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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections
This report provides the results of recent elections in Latin America and the Caribbean. It includes three tables organized by region, containing the date of each country's independence, the name of the newly elected president or prime minister, and the projected date of the next election. Information in this report was gathered from numerous sources, including the U.S. State Department, Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA's) World Fact Book, International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) Election Guide, Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), and other news sources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824721/
Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy
This report provides an overview of the situation in Ukraine, two years after the February 2014 collapse of the Kremlin-supported government of President Viktor Yanukovych. Following the collapse, there was an emergence of a pro-Western, pro-reform government and an energized public generally anxious to lessen Moscow's influence, committed to addressing the need for serious reform and determined to draw closer to Europe and the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824785/
Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report looks at Kuwait's relationships with its neighbors in the Persian Gulf, and its own political system which has been in turmoil since 2006. Kuwait remains pivotal to U.S. efforts to secure the Persian Gulf region because of its willingness to cooperate with U.S. strategy and military operations in the region and its proximity to both Iran and Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824504/
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report examines the current political state of Afghanistan at length, discussing the political background, security policy, and regional relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824587/
Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons
This report discusses Pakistan's nuclear arsenal, which probably consists of approximately 110-130 nuclear warheads, although it could have more. Pakistan's nuclear arsenal is widely regarded as designed to dissuade India from taking military action against Pakistan, but Islamabad's expansion of its nuclear arsenal, development of new types of nuclear weapons, and adoption of a doctrine called "full spectrum deterrence" have led to concern about an increased risk of nuclear conflict between Pakistan and India. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824771/
Aung San Suu Kyi's Party Takes Control of Parliament in Burma
This report discusses politics and government in Burma following elections in November 2015. Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy (NLD) has now assumed control of Burma's Union Parliament. The lower chamber (People's Assembly) and the upper chamber (National Assembly) took office on February 1 and 3, 2016, respectively. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824589/
The Islamic State and U.S. Policy
This report provides background on the Islamic State organization, discussing its goals, operations, and affiliates, as well as analyzing related U.S. legislative and policy debates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824525/
Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report describes the relationship between the United States and the Sultanate of Oman, especially with respect to Oman's support of U.S. efforts toward peace in the Middle East, the U.S. free trade agreement with Oman, and Oman's relatively close relations with Iran. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824637/
Conflict and History at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge
This report briefly discusses the conflict at the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge (MNWR) in January of 2016. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824746/
The European Union: Questions and Answers
This report serves as a primer on the European Union and provides a brief description of U.S.-EU relations that may be of interest in the 114th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824423/
Legislative Actions to Repeal, Defund, or Delay the Affordable Care Act
This report covers the overall relationship between the U.S. and North Korea, with an emphasis on nuclear diplomacy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824571/
Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons
This report discusses Pakistan's nuclear arsenal, which probably consists of approximately 110-130 nuclear warheads, although it could have more. Pakistan's nuclear arsenal is widely regarded as designed to dissuade India from taking military action against Pakistan, but Islamabad's expansion of its nuclear arsenal, development of new types of nuclear weapons, and adoption of a doctrine called "full spectrum deterrence" have led to concern about an increased risk of nuclear conflict between Pakistan and India. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824466/
Guatemala: One President Resigns; Another Elected, to Be Inaugurated January 14
This report discusses the transfer of power to the newly-elected president of Guatemala and its context, following the resignation of the former president and vice-president, their arrest for government corruption, and the succeeding interim government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824719/
Community Services Block Grants (CSBG): Background and Funding
This report provides information on the Community Services Block Grant (CSBG), which funds a network of local antipoverty agencies. It begins with background information on the CSBG and related activities, discusses a proposal pending in Congress to reauthorize CSBG and related activities, summarizes a new "Upward Mobility Project" initiative of the Obama Administration, and discusses current and recent funding activities affecting the CSBG. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824743/
Separation of Powers: An Overview
This report provides an overview of separation of powers. It reviews the philosophical and political origins of the doctrine, surveys the structure of separation of power in the Constitution, and discusses the consequences of the system for both the institutions and for individual political actors. Finally, there is a discussion of separation of powers in the context of contemporary politics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824814/
Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive
This report provides a brief overview of the history of the negotiations between Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders, a review of the negotiations since 2008, and a description of some of the issues involved in the talks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824774/
Iraq: Politics and Governance
This report provides background and analysis on the politics of Iraq, including its communities, its governing personalities and factions, security forces and militias, and the government's human rights record. The report does not provide a detailed analysis of the U.S.-led campaign to defeat Islamic State forces in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824437/
