You limited your search to:

 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Direct Assaults Against Presidents, Presidents-Elect, and Candidates
Direct assaults against Presidents, Presidents-elect, and candidates have occurred on 15 separate occasions, with five resulting in death. Ten incumbents (about 24% of the 42 individuals to serve in the office), including four of the past six Presidents, have been victims or targets. Four of the ten (and one candidate) died as a result of the attacks. This report identifies these incidents and provides information about what happened, when, where, and, if known, why. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9150/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8689/
The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9983/
The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9959/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8452/
National Emergency Powers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8545/
The World Trade Organization: The Hong Kong Ministerial
The World Trade Organization (WTO) held its 6th Ministerial summit in Hong Kong from December 13-18, 2005. WTO Ministerials are held every two years to bring together trade ministers from member states, often to make political decisions for the body. Although an original goal of the Ministerial was to agree on a package of modalities (methods by which the round is negotiated) for the ongoing Doha Development Agenda (DDA) round of trade negotiations, this aim was dropped in order to avoid a high-profile failure similar to previous Ministerials at Cancun and Seattle. Rather, members agreed to some modest advancements in agriculture, industrial tariffs, and duty and quota-free access for least developed countries. The final outcome of these negotiations could provide a substantial boost to the world economy, but if the round itself is not completed, there may be repercussions for the WTO as an institution and for the architecture of the world trading system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9994/
The World Trade Organization: The Hong Kong Ministerial
The World Trade Organization (WTO) held its 6th Ministerial summit in Hong Kong from December 13-18, 2005. WTO Ministerials are held every two years to bring together trade ministers from member states, often to make political decisions for the body. Although an original goal of the Ministerial was to agree on a package of modalities (methods by which the round is negotiated) for the ongoing Doha Development Agenda (DDA) round of trade negotiations, this aim was dropped in order to avoid a high-profile failure similar to previous Ministerials at Cancun and Seattle. Rather, members agreed to some modest advancements in agriculture, industrial tariffs, and duty and quota-free access for least developed countries. The final outcome of these negotiations could provide a substantial boost to the world economy, but if the round itself is not completed, there may be repercussions for the WTO as an institution and for the architecture of the world trading system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9970/
Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-2005: Actions by the Senate, Judiciary Committee, and the President
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8125/
Supreme Court Nominations, 1789 - 2005: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President
The process of appointing Supreme Court Justices has undergone changes over two centuries, but its most basic feature -- the sharing of power between the President and Senate -- has remained unchanged. To receive a lifetime appointment to the Court, a candidate must first be nominated by the President and then confirmed by the Senate. Table 1 of this report lists and describes actions taken by the Senate, the Senate Judiciary Committee, and the President on all Supreme Court nominations, from 1789 to the present. The table provides the name of each person nominated to the Court and the name of the President making the nomination. It also tracks the dates of formal actions taken, and time elapsing between these actions, by the Senate or Senate Judiciary Committee on each nomination, starting with the date that the Senate received the nomination from the President. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10346/
Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-2005: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9740/
Authorization for Use of Military Force in Response to the 9/11 Attacks (P.L. 107-40): Legislative History
This report provides a legislative history of the legislation, S.J.Res. 23 , the “Authorization for Use of Military Force” (AUMF), which, as Congress stated in its text, constitutes the legislative authorization for the use of U.S. military force contemplated by the War Powers Resolution. It also is the statute which the President and his attorneys have subsequently cited as an authority for him to engage in electronic surveillance against possible terrorists without obtaining authorization of the special Court created by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978, as amended. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8970/
Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2005
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7667/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8017/
Davis-Bacon Suspension and Its Legislative Aftermath
During the last week of August 2005, Hurricane Katrina gathered strength in the Atlantic and moved against the gulf states. On September 8, 2005, amid the devastation left in Katrina’s wake, President George W. Bush suspended the Davis-Bacon Act as it applies to certain jurisdictions in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Although the President has the authority, under Section 6 of the Act, to render such suspensions during a national emergency, that authority has rarely been utilized.1 This report analyzes the legislative aftermath of the suspension. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7543/
Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7528/
The Davis-Bacon Act: Suspension
The Davis-Bacon Act is one of several statutes that deals with federal government procurement. Enacted in 1931, Davis-Bacon requires, inter alia, that not less than the locally prevailing wage be paid to workers engaged in federal contract construction. This report reviews the several cases during which the Davis-Bacon Act was suspended and will likely be updated as developments make necessary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7665/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8536/
Prevailing Wage Requirements and the Emergency Suspension of the Davis-Bacon Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7666/
Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act: Legal Requirements for Federal and State Roles in Declarations of an Emergency or a Major Disaster
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7904/
National Emergency Powers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7111/
Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7526/
