the transfer of technology to the private sector and to state and local governments. Despite this, use of federal R&D results has remained restrained, although there has been a significant increase in private sector interest and activities over the past several years. At issue is whether incentives for technology transfer remain necessary, if additional legislative initiatives are needed to encourage increased technology transfer, or if the responsibility to use the available resources now rests with the private sector. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10513/
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9227/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8930/
Nuclear Command and Control: Current Programs and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10857/
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: Progress Report and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9958/
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: Progress Report and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9982/
High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and High Power Microwave (HPM) Devices: Threat Assessments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8769/
Navy Ship Propulsion Technologies: Options for Reducing Oil Use - Background for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10854/
Manipulating Molecules: Federal Support for Nanotechnology Research
The Bush Administration has requested $1.277 billion for nanotechnology research for FY2007. Nanotechnology is a newly emerging field of science where scientists and engineers are beginning to manipulate matter at the molecular and atomic levels in order to obtain materials and systems with significantly improved properties. Scientists note that nanotechnology is still in its infancy, with large scale practical applications 10 to 30 year away. Congressional concerns include funding for the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), the potential environmental and health concerns associated with the development and deployment of nanotechnology, and the need to adopt international measurement standards for nanotechnology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10288/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2007
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8959/
Oversight of Dual-Use Biological Research: The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9212/
Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture: Status and Current Issues
This report discusses the status and current issues regarding animal agriculture that is being transformed by rapid advances in biotechnology. This report will be updated as significant developments in agricultural biotechnology occur and as Congress develops legislation addressing emerging agricultural biotechnology issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8961/
National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10141/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8451/
"Sensitive but Unclassified" Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information
This report traces the evolution of "sensitive but unclassified" or SBU-related controls; summarizes actions taken to protect certain types of scientific and technical information; describes critiques of some control policies; and summarizes proposals and actions, including congressional, executive and other initiatives, to clarify these issues and develop policies that serve various stakeholders. It also raises issues that may warrant further attention. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8704/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8454/
Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8584/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8579/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2006
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8678/
Stem Cell Research
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8295/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8352/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2006
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7897/
Daylight Saving Time
Currently, in most parts of the United States, timepieces are moved forward one hour in the spring and back one hour in the fall to provide an extended daylight period during the summer months. This is known as Daylight Saving Time (DST). Much debate and many changes led to this present practice. This report provides a brief history of the issues surrounding DST, an outline of the legislation that created and modified it, and a list of references to more discussions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7482/
Stem Cell Research
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7148/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2006
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7432/
Climate Change: Federal Expenditures for Science and Technology
This report identifies and discusses direct climate-focused scientific and research programs of the federal government, as well as an array of energy programs that relate indirectly to climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7595/
Stem Cell Research
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7150/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8728/
Genetically Engineered Fish and Seafood
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9123/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6798/
Homeland Security Research and Development Funding, Organization, and Oversight
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6956/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6792/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6797/
Stem Cell Research
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7151/
Stem Cell Research
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6919/
The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6937/
Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6303/
National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10106/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2006
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6301/
Regulation of Plant-Based Pharmaceuticals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9207/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10096/
Homeland Security Research and Development Funding, Organization, and Oversight
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6202/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2005
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10099/
Stem Cell Research
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7149/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7864/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7869/