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current state of reform and foreign policy in Bahrain. The Bahrain government's use of repression against the unrest has presented a policy dilemma for the Obama Administration because Bahrain is a longtime ally that is pivotal to maintaining Persian Gulf security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824554/
The Islamic State--Frequently Asked Questions: Threats, Global Implications, and U.S. Policy Responses
With the attacks in Beirut, over Egypt, and in Paris, the Islamic State has demonstrated a transnational capability that suggests its strategic objectives and tactics have evolved. The response to these attacks by the United States and other nations continues to evolve as the threat posed by IS changes. This report poses frequently asked questions with answers excerpted from other CRS products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795925/
The "Islamic State" and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the The Islamic State (IS, aka the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, ISIL/ISIS, or the Arabic acronym Daesh), which is a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that controls large areas of Iraq and Syria, has adherents in several other countries, and disrupts regional and international security with violence and terrorism. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795829/
Poland and Its Relations with the United States: In Brief
This report provides an overview and assessment of the relationship between the Untied States and Poland over the last 25 years, including developmentents in Poland that are of interest to the U.S. Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795835/
Iraq: Politics and Governance
This report provides background and analysis on the politics of Iraq, including its communities, governing personalities and factions, security forces and militias, and the government's human rights record. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795640/
Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief
This report provides information and analysis relevant for Congress on the following: Assessments of U.S.-Turkey relations, Turkish foreign policy, and Turkey's strategic orientation, Turkish efforts to cooperate with the United States against the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq, and key issues regarding Turkey's domestic politics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795877/
Tropical Storm? The Supreme Court Considers Double Jeopardy and the Sovereign Status of Puerto Rico
This legal sidebar discusses the nature of the relationship between the United States government and the territory of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Based in part on statutory language providing that the relationship between Puerto Rico and the United States is "in the nature of a compact," arguments have been made that any change in Puerto Rico's political status must be consented to by both parties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795830/
Impeachment and Removal
This report discusses the impeachment process, which provides a mechanism for removal of the President, Vice President, and other "civil Officers of the United States" found to have engaged in "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795443/
Argentina's 2015 Presidential Election
This report briefly discusses the Argentinian Presidential election, held on October 25, 2015. The close results set up a second round on November 22, 2015, between Daniel Scioli and Mauricio Macri. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795388/
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current state of reform and foreign policy in Bahrain. Public unrest has diminished, but occasional large demonstrations, opposition boycotts of elections, and continued arrests of dissidents counter government assertions that Bahrain has "returned to normal." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795363/
Elections in Haiti
This report briefly discusses various issues regarding the election process in Haiti. Haiti is in the midst of a national election cycle to fill all 119 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, 20 seats in the 30-seat Senate, and most municipal offices - and to elect a new president. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795545/
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report examines the current political state of Afghanistan at length, discussing the political background, security policy, and regional relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795518/
Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response
This report discusses the ongoing conflict in Syria and provides an overview of U.S. Policy responses. The rise of the insurgent terrorist group known as the Islamic State (IS, aka the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant or ISIL/ISIS) and Russia's military intervention on behalf of the Syrian government have reshaped debates over U.S. policy toward the ongoing civil conflict in Syria, now in its fifth year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795392/
Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations
Several Turkish domestic and foreign policy issues have significant relevance for U.S. interests, and Congress plays an active role in shaping and overseeing U.S. relations with Turkey. This report provides background information on Turkey and discusses possible policy questions and considerations for Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795453/
Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report looks at Kuwait's relationships with its neighbors in the Persian Gulf, and its own political system which has been in turmoil since 2006. Kuwait remains pivotal to U.S. efforts to secure the Persian Gulf region because of its willingness to cooperate with U.S. strategy and military operations in the region and its proximity to both Iran and Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795347/
Poland and Its Relations with the United States: In Brief
This report provides an overview and assessment of some of the main dimensions of the topic of developments in Poland and its relations with the United States, which are of continuing interest to the U.S. Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795418/
Canada's October 2015 Elections
This report discusses the political climate in Canada, leading up to Canada's next election, scheduled for October 19, 2015. The outcome of the election may have implications for the United States, which is Canada's largest trading partner, largest energy consumer, and NATO ally. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795425/
Guatemala: President Pérez Resigns; Runoff Presidential Election on October 25