Proper Scope of Questioning of Supreme Court Nominees: The Current Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7899/
Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7527/
Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7297/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7252/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6799/
Supreme Court Appointment Process: Roles of the President, Judiciary Committee, and Senate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6787/
Ocean Commissions: Ocean Policy Review and Outlook
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8727/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress
American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10208/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress
American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9300/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress
American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9660/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6949/
Presidential Succession: An Overview with Analysis of Legislation Proposed in the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7295/
Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas: Overview of Internal and External Challenges
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7338/
Item Veto: Budgetary Savings
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7626/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6634/
Cloture Attempts on Nominations
Cloture is the only means by which the Senate can vote to limit debate on a matter, and thereby overcome a possible filibuster. It would be erroneous, however, to assume that cases in which cloture is sought are the same as those in which a filibuster occurs. Cloture may be sought when no filibuster is taking place, and filibusters may occur without cloture being sought. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6157/
Evolution of the Senate's Role in the Nomination and Confirmation Process: A Brief History
Over time, the Senate has developed a series of procedures to deal with the concerns of its Members on nominations. First is the custom of senatorial courtesy, whereby Senators from the same party as the President might influence a nomination or kill it by objecting to it. This tradition has not always been absolute, but it has allowed Senators to play a fairly large role, particularly in the selection of nominees within a Senator’s home state, such as for district court judgeships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6156/
9/11 Commission Recommendations: The Senate Confirmation Process for Presidential Nominees
On July 22, 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, known as the 9/11 Commission, issued its final report, detailing the events up to and including the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission recommended that the Senate adopt rules requiring hearings and votes to confirm or reject national security nominees within 30 days of their submission at the start of each new presidential administration. Implementing the commission's proposal would involve imposing new restrictions on both the power of committee chairs to control the agenda of their committees and the rights of Senators to delay or block nominations through holds and extended debate. This report discusses in detail this proposal, how it could be implemented, and the potential effects of its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10108/
Supreme Court Nominations Not Confirmed, 1789-2004
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6922/
The Chief Justice of the United States: Responsibilities of the Office and Process for Appointment
As part of Senate consideration, the Judiciary Committee holds hearings on the nominee and votes on whether to report the nomination favorably, unfavorably, or without recommendation. Regardless of the outcome of that vote, the reporting of a Supreme Court nomination sends it to the full Senate for debate and a vote. Like the President, Senators may evaluate the nominee by such standards as professional excellence, integrity, and leadership qualities, but may also (again, as the President is free to do) focus on the nominee's judicial philosophy, views on constitutional issues, or how they believe the appointment might affect the Court's future direction on major legal and constitutional issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7287/
Nomination and Confirmation of the FBI Director: Process and Recent History
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6297/
The NATO Summit at Prague, 2002
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7320/
Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas: Overview of Internal and External Challenges
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7337/
Terrorist Attacks and National Emergencies Act Declarations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6199/
The Presidential Inauguration of 2005: Basic Facts and Information on Inaugural Festivities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8010/
A Presidential Item Veto
During a news conference on November 4, 2004, President George W. Bush stated that he “would like to see the President have a line-item veto again, one that passed constitutional muster. I think it would help the executive branch work with the legislative branch to make sure that we’re able to maintain budget discipline.” The Supreme Court struck down an earlier version of item-veto authority (the Line Item Veto Act of 1996) in Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998), but several statutory alternatives are available. Options to the Line Item Veto Act have been proposed over the years, including an amendment to the Constitution to grant the President item-veto authority. The line-item veto is listed among several budget reform proposals included in the FY2005 budget, but a more specific recommendation is expected to be developed by the Administration and submitted to Congress at the start of the 109th Congress. This report analyzes the statutory and constitutional alternatives that are likely to be considered and will be updated as necessary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7400/
9/11 Commission Recommendations: The Senate Confirmation Process for Presidential Nominees
On July 22, 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, known as the 9/11 Commission, issued its final report, detailing the events up to and including the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission recommended that the Senate adopt rules requiring hearings and votes to confirm or reject national security nominees within 30 days of their submission at the start of each new presidential administration. Implementing the commission's proposal would involve imposing new restrictions on both the power of committee chairs to control the agenda of their committees and the rights of Senators to delay or block nominations through holds and extended debate. This report discusses in detail this proposal, how it could be implemented, and the potential effects of its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7850/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5812/