This report provides background on the runoff presidential election in Guatemala following the resignation of President Otto Pérez Molina in September. In response to a court order, he appeared at court to hear charges of criminal association, corruption, and fraud brought against him; Congress accepted Pérez's resignation and swore in Vice President Alejandro Maldonado as president. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795463/
The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political and economic landscape of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and its relationship with the U.S. The UAE has been a significant U.S. partner in Gulf security for more than two decades, and the alliance has deepened further in recent years in order to address multiple regional threats. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743617/
The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy
This report discusses various issues regarding politics and government, foreign policy, and counter-terrorism in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAE has been a significant U.S. partner in Gulf security for more than two decades, and the alliance has deepened further in recent years in order to address multiple regional threats. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795485/
Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive
This report provides a brief overview of the history of the negotiations between Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders, a review of the negotiations since 2008, and a description of some of the issues involved in the talks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743512/
The European Union: Questions and Answers
This report serves as a primer on the European Union and provides a brief description of U.S.-EU relations that may be of interest in the 114th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743386/
Birthright Citizenship Under the 14th Amendment of Persons Born in the United States to Alien Parents
This report traces the history of birthright citizenship under U.S. law and discusses some of the legislation in recent Congresses intended to alter it. In the current and recent Congresses, some Members have introduced or supported legislation that would revise or reinterpret the Citizenship Clause to address several concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795824/
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current state of reform and foreign policy in Bahrain. An uprising against Bahrain's Al Khalifa royal family that began on February 14, 2011, has not achieved the goals of Shiite oppositionists to establish a constitutional monarchy. Public unrest has diminished since 2012, but occasional large demonstrations, opposition boycotts of elections, and continued arrests of dissidents counter government assertions that Bahrain has "returned to normal." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743606/
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, focusing particularly on the influence of the Taliban and other militant groups, and on the leadership of Afghan President Ashraf Ghani. It also discusses the U.S.-Afghanistan relationship, in both the short and long term, and U.S. efforts under the Obama Administration to provide military, reconstructive, and stabilization aid. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770625/
Argentina: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides background on the political and economic situation in Argentina and U.S.-Argentine relations. Argentina, a South American country with a population of almost 42 million, has had a vibrant democratic tradition since its military relinquished power in 1983. Argentina has Latin America's third-largest economy and is endowed with vast natural resources. Agriculture has traditionally been a main economic driver, but the country also has a diversified industrial base and a highly educated population. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743588/
Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report describes the relationship between the United States and the Sultanate of Oman, especially with respect to Oman's support of U.S. efforts toward peace in the Middle East, the U.S. free trade agreement with Oman, and Oman's relatively close relations with Iran. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743556/
Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy
This report provides a background on Libya's descent into conflict and discusses current policy issues for the U.S. Since Muammar al Qadhafi's fall in 2011, Libyan interest groups have pursued diverse objectives based on local and regional identities, tribal affiliations, political and religious ideologies, and shared personal backgrounds. Fighting and political maneuvering during 2014 and 2015 among rival factions and armed groups has reflected a number of unresolved debates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770504/
Thailand: Background and U.S. Relations
This report looks at the relationship between the U.S. and Thailand, in particular, recent rivalries between populist political forces, nepotism in government, and Thai relationships with neighboring countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743382/
The European Union: Questions and Answers
This report serves as a primer on the European Union (EU) and provides a brief description of U.S.-EU relations that may be of interest in the 114th Congress. The EU is a political and economic partnership that represents a unique form of cooperation among sovereign countries, comprising 28 member states, including most of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe; the group has helped to promote peace, stability, and economic prosperity throughout the European continent. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743511/
North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation
This report covers the overall U.S.-North Korea relationship, with an emphasis on nuclear diplomacy. Negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program have occupied the past three U.S. administrations, even as some analysts anticipated a collapse of the isolated authoritarian regime. North Korea has been the recipient of over $1 billion in U.S. aid (though none since 2009) and the target of dozens of U.S. sanctions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743599/
Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response
This report discusses the continuing conflict in Syria including recent regime losses in confrontations with forces of the Islamic State (IS, aka the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant or ISIL/ISIS) in northeastern Syria. The report also covers U.S. policy responses to the conflict. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743364/
The Dominican Republic: Tensions with Haiti over Citizenship and Migration Issues
This report discusses the dispute between the Dominican Republic and Haiti regarding the citizenship status of some 200,000 Dominicans of Haitian descent, as well as undocumented migrants in the Dominican Republic, which threatens to exacerbate tensions between the two neighbors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743575/
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